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1. 韓國産馬의 起源 古代韓國에 있어서의 養馬의 發祥地와 來歷에 關한 確實한 論證은 어려우나, 先民의 移動定着과 거의 때를 같이하여, 同伴, 飼育하여 乘用으로 하였으리라고 類推되며, 지금으로부터 約 2700年前 衛滿朝鮮과 扶餘에서는 말을 飼育하여 乘用으로, 또는 貢物로한 事實이 있으므로 이미 이때에는 南北을 通하여 말이 相當이 增殖飼育되었으리라고 推測된다. 그리고 그 繁殖經路는 主로 高句麗 百濟, 新羅의 順序로 北으로부터 南下했으며 一部는 中國本土로부터 直接 貿易品으로 百濟로 輸入되어 混血되기도 하여, 韓半島 氣候風土에 適應한 品種이 成立되고 古代 各國은 軍事上 必要性으로 繁殖과 改良에 絶對的인 힘을 기우렸던것이며, 新羅의 文化의 進步와 더부러 馬政, 産馬에 있어서도 더욱 많은 進步發達이 成就된 것이 事實이다. 2. 馬政 古來로 우리民族은 食肉의 慣習이있고 祭天行事等 神에 犧牲物로 提供하는 慣習으로 소, 말, 돼지, 羊 等의 家畜이 飼育되었고 周禮에는 六種의 하나로 말이 包含되어 있으나 우리나라에서는 犧牲用으로 郊豕라하며 主로 돼지를 使用했고 말은 犧牲用으로나 또는 農耕用으로 利用한 確實한 史蹟이 없는 것으로 보아 말은 用 乘用等 主로 軍用으로 利用하여 왔다고 할수 있다. 그러므로 다른 家畜과 달이 戰爭의 最大의 武器였으므로 말에 關한 行政은 兵馬라하여 國政의 最 重要位置를 차지하였던 것이다. 그런까닭으로 宮中, 官에서의 牧場設置는 勿論, 一般에 그 增殖을 장려하였을 것이 分明하지만 上古時代의 馬政의 體系는 分明치 않으나, 三國時代以後에는 各國에서는 兵部에서 馬政을 管掌하고, 新羅時代에는 더욱 組織的인 産馬訓練에 힘쓰고 高麗朝以後에 實施되었던 官牧의 基礎를 닦기에 이르렀다.
이승환 ( Seung Hwan Lee ), 박병호 ( Byoung Ho Park ), ( Aditi Sharma ), ( Chang Gwon Dang ), 이승수 ( Seung Soo Lee ), 최태정 ( Tae Jeong Choi ), 최연호 ( Yeon Ho Choy ), 김형철 ( Hyeon Cheol Kim ), 전기준 ( Ki Jun Jeon ), 김시동 ( S) 한국동물자원과학회(구 한국축산학회) 2014 축산기술과 산업 Vol.5 No.1
한우는 타우린(bos taurus) 계열의 한국 고유의 품종으로 약 5000년 전부터 역우로서 우리민족과 함께해온 매우 고유한 품봉이다. 초기 한국의 농촌지역에서 역우로서 사용되어 오다가, 한국사회가 급격히 발전하면서, 1960년부터 역우에서 육우로 개량을 시작하였다. 한우고기는 한국 국민들에게 매우 유용한 단백질 공급원으로 자리매김하였고, 농가소득의 일등공신이 되어왔다. 아울러, 한구고기는 한국인들이 가장 선호하는 고기로 각광을 받고 있다. 따라서, 한우 연구자들의 주요 연구목적은 한우의 맛을 조절하는 육질연구로서, 대표적으로 개량, 사양, 번식 및 유전체 연구가 활발하게 진행되어 오고 있다.특히 본 리뷰논문에서는 1980년대 시작한 한우개량사업을 중심으로 한우품종의 기원, 개량프로그램, 유전체연구를 통한 효율적 개량에 관한 내용을 폭넓게 다루고 있으며, 특히 전총적인 개량방법과 신 개량방법중 하나인 유전체선발방법의 비교를 통하여 앞으로 한우개량이 나아갈 방향을 제시하였다.
In order to investigate the effect of feeding monensin on the feed intake, nutrient utilization and ruminal fermentation characteristics, 12 Korean native uncastrated male goats were randomly allotted to 0,22 and 33 ppm monensin treatment. Complete rations, consisted of 80% concentrate and 20% ground orchard grass hay, were offered once a day. Ad libitum feed intakes of each were measured and 80% of that amount were offered during the metabolism trial. Monensin decreased dry matter intake significantly(p≤.05). Digestibility of dry matter, crude fiber, NDF and energy were increased(p≤.05) by feeding monensin. These tendencies of reduced dry matter intake and digestibility improvement were more drastic in 22 ppm than 33 ppm monensin level. Monensin feeding did not affect the nitrogen retention. As the monensin level increased, the ruminal propionic acid concentration also increased(p≤.05), and the butyric acid content and A/P(acetic acid/propionic acid) ratio decreased(p≤.05). In monensin-fed goat, the ruminal pH and microbial protein concentration increased (p≤.05);however, no trend was found in the ruminal viscosity and NH₃-N concentration, and NH₃-N and urea-N concentration in the plasma. It is concluded that monensin-fed goats consumed less feed thereby causing probable the improvement in feed efficiency. Thus, monensin appeared to be a useful feed additive, directing the rumen fermentation in a more productive way.
This experiment was conducted in order to investigate the morphological form of rumen of Korean native goats, which were purchased at Jinju animal market from February, 1979 to December, 1979. The numbers of experimental animal were 23 heads. Rumen investigated way, divided into 3 parts which represent part of dorsal sac, caudal dorsal blind sac, cranial dorsal blind sac (ABC), caudal ventral blind sac (D), and ventral sac (E), as shown in Fig 1. The items investigated in this experiment were 27 such as age, body weight, chest girth, body length, right and left rumen length, upper and lower rumen length, ingests and stomach weight, stomach weight, rumen weight, and area, thickness (Max.), weight, papillae width, papillae length of ABC parts, D part, E part, and minimum thickness of ABC parts, D part, E part. The results were summarized as follows: 1) In the results of judging, age of Korean native goats used in this experiment was from 1 to 2 years, average body weight was 19.270 ㎏, average chest girth was 60.426 ㎝, and average body length was 53.965㎝. 2) Right and left length of rumen was 32.162 ㎝, upper and lower length of rumen was 28.735 ㎝, average stomach weight was 571.609 g, weight of ingests and stomach was 3.955 ㎏ and rumen weight was 380.261 g. 3) In the results of total ABC parts of rumen, area, meximum thickness of rumen wall, minimum thickness of rumen wall, weight, papillae width, and paillae length were 726.146 ㎠, 1.987 ㎜, 1.244 ㎜, 207.391 g, 2.322 ㎜, and 6.268 ㎜, respectively. 4) In the results of D part of rumen, area, maximum thickness, minimum thickness, weight, papillae width, and papillae length were 269.444 ㎠, 1.390 ㎜, 1.063 ㎜, 56.522 g, 1.975 mm and 5.087 mm, respectively. 5) In the results of E part of rumen, area, maximum thickness, minimum thickness, weight, papilla width, and papillae length were 436.250 ㎠, 1.664 ㎜, 1.063 ㎜, 112.939 g, 2.234 ㎜ and 5.309 ㎜, respectively. 6) In the total of 351 items investigated, 187 items have a significant differences (P$lt;0.01 - P$lt;0.05). Regression equation of 187 items were shown in table 3. 7) Significant (p $lt; 0.01) correlation coefficients between body weight and rumen area (r₁), and body weight and ingesta stomach (r₂) was 0.8269 for r₁(Y = 54.4011X + 383.583) and 0.6884 for r₂ (Y = 0.175X + 0.032).
The effects of the common Korean spices (garlic, ginger, welshonion and red pepper) on the growth of Lactobacillus casei YIT9018 have been studied in TGY broth at 37℃. In TGY broth, the Welsh onion stimulated the growth of L. casei YIT9018 at the content rat ions up to 4% of the broth while garlic (1-5%) and ginger (0.1-0.5%) strongly inhibited the growth of L. casei even at the lowest concentration used and red pepper inhibited slighty the growth when more than 4 % of red pepper was added When the garlic and ginger were heated at 90℃ for 10 minutes, their inhibitory activity was completely removed The growth inhibition of garlic was not affected but the inhibitory activity of ginger was disappeared, when 5 % of skim milk was added to the challenged culture. Practically these spices are not usually used as much as they inhibit the growth of lactic acid bacteria and furthermore the cooking at high temperature and other food material decrease the possibility of the spice inhibition of health-promoting lactic acid bacteria in foods as well as in human intestinal tracts.
According to the sophisticated chromosome spread procedure of Yeo (1984), chromosome analysis of the Korean Native Goat was identified as follows; Chromosome number was 60 at haploid, 29 pairs autosome appeared as telocentric identical to the Korean Native Cattle. And sex chromosome X was acrocentric and Y was found as the smallest metacentric. In banding pattern of the each chromosome complement to classify the homology chromosome, each chromosome pair of the Korean Native Goat was found a considerable degree similarity with banding pattern of the Korean Native Cattle. Three pairs of autosome in the Korean Native Goat; 17, 19, 27 were not quitely corresponded to other domestic goat in comparison standardized banding pattern of the Korean Native Goat with other goat breeds.
This experiment was conducted in order to investigate the morphology of reticulum in Korean native goats. 23 characteristics (age, live weight, chest girth, body length, reticulum area, reticulum weight, right and left reticulum length (R.L.), upper and lower reticulum length (U.L.), area of one polygon located at central part of reticulum (A.P.C.R.), area of one polygon located at middle part of reticulum(A.P.M.R.), area of one polygon located edge part of reticulum(A.P.E.R.), thickness of polygon wall located at central part of reticulum(T.P.C.R.), thickness of polygon wall located at middle part of reticulum(T.P.M.R.), thickness of polygon wall located at edge part of reticulum(T.P.E.R.), upper and lower length of one polygon located at central part of reticulum(U.P.C.R.), right and left length of one polygon located at central of reticulum(R.P.C.R.), upper and lower length of one polygon located at middle part of reticulum(U.P.C.R.), right and left length of one polygon located at middle part of reticulum(R.P.C.R.), upper and lower length of one polygon located at edge part of reticulum(R.P.C.R.), height of primary folds of located at central part of reticulum (H.P.C.R.), height of primary folds of polygon located at middle part of reticulum(H.P.E.R.), were investigated with 23 Korean native goats being aged from 1 to 2 years. The results obtained were su㎜arized as follows. 1. Average values of each characteristics were follows ; live weight : 19.27kg, chest firth : 60.43㎝, body length : 53.97㎝, reticulum area : 172.11㎠, reticulum weight : 59.78g, R.L. : 9.09㎝, U.L. : 9.02㎝, A. P. C. R. : 1.69㎠, A. P. M. R. :1.01㎠, A. P. E. R. : 0.66㎠, T. P. C. R. :1.75㎜, T. P. M. R. :1.98 ㎜, T. P. E. R. : 2.08㎜, U. P. C. R. : 1.22㎝, R. P. C. R. : 1.53㎝, U. P. M. R. : 0.92㎝, R. P. M. R. : 1.15㎝, U. P. E. R. : 0.67㎝, R. P. E. R. : 0.85㎝, H. P. C. R. : 0.23㎝, H. P. M. R. : 0.25㎝, and H. P. E. R. : 0.27㎝. 2. It shows a tendency that correlation coefficient between 73 among 253 items has a significant differences at 5 %, probability. 3. Correlation coefficients and regression equation between rumen area VS. reticulum area(r₁), rumen weight VS. reticulum weight(r₂), stomach weight VS. reticulum weight (r₃), are estimated r₁=0.7074** and Y^= 0.059X+87.632, r₂=0.9473** and Y^=0.126X+11.240, r₃=0.81-13**, Y^= 0.082X + 12.911, respectively.
This experiment was carried out to analyze the composition of polar lipids and its fatty acid in colostrum and normal milk from Korean native goats by thin-layer chromatography and gas-liquid chromatography. The results obtained were summarized as follows: 1. Polar lipids in colostrum and normal milk consisted of ceramide monohexoside, phosphatidyl ethanolamine, ceramide dihexoside, phosphatidyl choline, sphingomyelin, lysaphosphatidyl choline and an unidentified compound. Their contents of polar lipids in colostrum and normal milk were 8.29 and 10.66%, 20.87 and 18.35%, 27.82 and 25.08%, 27.82 and 32.69%, 2.81 and 5.87%, 6.29 and 7.44%, and 0.76%, respectively. 2. There were tendencies to increase the content of phosphatidyl choline and to decrease that of ceramide dihexoside from colostrum to normal milk. The contents of phosphatidyl ethanolamine and spingomyelin showed the tendencies to increase and decrease but those of ceramide monohexoside and lysophosphatidyl choline showed the very irregular transition from colostrum to normal milk. 3. The main fatty acid composition of polar lipids in colostrum and normal milk were C14:0, C16:0, 018:0 and C18:1. Their contents in colostrum and normal milk were 6.76 and 6.00%, 28.84 and 30.72%, 16.76 and 15.02%, and 29.67 and 28.07%, respectively. 4. The contents of the essential fatty acid in colostrum and normal milk were 4.88 and 5.48%, respectively. 5. The contents of unsaturated fatty acid in colostrum and normal milk were 35.91 and 35.63%, respectively. 6. Both unsaturation indexes in colostrum and normal milk were 0.56. 7. O/P ratios (oleic/palmitic acid) in colostrum and normal milk were 1.03 and 0.91, respectively. 8. Both P/S ratios (polyunsaturate, C18:2 and C18:3/saturate) in colostrum and normal milk were 0.08. 9. There were tendencies to decrease the contents of short chain fatty acid (except C8:0), C14:0 and 016:0 but to increase those of C18:0 and C18:1 from colostrum to normal milk. Also the contents of C18:2 and C18:3 showed the tendencies to increase and to decrease as the postpartum progressed, respectively.
This experiment was carried out to analyze the composition of neutral lipids and its fatty acid in colostrum and normal milk from Korean native goats by thin-layer chormatography and gas-liquid chromatography. The results obtained were summarized as follows; 1. Neutral lipids in colostrum and normal milk consisted of sterol ester & hydrocarbon, triglyceride, free fatty acid, 1.3-diglyceride, 1.2-diglyceride, sterol, monoglyceride and unidentified compounds (X1, X2). Their contents of neutral lipids in colostrum and normal milk were 3.06 and 2.51%, 75.06 and 70.02%, 2.09 and 2.82%. 8.12 and 8.76%, 5.70 and 5.58%, 0.93 and 1.30%, 1.63 and 3.87%, and 3.37 and 5.13%, respectively. 2. There were tendencies to decrease the content of sterol ester & hydrocarbon and to increase that of sterol, and not to change that of 1.2-diglyceride as the days after parturition passed, respectively. The contents of triglyceride, fatty acid and monoglyceride showed the tendencies to increase and decrease from colostrum to normal milk. 3. The main fatty acid composition of neutral lipids in colostrum and normal milk were C10:0, C12:0, C14:0, C16:0, C18:0 and C18:1. Their contents in colostrum and normal milk were 4.26 and 4.82%, 10.29 and 11.14%, 25.32 and 23.66%, 10.87 and 10.29%, and 31.00 and 28.72%, respectively. 4. The contents of the essential fatty acid in colostrum and normal milk were 3.98 and 4.30%, respectively. 5. The contents of unsaturated fatty acid in colostrum and normal milk were 37.50 and 34.99%, respectively. 6. The unsaturation indices (unsaturated/saturated fatty acid) in colostrum and normal milk were 0.60 and 0.54, respectively. 7. The contents of short chain fatty acid (C4-C12) in colostrum and normal milk were 15.5 and 18.6%, respectively. It is characterized that the contents of short chain fatty acid (C4-C12) in Korean native goats' milk fat were higher than those of dairy cows or Korean native cows. 8. O/P ratios (oleic/palmitic acid) in colostrum and normal milk were 1.22 and 1.21, respectively. 9. P/S ratios (polyunsaturate, C18:2 and 18:3/saturate) in colostrum and normal milk were 0.06 and 0.07, respectively. 10. There were tendencies to increase the contents of short chain fatty acid and to decrease those of C16:0 and C18:1 as the days after parturition passed, respectively. Also the contents of C18:2 and C18:3 showed the tendencies to decrease and to increase, respectively as the days aftea parturition passed.