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Background: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are proteolytic enzymes involved in degradation of the extracellular matrix. MMP-8 has been reported to be involved in the degradation of collagen in progression of dental caries. MMP-13 was found to be expressed in both normal and caries pulp, implying its involvement in the pathogenesis of dental caries. Methods: Four extracted teeth were used. They were categorized into four grades according to caries progression. Three sections were prepared from each separated crown and root. Immunofluorescence of the FITC of the MMP-8 and 13 in coronal and radicular dentin was analyzed by confocal microscopy. Results: Immunofluorescence signals that were indicative of MMP-8 were observed both in radicular and coronal dentin in the sound, C1 and C3 carious teeth. In C2 carious teeth, immunofluorescence signals that were indicative of MMP-8 were observed only in radicular dentin. Immunofluorescence signals that were indicative of MMP-13 were observed both in radicular and coronal dentin in the sound teeth. In C1, C2 and C3 carious teeth, immunofluorescence signals that were indicative of MMP-13 were not observed both in radicular and coronal dentin. Conclusion: Immunofluorescence signals revealed that MMP-8 and 13 were present in coronal and radicular dentin, and was differently expressed as caries progressed.
An 81-years-old woman presented multiple mucosa ulcers with a chief complaint of pain during wearing the lower denture. She had been wearing upper and lower complete dentures for five months, and received multiple drugs for the treatment of angina pectoris, constipation, neurosis, hypertension and arthritis (calcium channel blockers, furosemide, captopril, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents and penicillamine, respectively), but no history of immune-diseases and viral infection symptom. The present lesion was primarily diagnosed as traumatic ulcer, candidiasis and lichen planus in the clinical observation, thereby conservatively treated with denture relining, antifungal agent, and steroidal agent. However, the ulcer lesion was not healed for two months and rather increased in size. With the diagnosis of viral infection the immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of IL28 and E6, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 primer sets was done but entirely showed negative reaction. Therefore, with the patient’s medical history and IHC findings exhibiting strong positive reaction of CD3 and CD28, but rare/weak reaction of NFkB, CD20, IgK and p38, the ulcer lesion was finally diagnosed as drug-induced pemphigoid ulceration which was not an inflammatory granulomatous lesion but related to the retrogressive acantholytic degeneration of epithelial cells caused by multiple drug abuse.
It is necessary to make preventive method for the trauma and disturbance complications of orofacial area because athletic trauma are physical and mental defects. Since 1913, an italian boxer discussed mouth guard with dentist and used it. It was reported that mouth guard from field prevented trauma, increased the muscle force and activated electromyogram although the history of mouth guard wearing was short. The mouth guard has prevented the trauma and also increased the muscle force. The purpose was to study muscle force and activity of EMG with mouth guard wearing. It concluded that mouth could prevent trauma and increase the muscle force
Odontomas are mixed odontogenic tumors in which both the epithelial and mesenchymal components have undergone functional differentiation. Two types of odonotma are histomorphologically recognized: complex and compound. Complex odontomas have little or no morphologic similarity to normal tooth formation, and they commonly found in the posterior mandible. They are typically asymptomatic, and the most common presenting symptom is usually lack of eruption of a permanent tooth. The recommended treatment for an odontoma is conservative surgical excision. No tendency for recurrence has been noted. An eight-year-old girl was presented with swollen mouth floor. Radiographically, there were radiopaque mass on anterior mandible with impacted lower left central incisor. Under midazolam intraoral sedation and N2O-O2 inhalation sedation, the odontomas were surgically removed. The diagnosis was complex odontoma. After follow-up of 28 months period, there was no recurrence. The impacted tooth erupted spontaneously and the space for the erupted tooth was regained orthodontically.
The aim of this study was to present the clinical, radiological, and histopathological findings of 20 new Korean GOC cases with a brief literature review. The mean age of 20 GOC patients was 43.5 years (range, 29-73 years) with a strong predilection for male (male-to-female ratio, 4:1). Nine cases were located in the maxilla and 11 cases in the mandible. Eight cases involved the anterior areas of the jaws and 12 cases were located in the posterior area. Most of the cases (16/20, 80.0%) showed a well-defined unilocular radiolucency and some showed cortical perforation (55.6%) and bony expansion (72.2%) in computed tomography. The most common histopathological feature was eosinophilic cuboidal cells (100%), followed by clear cells (95.0%), mucous cells (85.0%), variations in thickness (85.0%), and intraepithelial microcysts (80.0%). All cases were surgically treated by enucleation and no recurrences were found in routine follow-up.
Although recombinant human Bone Morphogenetic Proteins-2 (rhBMP-2) is clinically useful for bone regeneration, induction of new bone formation requires a large amount of rhBMP-2 in humans. Many investigators have been concentrated efforts on searching materials which enhance the effect of rhBMP-2, and then heparin was found as a potentiating material to rhBMP-2. The purpose of this study were histomorphometrically to analyze the enhancing effect of heparin to rhBMP-2 and to study the mode of actions of heparin to rhBMP-2. Stem cells obtained from rabbit adipose tissue were divided into 4 groups according to heparin concentrations(0, 0.25, 2.5, and 25 μg/ml) with a constant rhBMP-2 concentration(150 ng/ml) and cultured for 2, 4, and 8 days. Naphtol AS phosphate-fast blue BB staining for alkaline phosphatase content and Alizarin red staining for calcium content were performed as time schedules and the morphology and osteoblastic activity were observed closely. 5 μg/ml rhBMP-2 was mixed with the following doses of heparin: 0, 0.25, 2.5, and 25 μg/ml. Each mixture was blotted into 0.5 g of multiporous anorganic bovine bone and was inserted into the critical sized calvarial defects(diameter of 0.8-mm) of rabbits. After 1, 3, and 6 weeks, the harvested tissues were processed and stained using H&E and Masson’s trichrome methods. And the areas of newly formed bone in the grafted material were measured and statistically analyzed. During culture experiment of adipose stem cells with rhBMP-2 and heparin, the degree of osteoblastic differentiation was increased with increasing heparin concentration, but the cellular degeneration was accelerated at higher concentration of heparin as time passed. Consequently the osteoblastic differentiation of progenitor cells were accelerated as the concentration of heparin increased. In addition, the progenitor cells exhibited full differentiations early showing fast degeneration. The higher the concentration of heparin, larger newly formed bone in grafted materials was obtained in initial period. However, the increased amount of the newly formed bone in grafted materials was progressively decreased at the higher concentration of heparin as time passed. In conclusion, the heparin has influence on the osteoinductive effect of rhBMP-2 in the initial stage of bone formation. The use of heparin with rhBMP-2 could offer cheaper, safer, and improve clinical results in grafting procedures.
Extramedullary plasmacytomas (EMPs) are rare soft tissue malignant neoplasms composed of plasma cells. They are sometimes found in soft tissues. The majority of primary EMPs occur in the head and neck region, especially in the upper respiratory tract and oral cavity. We present a case of a 52-year-old female with an EMP. The patient’s initial chief complaint was swelling of the soft palate. An excisional biopsy was performed under general anesthesia. Final pathologic diagnosis was EMP of the soft palate with partial involvement of the resection margin. In order to exclude the possibility of multiple myeloma, a bone marrow exam with chromosomal study was completed. The patient was also referred to the Department of Radiation Oncology for postoperative radiation therapy (PORT); however, the patient refused to undergo PORT. The patient is currently under close observation for signs and symptoms of recurrence or metastases through regular follow-up visits and imaging studies.
Human DEK gene on chromosome 6p encodes a 43kD nuclear phospoprotein that was originally identified as part of a fusion protein found in a subset of acute myeloid leukemia carrying a t(6;9) translocation. Although DEK upregulation has been described in a number of human malignancies and was significantly associated with high histologic grade, lymph node metastasis and/or advanced clinical stage, no previous report has evaluated the expression of DEK protein and its clinical significance in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Our aims were to determine DEK expression in tissue samples of normal oral mucosa and OSCC by immunohistochemistry, to analyze the correlation between DEK expression and clinicopathological parameters, and to evaluate the value of DEK as a prognostic marker for patient’s survival. Ten normal oral mucosa, 10 epithelial dysplasia, and 60 OSCC samples were studied by immunohistochemistry. DEK expression tended to increase through the full thickness of epithelium in the dysplastic mucosa when compared with those in normal oral mucosa. High expression of DEK protein (score ≥ 2) was found in 68.3% of OSCC cases. Statistical analysis revealed that DEK overexpression in OSCC was positively correlated with high histologic grade (p=0.001), lymph node metastasis (p=0.003), and advanced clinical stage (p=0.039). In the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, DEK overexpression was significantly associated with decreased overall survival in patients with OSCC (p=0.019). Our results suggest that DEK overexpression may be a reliable marker to predict the clinical outcome in OSCC.