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An investigation in search of the best oxidizing agent for smoke generators using rice chaff as a combustible carrier was carried out. Smoke rods formulated with active ingredients (AIs) such as inorganic oxidizing agents, glue, and powdered rice chaff, showed constant and high burning rate and high smoking rate on 11 kinds of pesticides. Sodium chlorate was the most suitable oxidizing agent for smoke rod. Even though the sodium chlorate content of the formulation showing the highest smoking rate of AI was variable to pesticides, the smoking rate appeared to increase as the burning rate increased. Active ingredients in smoke generator using rice chaff as a combustible carrier were stable for 60 days when stored at 50oC. An apparatus designed for smoke trapping was useful to collect smoked active ingredients.
The distribution of procymidone in a small vinyl house containing cucumber plants or mimic plants was investigated after application of smoke generator. The deposition of procymidone on glass plate and filter paper was significantly similar to that on cucumber leaves, so that glass plate and filter paper could be substituted for cucumber leaves on deposition studies. The deposition of procymidone was proportional to the horizontally projected area of surface; the deposition on the horizontal surface was maximal, and the deposition was minimal for the perpendicular surface. The amount of deposition on the backside of leaf was less than 5% compared to that on the horizontal surface of leaf. The height of leaf from the floor was not a significant factor influencing on the deposition of procymidone whether leaves were overlapped or not. However, the deposition of procymidone on the overlapped leaves was relatively less than that on the unoverlapped leaves. And the deposition difference depending on the distance between leaves was not observable. Overall, the deposition of procymidone was proportionally increased with the application rate of smoke generator, but the deposition was inversely related to the sum of the total horizontal leaf area of mimic plants and the surface area of floor.
This study was conducted to investigate whether several composted liquid manures (CLMs) are useful forbiological control of large patch on zoysiagrass and investigate the chemical and biological factors to suppress large patch in soiltreated with CLMs. The CLMs were produced at 4 different facilities for livestock excretion treatments located in Korea. Fieldexperiments were carried out at 5 golf courses located near each facility. CLM and Chemical fertilizer (CF: water soluble fertilizer,20-20-20) were applied four and three times with N at 12 g m-2 per year, respectively. There was significant increase ofconcentration of K, Na, and Cu of soil treated with CLM compared to CF treatment. Among experimental plots, CN and GG2 plotsites were shown significant higher effect of biological control 80% and 50% respectively against large patch disease. The numberof bacteria, Actinomycetes, and fungi in soil at these sites significantly increased and fluorescein diacetate hydrolytic activity wasenhanced, while the soil was treated with CLM. The results of this study demonstrated that CLM application has effect on soil tosuppress large patch and reduce the use of fungicide in environment-friendly turf management.
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of composted liquid manure (CLM) on soil properties and turfquality of zoysiagrass. The CLMs were produced at 5 facilities for livestock excretions treatments located in Cheongwon, Gunwi,Iksan, Nonsan, and Yeoju in Korea, respectively. Field experiments were conducted at 5 golf courses and a sod farm located neareach facility for livestock excretion treatments. Chemical fertilizer (CF) with N at 12 g m-2 year-1 and CLMs were applied fourtimes, respectively. The constituents of the different CLMs were variable based on when and where the fertilizer was produced. SoilK content significantly increased when the soil was treated with CLMs. The soil treated with CF showed a higher content of total Pthan that treated with CLM. CF and CLMs treatments significantly increased the turf color index compared with control. Tillerdensity and shoot dry weight of fertilized plots were also higher than those of non-fertilized plots. However, there was nosignificant difference in turf color index and tiller density among plots treated by CLMs or CF. The results of this studydemonstrated that CLMs could be a substitute for CF.
In order to study the effect of formulation type on the burning characteristics of smoke generator, fenarimol smoke generators containing the powdered rice chaff as a combustible carrier were prepared by molding the kneaded mixtures into various shapes. Smoke generators containing wood flour as a combustible carrier were also prepared and compared with smoke generators containing rice chaff. All the fenarimol smoke generators moulded into powders, granules, and rods continuously burned out when the sodium chlorate content exceeded 11%. Regardless of their types, the highest smoking rate of fenarimol was observed with more than 13% of sodium chlorate. The smoking rate of active ingredient followed with the increasing order of powder (64.5%) < granule (78.4%) < rod (90.9%). The smoke rod was robust, easy to ignite, and showed the highest smoking rate among the tested formulations. When the mixture of wood flour and anti-flame agent was used as a combustible carrier, the burning rate was so slow that wood flour formulation seemed to be more suitable to a slow-burning fumigant rather than smoke generator.
This study is to connect relationship benefits, which is provided by a company in fashion industry in order to have a long-term relationship with customers, with perceived reciprocity and perceived underlying intention, and examine how customers affect a company to have a long-term relationship continuity intention . In particular, this study classified customers according to the type of self-regulatory focus, and then analyzed the effect of perceived reciprocity and perceived underlying intention of vender on how two types of customers perceive relational benefits, and as a result, how it affects long-term relationship continuity intention of customers. Taken together from these results, psychological benefits is proved to be the most important regardless of the type of self-regulatory focus, which means that consumers want to maintain relationship with company or vendor motivated by psychological benefits than economic aspects. On the hand, when customers perceived various types of benefits, there was a little difference in moderating effect according to perceived underlying intention and perceived reciprocity, however, this interacted with psychological benefits and accordingly affected long-term relationship continuity intention. It is especially interesting result that psychological benefits showed negative effect on long-term relationship continuity intention due to moderating effect of perceived underlying intention, which has great implications for relationship marketing strategy of clothing companies. 패션업체의 CRM관계편익에 대한 연구는 지속적으로 이루어져왔지만 대부분 연구들은 CRM관계편익이 고객만족이나 장기관계지향성과 같은 긍정적 성과를 가져온다는 것만을 전제로 하고 있어 관계편익이 고객만족이나 장기관계지향성에 부정적 영향을 미칠 수 있는 변수에 대한 연구는 거의 이루어지지 않고 있다. 이에 본 연구에서는 관계편익과 장기관계지향성에 부정적 영향을 미칠 수 있는 조절변수로 ‘숨은 의도 지각’과 최근 사회 심리학 소비자 행동에서 많이 논의 되고 있는 변수로 ‘자기조절초점’을 사용하였다. 연구결과는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 패션업체의 관계편익에서 심리적 편익만이 소비자의 유형과 상관없이 장기관계지향성에 유의하게 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다. 둘째, 자기조절초점 유형에 따른 소비자 간의 숨은 의도 지각은 방어조절초점소비자가 향상조절초점소비자보다 높게 지각하는 것으로 나타났다. 셋째, 호혜성 지각은 방어조절초점 소비자들만 심리적 편익에 대해 아주 미미하게 나타나고 향상조절초점 소비자들은 관계 편익에 대한 조절효과는 유의하지 않은 것으로 나타났다. 본 연구는 패션업체 CRM의 실질적인 성과를 높이기 위해선 패션업체 판매원과 소비자 간의 장기적 관계유지를 잘 설명할 수 있는 새로운 변인을 제안하여 실무적 시사점을 제공하고자 한다.