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Xu Ling(徐陵) and Yu Xin(庾信) are the most important authors in the Six Dynasties, who developed formal skills, rhetoric effects and phonetic beauty to the highest level. But the later evaluations were very difficult to balance in appraise. Some comments based on the ritual, music and political education, so they imputed the duty of national ruin to Xu Yu(徐庾). Some other based on the relationship between literary achievements and personality, debased their achievements since their some errors in the political integrity. In the Song Dynasty, with the emergence of Li Xue(理學), Xu Yu`s parallel prose got attacked once again as the sinner of literary. They despised the parallel prose just the style couldn`t accord with the principle named by Dao(道). Peoples in the Ming Dynasty liked returning to the ancient. So Xu Yu was to be discovered by the proofreading, note-offering, and annotating. The positive evaluations were increased more than before. To Qing Dynasty, the parallel prose was very flourishing. In the debating on parallel prose and prose, Xu Yu`s parallel prose was viewed as the orthodox form and taken unprecedented seriously. How to see the value of Xu Yu`s parallel prose, that formed a criticism history of Chinese literature. In some way, the level to praise or censure Xu Yu`s parallel prose reflects the level to recognize Chinese literature.
Yu Hua(余華) is one of the most famous writers in Contemporary China. Since 1987, he has written a number of distinguished novels. His early works written in 1980s are puzzling, fuzzy and unreal, and so are called as the avant-garde novel(先鋒小說). Unlike the early works, Yu Hua's novels written in 1990s contains mostly real and touching stories. This change in Yu Hua's works through different time periods has been discussed in this paper. As one of the key words in his novel, "the Destiny" has been analyzed. In Yu Hua's works, most of the characters are thrown into miserable and unhappy situations, and some of them even face death. These infelicities are often conceived as "the Destiny" in many Asian countries including China, and Yu Hua, in his early works in 1980s, seems to share the same view about the concept of "the Destiny." In Yu Hua's early novels, most characters are weak, flabby, self-defeated in their fatal struggles. However, in his later works in 1990s, Yu Hua demonstrates some level of change in his perception of "the Destiny" through his characters. Specifically, Fugui(福貴) and Xu Sanguan(許三觀), characters shown in his works in the 90's, start to overcome their struggles and begin to cope with their destinies by acquiring the power for their survivals. This change observed in the character seems plausible in that the writer's view toward life might have transformed into a more active and positive direction from the previous passive and negative one. This transition, however, appears that it has not been accompanied with his writing maturity and deep insight toward the life because the two main characters in "Brotherhood," one of his recent works, has brought many readers and critics much disappointment.
본고는 양소유가 성진이 되는 과정을 분석하여, 호승 출현의 의미와 <구운몽>에 있는 두 가지 욕망을 탐색하고, 그 두 가지 욕망에서 완전히 벗어나는 진정한 깨달음을 형상화한 것이 <구운몽> 서사임을 밝히는 것이 목적이다. 호승 출현 대목에서 시점이 양소유로 전환하는데, 이는 독자를 양소유 입장으로 서사에 몰입시키려는 작가의 의도이다. 또 호승은 양소유가 인생무상을 느낀 시점이 아니라, 새로운 욕망인 불생불멸의 도를 추구하려할 때 나타난다. 이는 양소유가 그 욕망을 추구해도, 젊은 사미 성진이 추구해도 얻지 못했던 것처럼, 이루어질 수 없는 것이기 때문이다. 그래서 호승은 양소유가 미래로 나아가려는 욕망을 대화를 통해 그의 과거로 회귀하게 만들었다. 이를 통해 양소유는 자기 기억과 인식의 한계를 확인하고, 꿈을 깸을 통해 자신이 양소유가 아니라 성진이었음을 알게 된다. <구운몽>에는 성진의 욕망과 양소유의 욕망, 이렇게 두 욕망이 있다. 성진의 욕망을 실현한 것이 양소유의 삶이고, 양소유의 욕망을 이미 경험한 것이 성진의 삶이었다. 이렇게 부귀영화의 욕망이나 불생불멸의 도를 추구하는 욕망은 둘 다 미혹된 것임을 보여주었다. 그 드러남은 다르나 지향점이 같다는 것을 작가가 소설을 통해 보여준 것으로, 이런 욕망에서 온전히 벗어나는 것이야말로 진정한 깨달음임을 세련되게 형상화한 것이다. This study aimed to inquire the meaning of foreign monk(胡僧)'s appearance and investigate two desires in <Guunmong(九雲夢)>. As a result, it would be found out <Guunmong> has narration of a true awakening. There is a change of a point of view at the text to Yang So-yu(楊少遊) who is a main character in this novel. As a result, the reader absorbed in this character. A foreign monk appear at the time that Yang So-yu longed for new desire. New desire is a hope of the eternal life. But this desire is not worthwhile. Because, Sung Jin(性眞) pursued that desier but his efforts bore no fruit. So a foreign monk who is a master of Sung Jin/Yang So-yu, made Yang So-yu return to his past and remind his real nature. So that Yang So-yu awake in the dream, and know that he was Sung Jin. <Guunmong> has two desires which are Sung Jin's desire and Yang So-yu's desire. Yang So-yu's life is a realization of Sung Jin's desire. Also Sung Jin's life is a realization of Yang So-yu's desire. Narration of <Guunmong> show this concretely. So, the reader know that two desires are not righteous, and two desires are possessed by wrong thoughts. The author of <Guunmong> urge a reader to know that all desires are wrong and to get a true awakening.
Xu Ling and Yu Xin were the most famous authors in the Six Dynasties since Zhao Ming-Wenxuan(昭明文選). No more research work has been carried out in the comments of their paralled prose(駢文). In this paper we just only discuss the comments in the theory of paralled prose and Fu(賦). In the theory of paralled prose, Wang Wenlu's(王文祿) Wen-Mai(文脈), Lang Zhangju's(梁章鉅) Tui-An's Lunwen(退庵論文), Sun Mei's(孫梅) SiLiu-Conghua(四六叢話) and Sun Deqian's(孫德謙) Liucao-Lizhi(六朝儷指) were the important books. Among them, the two Sun's was the master work. They basically hold positive attitude toward Xu-Yu's(徐庾) paralled prose, which in accord with their views about paralled prose and essay. So they could break through the time, heap praise on Xu-Yu's creation, not affected by ancient prose movement(古文運動), Song-Ming neo-confucianism(宋明理學) and the trend of classicism. In the theory of Fu(賦), there were some different judgements. The blame, such as Zhu Yao's(祝堯) Gufu-Bianti(古賦辨體), objected the comic(俳體), modern(侓體) and Si-Liu style(四六體), defended the old form(古體). On the other side, the praise, such as Li Diaoyuan's(李調元) Fuhua(賦話), broke away from traditional ideas and affirmed Xu-Yu's contributions. On the whole, Qing Dynasty's people could give the positive evaluations on Xu-Yu for their awareness of stylistic. It's because they attached importance to it. However, since the last century new culture movement(新文化運動), the trend of criticism appeared again. They had an obvious inclination of the emphasis on content rather than on form, which still existed in the most histories of literature written by modern researchers.
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A writer creats things by his heart dealing with reality. The contents of his work depend on the circumstances in which he is, which often can change the way he expresses himself. Heart and reality, however, sometimes meet disagreement on ideology and so do they on experience. Therefore if the writer is able to harmonize all these four elements: heart and reality, ideology and experience in his writing, the work must become as good as creation can be. For Lu Yu(陵羽, 733-804), who will be introduced from now, it is not an exception. Lu Yu, also named Tea Saint(茶聖), made a great contribution towards the development of tea culture worldwide. Especially his 『Tea Classic, 茶經』, the very first book on tea in the world as well as in the ancient Chinese tea history, is one of the fundamental guide books and the bible for Tea Cult(茶道) that must be read by those studying tea. As an orphan, Lu Yu grew to be worshiped as Tea God(茶神) later. From his achievements of life, we know that he had his own theory and was a literary man who had devoted his life to seeking after truth. Particularly one remarkable achievement is his effort to stick to his standpoint with the spirit of Confucianism during the age of ups and downs in those days. Confucianism that emphasizes on human relations is named Confucious Capitalism by modern capitalism. Confucianism was also considered as a driving force for the radical economic development in a group of confucious countries of the Orient. They say 21st century is a century of culture. This is because the origin of the Oriental culture, Confucianism, is a product and national power as well. Competitive power among countries is significant in that it can be cultivated by surpassing other nations not only in science and technology but also in spiritual culture while maintaining one's own culture and life style. As an effort to achieve this goal, this manuscript goes over Lu Yu 『Tea Classic, 茶經』, the bible for tea, and his poetries and analyzes Confucianism on which he particularly concentrated his energies. In this manuscript, studying Lu Yu literature based on Confucian ideas, research in biographical and ideological aspects has been omitted because it has already been done by senior scholars, and for the more thorough study on how Lu Yu spirit of tea culture affected, it tries to arrange problems by evaluating its distinguishing features with focus on Confucianism.
본고는 중국의 <곤우치수>신화에서 天人관계와 관련된 첫 생태철학적 사유의 모델을 발견하고 그것의 가치와 의미를 살피고자 하였다. ‘천제의 명에 의한 치수'를 둘러싼 곤의 죽음과 우의 성공의 서사구조가 초점이 된다. 곤은 천제의 성스러운 영역에 접근하여 息壤을 훔쳐 천제의 명을 거역한 죄로 죽는다. 그리고 죽은 곤의 뱃속에서 태어난 禹는 천제의 명에 순응하여 息壤을 받아 대홍수를 다스려 성공하고 九州를 정한다. 이는 신화시대 종교적 사유로서 사실상 자연의 섭리에 순응하는 인간의 동양적 천인관계론의 시초를 마련해 놓게 된다. 이러한 사유는 天命이라는 핵심키워드로 역사시대 하상주 삼대의 왕권을 강화하는 데 쓰였으며 춘추전국시대 제자백가들의 하늘의 의지와 인간의 의지라는 철학적 사유의 화두가 되어 점차 발전 변화하였고 공맹유가의 사상에서 天帝 혹은 上帝는 차츰 종교적 天으로부터 자연섭리로서의 天과 도덕천의 의미를 지니게 된다. 한대에 이르러서는 음양오행설과 합쳐 동중서의 ‘천인감응론'이라는 생태철학적 사유가 강화된다. 또한 치수 후 우가하늘로부터 하사받은 ‘洪範九疇'의 내용은 「洪範」을 형성하여 天道를 구현하는 오행이론의 생태문화를 형성하기도 하였다. Through the analysis of the narrative structure of Chinese mythology Emperor Yu Tames the Flood, in this paper, not only can the ecological philosophy thinking style of "the relationship between heaven and man" be easily found, but also its value and meaning were further clarified. Circling around the narrative structure of "emperor water-control", this paper mainly focuses on the death of Gun(the name of emperor Yu's father) and the success of Yu. In order to control the flood, Gun violated the Emperor's rules, broke the holy heaven field and stole the sacred earth, which lead to his death penalty. By contrast, born in the abdomen of the Gun, Yu followed the order of the Emperor and took the holy heaven soil to control the flood successfully, which helped him to manage the Kyushu finally. Here hides the ecological philosophy thought of the age of mythology and religion. Besides, for the first time, it's also clarified the paradigm of Eastern value of "relationship between heaven and human" which originally appeared as "tides of fate" to strengthen the monarchy in the ancient Xia Shang Zhou Dynasties. Later, during the period of Spring and Autumn and Warring States, the topic of the will of heaven and human became the main philosophical thinking point in the forum of hundred schools of thought. At the same time, the thought of emperor of heaven supported by the Confucian theories of Confucius and Mencius, gradually turned to be the principle of nature. In the Han Dynasty, combined with the Yin Yang and the five elements, Dong Zhongshu's theory of human nature was formed and strengthened the ecological philosophy thinking further. In additions, after controlling the Flood successfully, Yu was gifted the "Fan nine domain" by heaven. Its core content is "Hong Fan" that formed the theory of five elements and corresponding ecological culture.
There are two stories in the king Mi-Chu's narrative from Sam-Guk-Yu-Sa. Both stories were written after Mi-Chu had become king. So both stories have strong characters of the narrative. Each story has a different background. One is about the fourteenth king, Yu-Ri, of the Shin Ra Dynasty and the other is about the thirty-seventh king, Hye-Gong, of the Shin Ra Dynasty. Looking into the backgrounds of both stories, the former had reflected historical events in King Yu-Ri's period. But the story had changed, which explains the justification of the succession to the throne by the Kims. The latter was brought forth by the political changes in King Hye-Gong's period. In detail, the story is related to the redressing of grievance by one of Kim-Yu-Shin's descendants. And it shows a historic flow from the early stages of the Shin-Ra Dynasty to the late Shin-Ra Dynasty. Looking into the meaning of King Mi-Chu's narrative with the narratives' readers of Ilyeon's period in mind, the readers of the narrative focused more on King Mi-Chu as a national hero than on historical events or the moral duty (justice) of the succession to the throne by the royal family in the late stages of the Shin-Ra Dynasty. Ilyeon wrote about miracles and heroic stories in Sam-Guk-Yu-Sa about King Mi-Chu who had been a national hero, to stabilize the society and get over the national crisis in the late Go-Ryu Dynasty when there were many domestic and international conflicts.
With the restorative trend and debating on parallel prose, the comments on XU Ling and YU Xin's paralled prose were becoming more day by day in proofreading, note-offering, and annotation in the Ming and Qing Dynasties. we find there existed some huge differences from general comments, which looks like impression type or a label to be pasted. They could find XU-YU's advantages and affirmative their positions and values in Chinese literary history, even give some sympathies and understandings to their norms of action. Their comments, transcended the Tang-Song Dynasties and common cognitions, are worth learning by our literary researchers and historians.
본고는 한(漢)-조(朝)-만(滿) 어휘집인 『同文類解』의 체제와 그 특징을 살핌으로써 이를 새로운 만주어 사전 구축에 활용할 수 있는 방안을 살피는 것을 목적으로 한다. 『同文類解』는 상당한 수의 만주어 핵심 어휘를 중심으로 그와 형태적·의미적으로 연관된 관련어들에 대한 많은 정보를 담고 있다. 특히 자료에 직접적으로 드러나 있는 어휘 의미나 문법에 대한 정보를 비롯하여 이차적으로 파악되는 단어들 간의 파생 관계나 연어 정보들은 만주어를 보다 효과적으로 이해하는 데 도움을 준다. 그럼에도 불구하고 그동안 『同文類解』는 만주어 사전을 만드는 데 적극적으로 활용되지 못했다. 본고에서는 『同文類解』에 담겨 있는 만주어 어휘에 대한 정보들이 앞으로 새롭게 만들어질 만주어 사전에 풍부하고 가치 있는 요소를 제공해 줄 것이라 기대하며 그 사전적 활용 가능성을 모색하였다. This study aims to search for possibilities of using Dong-Mun-Yu-Hae(同文類解), a wordbook of Chinese-Korean-Manchu, in order to make new Manchu dictionary by considering the system and features of this book. Dong-Mun-Yu-Hae(同文類解) has many information about connected words, which are related to headwords either morphologically or semantically. Especially the additional information about grammar or meaning shown directly in the book, the derivational relationship among words, and the patterns of collocation in certain words are very useful for understanding Manchu vocabulary more systematically. Considering the situation, Dong-Mun-Yu-Hae(同文類解) has not been actively used in making Manchu dictionary so far, we are expecting that the various contents in this book enable newly made future Manchu dictionary to have plentiful and valuable elements in showing Manchu vocabulary.
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宣祖朝 校正廳本 經書諺解書는 그 동안의 우리 諺解史 경험에 바탕하되 당대 經學의 연구성과를 총괄적으로 집약한 16세기 후반 조선 경학의 최고 결정판이다. 교정청의 경서언해 연원은 선조가 재위 7년 柳希春에게 四書부터 유교경전의 吐釋을 詳定하라 命한 데서 출발한다.<BR> 眉巖 柳希春은 선조 초반 精博한 학문으로 君王을 輔導한 經筵의 핵심 인물이었다. 선조는 進講 활동과 다양한 저술에서 보여준 그의 재능을 아끼고 신임하여, 미암에게 官撰의 경서언해를 맨 처음 맡긴 것이다.<BR> 미암은 훌륭한 암기력으로 각종 서적을 두루 섭렵한 博學君子였는데, 그의 학문의 가장 큰 특징은 항상 朱子를 大聖으로 신봉한다는 점이다. 朱子尊信은 당시의 일반적인 현상이었지만 미암의 尊朱子 학풍은 尊信에 尊信을 더하는 매우 유별난 침잠이었다. 따라서 그는 朱子註에 철저히 입각하여 유교경전의 口訣과 諺釋을 상정했을 것으로 판단된다.<BR> 그런데 미암은 자신의 論說만을 고집하는 경직성을 버리고, 諸家의 衆說을 최대한 수렴하여 오류 없는 定本 언해를 만들고자 애썼다. 통합과 절충을 위한 그의 노력은 不斷했는데, 그 중 退漢의 經說을 가장 신뢰하여 힘써 수용하였고, 果谷의 학문을 선조에게 천거하여 경서언해의 王命이 하달되도록 매개하였다.<BR> 경학 연구에 朱子의 『集註』가 기본 텍스트였던 것은 시대적 추세였지만, 미암을 거치면서 『집주』로의 경전해석 집약은 더욱 확고한 경향으로 자리 잡은 것 같다. 朱子를 가치 표준으로 삼되 諸說을 절충한 미암의 언해는 선조 18년 교정청의 경서언해에 습합되어, 교정청도 諸書와 諸說을 商確한 뒤 주자학에 입각한 하나의 특정 해석을 공식화하였다. Yu Hee Choon(柳希春) was one of the most representative scholars in the early reign of King seonjo(宣祖) in Chosun(朝鮮). He led learned circles of the country through actively engaging in Gyeongyeon(經筵) Jingang(進講) and making lots of writings. He was an intellect of greatest learning in his times. Most characterizing his scholarship was his absolute belief of Chu-tzi(朱子).<BR> Yu Hee Choon was an official in charge of Gyeongyeon(經筵) who was most reliable to King Seonjo. He was also a man of great learning enough to receive academic inquiries from all scholars of his times. This suggests that Mi Am"s own school tradition of respect for Chu-tzi created a considerable sensation in ChOSlID of the late 16th century.<BR> As Sung Confucianism socially prevailed in the early Chosun period, there were developments in relation to the understanding of Confucian classics like Saseo Samgyeong(四書三經). But there were lots of differences among scholars in how they interpreted those classics. For the purpose of making each of the classics given only one interpretation based on Chu-tzi"s Sung Confucianism, therefore, King Seonjo ordered Yu Hee Choon to assume the task of translating those classics into Korean, that is, Gyeongseo Eonhae(經書諺解) in the 7th year of his reign(l574).<BR> Mi Am started with translating Saseo(四書) into Korean His own way of Gyeongseo Eonhae was best characterized by that in such translation, he tried to coordinate and unite relevant theories, though thoroughly based on Chu-tzi"s annotations. Unfortunately, Mi Am failed to complete Gyeongseo Eonhae of his own till he was dead in the 10th year of King Seonjo. Nevertheless, his accomplishment in relation to the translation considerably affected Gyeongseo Eonhae by Gyojeongcheong(校正廳) later.