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      • KCI등재

        용주사의 능침사찰적 특징에 관한 연구

        김용기,조미혜 한국정원학회 2000 한국전통조경학회지 Vol.18 No.1

        This study accomplished to prove the Yong-Ju Temple's special character through compare an arrangement form and the element of spatial organization about a general temple in Chosun Dynasty to Yong-Ju temple's. This is the summerized result of this investigation. 1. The main building of temple, a pavilion, and the entrance in Yong-Ju Temple is located in a south-north vertical axis, and a Buddhist monastery and the building for zen study of rectangle figure are arranged the both side of the courtyard of the main building to connect the building for zen study and a Buddhist monastery with a pilgrimage is made the geometrical arrangement of space in general. This kind of the geometrical arrangement of space is meant that Yong-Ju Temple was built simultaneously in short period based on sufficient financial find from nation. 2. There is a researched and analysised result about the element of spatial organization of Yong-Ju Temple. Yong-Ju Temple's entrance, which is called Sammun, has the on those in the both sides of it, and this is the form with a pair roof. This is the specific form which can't found in general temples in Chosun Dynasty and this kind of form is a palace form. Passing this gate there is a second step which is called Chunboru using a stone pillar in underground form, zen study. Chunboru's scened form has the railing in the three side of it. Chunboru formed high leveled building form has a tail rectangle embellished foundation stone and a dragon head in the roof, which form isn't seen in general temple of Chosun Dynasty. Also the main building is shown refinement and majesty in a dair for a Buddhist image's gorgeous arnament and a dragon head sculpture above the principle image. The downside of the main building : namely the stylobate and a foundation stone is composed with two foundation stone shaped a square and a circle. To compare this form to the general temple's form using natural stones in foundation using stones of all sizes in the stylobate is too different. Using this huge stone and the stone foundation is used in nobel high buildings or palace generally. And the other things, the element of spatial organization, the Chundol on upperside of the foundation or a decorative roof and the dragon head of roof and convex tiles sculptured a crane and dragon at the edge of eaves a lamp is a specific different character with general temple. Yong-Ju temple's pair stone sculptured the three great absolute, cloud, the figure of a peony instate of general temple's pair stone sculptured the figure lotus and Dangcho. The pair stone of Yong-Ju temple is the similar form to Chungjakak of Yung-lung, also this form is very similar to the pair stone of palace. Until now, the result of an investigation about the arrangement form and the element of spatial organization in Yong-Ju Temple. There are several differences between an arrangement form and the element of spatial organization in Yong-Ju Temple and those of general temple in Chosun Dynasty, but similar to an arrangement form and the element of spatial organization of palace in Chosun Dynasty. This study about Yong-Ju temple which is the one of the Royal-Tomb Temple investigated about an arrangement form and the element of spatial organization and considered that it will follow several study about Royal-Tomb Temples such as Bong-sun Temple, Bong-un Temple, Hung-kuk Temple, Sin-ruk Temple at the different side.

      • 용호비결 연단술의 분석심리학적 의미

        신용욱 ( Yong-wook Shin ) 한국분석심리학회 2018 心性硏究 Vol.33 No.2

        용호비결은 조선 중기의 문신이던 정렴(1506~1549년) 선생이 저술한 일종의 선도(仙道) 수련서로 매월당 김시습의 용호론의 맥을 잇는 조선시대 가장 중요한 도교문헌의 하나라고 할 수 있다. 본 논문은 정렴 선생과 용호비결 판본에 대하여 소개하고 책의 제목인 용호(龍虎), 책의 내용 중 수단지도(修丹之道), 폐기(閉氣), 호흡법, 단전(丹田), 현빈일규(玄牝一竅)의 연금술적 내용을 분석심리학적 측면에서 살펴보았다. 용호(龍虎)는 정신양(psychoid) 단계에서 작용하는 변환의 요소로 이를 통하여 단(丹)이 만들어지는데 단(丹)은 메르쿠리우스이자 철학자의 돌로 연금술의 적화 단계를 의미하기도 한다. 정렴 선생은 단(丹)을 이루기 위하여 가늘고 긴 호흡을 통한 단전에의 집중을 강조하였는데 이를 폐기(閉氣)라고 한다. 폐기(閉氣)는 능동적으로 니그레도(nigredo)상태로 들어가는 것으로 이때 우리의 정신은 외부로 향한 투사를 거두어들여 단전(丹田)을 향해 집중한다. 니그레도를 통한 지속적인 수련은 알베도(albedo)상태로의 이행을 가능케 하며 이를 통해 투사에 의한 객체의 오염으로부터 정신이 자유로와져 마음의 중심이 자아(ego)로부터 자기(Self)로 옮겨간다. 현빈일규(玄牝一竅)란 노자가 곡신(谷神)으로 표현한 우주의 여성적 원리를 경험하고 이를 체화하는 것이다. The article is about Yong-Ho-Bi-Gyeol(龍虎秘訣), which is one of the most important Taoist text in Korea written by Jeong-Ryum, a Taoist and alchemist in the Chosun Dynasty. The article deals with the alchemical and psychological meanings of Yong-Ho (龍虎, Dragon-Tiger), the way of nurturing cinnabar (修丹之道), the closing of the qi (閉氣), the method of alchemical breathing, the Dantian (丹田, cinnabar-field), and the Mysterious Female’s One Opening (玄牝一竅), in addition to the brief introduction of the life of Jeong-Ryum and the bibliography of the book. The Yong-Ho (龍虎) meaning the dragon and tiger is the archetype of transformation in the form of their opposites, rooted in the psychoid system of the human psyche. The unified Yong-Ho makes Dan and the Dan, literally indicating cinnabar, has many alchemical connotations such as Mercurius, the rubedo state of the alchemical process, and the philosopher’s stone. In the book, Jeong-Ryum emphasized the slow and subtle way of breathing in and out of Dantian to develop neidan (內丹, inner cinnabar or inner alchemy). The refining of neidan begins by the closing of the qi, which symbolizes the radical introversion and withdrawal of all the projections on the outer objects. The Dantian located at the lower part of the abdomen has been known to preserve jing (精), the vital essence of life, which can be refined into qi and spirit (神). In Jungian perspective, the Dantian is a mandala where an individual’s mind can stay and focus at the center of psyche detached from ego and related to the Self. The long-nurtured introverted energy makes the Mysterious Female’s One Opening (玄牝一竅), a pit or cavity in the transcendental space, through which the meditator can have a relationship with the great female principle of the universe. The current article has introduced the contents of the Yong-Ho-Bi-Gyeol in the perspective of analytical psychology. However, it has not dealth with the remaining topics including Taesik (胎息, embryonic breathing) and Juchenhwahu (周天火候, the great Celestial circuit firing), due to the lack of author’s sufficient knowledge and experience. The unexplored areas of Yong-Ho-Bi-Gyeol will be studied in the future.

      • KCI등재

        식민지시대 시에 나타난 ‘얼굴’ 표상 연구

        신용목(Sin, Yong-Mok) 한국문학회 2019 韓國文學論叢 Vol.82 No.-

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        이 논문은 식민지시대에 쓰여진 시들의 ‘얼굴’ 표상에 관한 연구이다. 얼굴은 ‘자아’라는 내면과 ‘세계’라는 외부의 접점을 형성한다는 측면에서 ‘표상적 실재성’을 가장 뚜렷하게 보여주는 대상이고, 은유와 환유는 시적 대상이 출현하고 배치되는 양상이다. 이 논문은 얼굴 표상이 시 속에서 구조화되는 방식을 살핌으로써 식민지시대 시인들의 시적 인식의 한 측면을 조망하고자 한다. 세계와 자아에 대한 성찰과 고뇌를 이어가거나 당대 현실을 유이민적 과정으로 체험했던 정지용, 윤동주, 백석, 이용악의 시에 얼굴 표상이 많이 등장한다. 또한 언어 실험을 통해 세계의 분열의 징후들을 보여줬던 이상과 세계의 이상에 자아의 목표를 일치시켰던 임화의 시에서도 자주 등장한다. 반면, 현실 동인과 자아에 대한 질문을 뒤로 물린 채 관념적 세계와 미적 언어에 탐닉했던 청록파 시인 등에게는 ‘얼굴’ 표상이 거의 등장하지 않는다. 정지용과 이용악 시에서 ‘얼굴’ 표상은 세계와 관계하는 화자의 내적상태를 직접적으로 대리한다. 그들 시에서 얼굴은 세계와 자아의 만남에서 비롯된 주체의 외상 자체를 표상한다는 점에서 은유적 표상으로 나타난다. 이는 얼굴 표상이 내적 상태와의 유사성을 바탕으로 등장한다는 것으로도 설명 가능하다. 은유적으로 등장한 ‘얼굴’ 표상은 불우한 시간의 연속성 속에서 주체의 내력을 위치시키는 역할을 한다는 점에서 ‘통시적’ 성격을 띤다. 이는 외적 폭력의 강도를 더욱 선명하게 드러내는 역할을 한다. 윤동주와 백석 시의 경우 ‘얼굴’ 표상이 병렬적 배치를 통해 세계를 연쇄적 과정으로 지시한다는 점에서 환유적 성격을 가지고 있다고 볼 수 있다. 얼굴 표상이 주체의 외상을 주체 외부에 배치한다는 점에서 환유의 특징인 인접성을 띠고 있는 것이다. 즉 자신의 얼굴을 분리시켜 그 진의를 묻거나 얼굴 옆에 또 다른 얼굴을 배치함으로써 세계와 자아의 실체에 닿고자 한다. 환유적으로 등장한 ‘얼굴’은 화자의 사유나 인식을 일관되게 전개시켜 현실 또는 정념과의 유비적 연결망을 만들기보다는, 오히려 그 연결망을 저지하고 대상화시킴으로써 현실 또는 정념의 정체를 되묻는 역할을 한다. 환유적으로 등장한 얼굴 표상은 그 공시적 성격을 통해 외적 폭력이 가진 비극의 폭을 확장시킨다. 이상 시의 ‘얼굴’ 표상은 은유와 환유의 과정이 중첩되어 등장하고, 임화 시에서는 그 과정이 무화되어 나타난다. 이상의 시는 세계와 자아의 관계가 단일하게 포착되지 않기 때문이며, 임화의 시는 세계와 자아의 관계가 이미 결정된 상태로 등장하기 때문이다. 그러나 이는 원관념과 보조관념이 결합된 ‘동일성의 원리’와는 다르다. 그러나 이는 원관념과 보조관념이 결합된 ‘동일성의 원리’와는 다르다. 은유와 환유는 시어 출현 방식에 따라 시의 구조를 형성한다. 이상의 시의 ‘얼굴’ 표상은 구조적 맥락을 지움으로써 세계의 비결정성을 표상하고, 임화 시의 ‘얼굴’은 그 자체로 세계의 표상을 구조화한다. 그로써 이상의 시는 세계의 분열을 드러내고, 임화의 시는 단일한 세계를 지향한다. This study is a study on the ‘face’ representation of poems written during the colonial period. Facial representations are the objects that show the representational “reality” in terms of forming the interface of inner ‘self’ and outer ‘world’, and metaphors and metonymy are the aspects in which the poetic objects appear and place. Therefore, this study is a study that reveals one aspect of the poetical perception of poets in the colonial period by examining the way facial expression is structured in the poem. Many face representations appeared in the poems of Ji Jung Yong, Yoon Dong Joo, Baek Seok, and Yong Aak who experienced the reflection of the world and the self and the reality of the time through the immigrant process. It also appeared frequently in Im Hwa s poems, which matched the goal of the self with the ideal of the world, and Lee sang s poem which showed the splitting of the world by the technique of self-targeting. On the other hand, “face” representations rarely appeared in the poets from Pure Green Color school who indulged in the ideological world and aesthetic language but rejected the questions about reality motif and egos. In the poems by Jung Ji-yong and Lee Yong-ak, the ‘face representation directly represents the inner state of the speaker who is related to the world. Shortly, it is metaphorical in that it represents the trauma itself originated from the meeting between the world and the self. This can also be explained by the fact that facial expressions appear based on their internal state and similarities. At this time, the “face” representation by Jung Ji-yong and Lee Yong-ak is of a “diachronic” nature in that the subject s internal strength is positioned in a series of unhappy times. This plays a role to clearly reveal the intensity of external violence. In the poems by Yun Dong-ju and Baek-seok, ‘face’ has a metonymic nature in that it directs the world in the manner of chain process through parallel arrangement. This can be explained that the facial representation has a proximity in that the trauma of the subject is placed outside the subject. That is, it questions the true intention by separating own s face, or it intends to reach out to the whole world by placing another face next to the face. Face , which appeared in metonymy, plays a role of reclaiming the identity of reality or emotions by blocking the connection and objectifying it through objectification, rather than consistently developing the speaker s thoughts and perceptions to make the organic connection between reality or emotion. This expands the tragedy of external violence through its public nature. In the poem by Lee Sang, the process of metaphors and metaphors is overlapped in face, and in the poem by Imhwa, the process becomes blurred and appeared. This is because the relationship between the world and the self is not captured in a single way while the relationship between the world and the self has already been determined in the poem by Imhwa. But this is different from the “principles of homogeneity,” in which the original and auxiliary concepts are combined. Metaphors and metonymy are classification of the structure of poetry depending on the way the words appeared. Thus, the “face” of the poem by Lee Sang represents the world s non-determinism by erasing the architectural context, and the “face” of the poem by Imhwa in itself constructs the world s representation.

      • KCI등재

        순수시의 상호작용ㆍ金永郞과 朴龍喆

        김용직(Kim Yong-jik) 한국시학회 2004 한국시학연구 Vol.- No.10

        This paper is to study two major ´Si-mun-hak' school poets, Kim Young-rang and Park Yong-chul, who take important positions in the history of Korean Poetry. It is noticeable that they both are from Honam and study together in Seoul and Yomiuri Institute, Japan. Thus we can say that they compose pure poems under the base of mutual emotional bondage. They publish monumental poems in the history of Korean poems just after and before the first publication of Si-mun-hak, and this process we can notice friendship and close literary bondage between them. Both of them are composers of pure poems, however, a close examination indicates that they have their own independent characteristics. Though Kim Young-rang starts from a composer of pure poems, small notices could be found that he accepts historical consciousness, awareness of the contemporary situation, and ethnic emotion. On the contrary Park Yong-chul is romantic and mostly publishes melpoems, which shows that he is under the influence of Kierkegaard, a Danish philosopher. This melancholy sense demonstrates his poetic colour, to stick with pure poems due to the lack of present situation. Park ,Yong-chul a scholar of German Literature, is different from Kim Young-rang who wants to concretize the world of folklore and ethnic emotion Park Yong-chul is interested in the current of the poems worldwide, is deeply embedded in romantic world, and attempts to revitalize the poems in his own way.

      • KCI등재

        당풍(唐風) 수용기 정용(鄭鎔)의 한시(漢詩)에 대한 고찰 -시선집(詩選集)에 수록된 작품을 중심으로

        박용만 ( Park Yong-man ) 한국한시학회 2016 韓國漢詩硏究 Vol.24 No.-

        조선중기 盛唐詩를 수용한 三唐詩의 등장은 우리 문학사에서 매우 중요한 분기점이 된다. 문학사에서 새로운 풍조의 유행은 몇몇 작가의 노력만으로 이루어질 수 없으며, 당시 활동했던 많은 시인들이 교유하고 참여하는 과정에서 典範의 논리와 방향성이 자리를 잡게 된다. 그러나 三唐詩人을 제외하면 이 시기에 활동했던 여러 시인들에 대한 논의는 절대적으로 부족하다. 鄭鎔은 그동안 전혀 알려지지 않았던 시인으로 삼당시인이 활동했던 시기에 참여한 인물이다. 靖國功臣으로 海平府院君에 봉해진 鄭眉壽의 후손으로 화려한 가문의 배경과 경제적 풍요에도 출사하지 않고 자연을 벗 삼아 시작에 전념하였다. 많은 작품을 남긴 것은 아니지만 許筠은 그의 작품을 높이 평가하여 『國朝詩刪』에 6수를 선발하여 넣고 『鶴山樵談』과 『惺所覆?藁』에도 그에 대한 詩話를 수록했을 만큼 당시 상당한 비중을 지녔던 것으로 평가할 수 있다. 그는 唐風을 수용하여 정회를 표출하였다. 때로는 미숙한 작품이 보이기도 하지만, 절구 형식을 선호하여 주로 주위 경물과 심사를 소박하게 표현하는 특징을 보인다. 시화에 실린 일부 방대하고 현란한 의경의 작품을 허균은 詩魔가 들어 지은 것으로 소개하였다. 소박한 의경의 다른 작품과 연관성이 떨어지지만 정용의 입을 통해 지어진 것만은 분명하다. 조선 중기 당풍의 정착과 유행의 관점에서 정용의 담백하면서 소박한 한시는 일정한 의미를 지닌다고 할 수 있다. 아울러 당시 알려지지 않은 많은 시인들의 다양한 시풍을 논의하는 것은 당풍의 수용을 폭넓게 이해하는 단서가 될 것이다. The appearance of Chinese poems of the Tang Dynasty style by three poets in the Joseon Dynasty(三唐詩) that accepted the Tang poetry during its flourishing period(盛唐詩) became the turning point of Korean literary history. Trends of new tendencies in literary history cannot be done by several writers` efforts and model(典範)`s logic and directivity get to settle in the process that many poets who are active then associate with each other and participate. However, except the three poets who wrote the Tang Dynasty`s Chinese poem styles, discussion on several poets who were active in this period are desperately lacking. Joeng Yong(鄭鎔) is the figure who participated in the period that the three poets who wrote the Tang Dynasty`s Chinese poem styles were active as the poet who has never been known to us in the meanwhile. He devoted himself to writing his poems by communing with nature without entering government service despite the background of his distinguished family and economic affluence as the descendant of Jeong Mi-su(鄭眉壽) who was raised to Haepyeongbuwongun(海平府院君) as Jeonggukgongsin(靖國功臣). He did not leave many works of art. However, he can be evaluated to account for a considerable proportion of the period as Heo Gyun put his 6 poems in Gukjosisan(國朝詩刪) and included stores about his poems in Haksanchodam(鶴山樵談) and Seongsobugo(惺所覆?藁) by thinking highly of him. He expressed his thoughts by accepting the Tang Dynasty`s Chinese poem styles. Sometimes, he shows unpracticed works of art. However, his works of art usually feature simple expressions of the scenery of the seasons around him and his mind and thought as he gave preference to quatrain forms. Heo Gyun introduced his partial works of art about the vast and ornate scenery written by him because of a kind of spells that he felt a disposition to do them(詩魔) to people. It is clear that they were written by Jeong, Yong`s mouth even though they are not linked to his other works of art about the simple scenery. Jeong, Yong`s light and simple Chinese poems can somewhat be meaningful from an angle that the Tang Dynasty`s Chinese poem styles settled and were popular in the middle of the Jonseon Dynasty. In addition, discussion on various poetical styles by many poets who were not known then will be a clue to understand acceptance of the Tang Dynasty`s Chinese poem styles widely.

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        해방기 문학의 내적 형식과 길 모티프 연구-이용악의 시와 허준의 「잔등」을 중심으로

        노용무 ( Noh Yong-moo ) 한국문학이론과 비평학회 2005 한국문학이론과 비평 Vol.26 No.-

        This study is to consider (road or journey( in Lee Yong-ak's poetry and Heo Jun's 「The Faint Light」, focused on the symbol of road as a inner form of Korean Literature in independence times. This writers made an effort for representing the meaning and impression of independence in each janre objectivly against sentimental expression. Moreover they made a inner form focused on a foreign country and a journey for returning to motherland, and then they exclued a general inspiration and excitement in independence times. Lee Yong-ak expressed their emotion for independence objectivly by moving along a journey of the people to their homeland from a foreign country, and Heo Jun pursued to represent an inner description of a scenery at a public station toward released Seoul. These aesthetic sense of modernity of Heo Jun take another meaning of the independence in Korea at that times by raising compassion like tolerant sadness be latent in human-being. On the other hand, the view of Lee Yong-ak through the political modernity or aspiration for core of world is a world of political sense in that he recognized the reality of nation. But each intention to modernity of them had not been overcome the political situation in turbidity and eventually their political direction had been toward North Korea.

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        이용악 시에 나타난 길의 의미

        노용무 현대문학이론학회 2004 現代文學理論硏究 Vol.0 No.21

        Ever since making his debut with 「패배자의 소원(A Hope Of A Loser)」(1935) in the Journal『Shinin-munhak』, Lee Yong-ak worte a lot of poem and remains really active in his creative work. His works on the whole poeticized the kernel situation of his times through the impoverished conditions of rural communities under coercive Japanese imperial rule and the consequent people's nomadism This paper aims to consider the "Road" motif as the coherent relation and the literary convention in Lee Yong-ak's poetic system. Cnsidering this problem, this paper seek the meaning of Road by literary immanent methods, and search of symbolism and paths in the Road. The Road is a search for self-identity by problematic character as poetic speaker, and for self-consciousness in a world degraded. This symbolism develops two paths in Lee Yong-ak's poetry, one path to the South, another to the north. It is homology between Lee Yong-ak's life and the path of Road in his poetry. Also the meaning of are changed in his historical environment.

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        룡산서원(龍山書院)의 거접(居接)활동 기록과 그 의미

        김경용 ( Gyung Yong Kim ) 교육사학회 2006 교육사학연구 Vol.16 No.-

        이 연구의 목적은 조선후기 전통 교육기관의 교육활동에 대한 재해석을 시도하는 데 필요한 또하나의 사례를 제시하는 데 있다. 일제강점기 일본인 학자들이 주장했던 것과 같은 조선의 전통 교육기관에 대한 통상적인 견해, 즉 조선에는 학교다운 학교가 없다는 견해는 사실 입증할 만한 구체적인 증거에 바탕을 둔 것이라고 보기 어렵다. 근래에 조선후기의 교육체제와 교육활동에 대한 구체적인 사례를 담은 사료들을 접하는 일이 점점 더 용이해짐에 따라서 조선후기 교육상황에 대한 종래의 해석과는 다른 접근을 시도할 가능성이 갈수록 높아지고 있다. 따라서 당시에 여러 지방의 서원·향교·양사재 등 각 학교에서 작성된 교육활동 관련 고문서 자료를 바탕으로 다각적인 분석을 가하는 사례연구의 축적이 중요하다. 이 연구에서는 경주 용산서원의 교육활동 및 교육행정 관련 기록을 소개·분석하고 그것이 갖는 의미를 도출하였다. 용산서원의 거접록은 단순히 유생들에 대한 제술 경쟁 또는 제술 考課의 사실만을 보여주는데 그치지 않고, 경전에 대해 문답·토론·논쟁을 벌이는 강학·강회 활동까지 시행되었음을 보여주고 있다. 또한 과거시행일정 통보 및 과거웅시자 명단 작성·보고 등의 교육행정 활동은 해당 학교에서 강학활동을 전제로 이루어진 것이었으며, 이는 용산서원에만 국한된 것이 아니라 향교는 물론 여타 사액 서원도 공히 담임하고 있던 역할 이었다. 조선시대 전통 교육기관의 교육활동에 대한 사례연구를 지속적으로 축적해 나가는 것은 조선후기 전통 교육기관에 대한 새로운 시각과 손에 잡히는 이해를 모색하는 데 필수적인 작업이 될 것이다. The main purpose of this study is to reinterpret the educational system and practice of traditional school in late Chosen Dynasty. In fact, the customary viewpoint on traditional schools, as japanese old scholars to speak there was not a real educational institution in late Chosen Dynasty, has just rare positive testimonies to justify itself. Nowadays, increasing advent of old archives carrying concrete evidences on the system and practices of education in late Chosen Dynasty make it possible to reinterpret the traditional school system and educational practices. It is important to produce case studies based on practical academic activities recorded in official document at that times. In this study, I introduce some important records on educational activities in Yong-San Traditional College and on its administrative service and function. From the composition(製述) activities, we can lead another fact that these activities have coexisted with relating educational practice or academic conference(講會) to read the confucian textbooks and to discuss or argue about some subjects in them. Also, the administrative service and function of Yong-San Traditional College, such as reporting to the superior office the personal information about the candidates for public examination (科學) or composition contest(白日場), was closely related to the educational activities in this college. To take part in any sort of competitive examination academic or selective, it was necessary for cadidates to study in school. On the other hand, for school having responsibility to report on list of examinee, opening academic conferences had to be carried on even temporarily. We can make another viewpoint of the traditional school system and practices from the reinterpretation on educational practice in Yong-San Traditional College. It played some educational role suitable to the occasion at that times.

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        근대화 과정에서 홍익의 자유이념 소통

        김용환(Kim Yong-Hwan) 고조선단군학회 2009 단군학연구 Vol.20 No.-

        As a nationalist of colonial days, Han Yong-Un tried to analyze western modernization as viewpoint of the general trend. He tried to apply freedom and equality which was from Buddhism to those of modernization. That is to say, he considered Buddhism which was traditional thought as the religion which was very much close to the mass of people. Because of that, he thought national emotion had the power of subjectivity of modernization. Compared with the freedom of Han Yong-un, in the context of liberty of Liang Qichao, He reveals his social Darwinism and organic nationalism in the most systematic manner as a result of danger of colonization by the great powers. In his idea of New Citizen, each individual of a nation is a highly independent modern person who owns civil virtues such as ‘the nationalist idea’, ‘the spirit of liberty’, and ‘the economic spirit’. Han Yong Un thought freedom, equality and peace which is main point of Buddhism must be realized in the future. He also thought that realization must be done public commune subjectively by the revolution of the mass of people by degrees. Therefore, he basically denied outer interference and aggression. But Liang Qichao's organic consciousness indicates that since nation and its people are not in a subordinate relationship but nation is rather a colligation of each individual's welfare, nation cannot run counter to individual's happiness or benefit despite its attempt to limit each individual. Even if so, it is true that the fact that the total sum of each individual's benefit and happiness cannot exceed the benefit or the existence of the nation sets it apart from the individualistic modern democracy. ‘liberty’ for Liang meant ‘strong and sacrificial enough to secure the freedom of the collective/state’. In such collectivists Social Darwinist interpretation, “freedom” did not contradict at all the overall “statist” understanding of “modernity” and “civilization”-on the contrary, it functioned as its organic part. We can say that in the process of modernization, Han Yong Un focused his idea of public commune value through the freedom from the colonial days, Liang Qichao stressed his idea of liberty on the new citizenship by the new way of national building.

      • KCI등재후보

        한국에서의 불교의 근대화

        원영상(Won Yong Sang) 원광대학교 종교문제연구소 2018 한국종교 Vol.43 No.-

        본 논문은 근대불교계의 개혁론을 어떻게 새롭게 이해할 것인가라는 관점에서 출발한 논의이다. 동아시아의 근대 불교계, 특히 중국, 일본, 한국의 경우 입장은 달라도 새로운 문명의 유입과 사회의 변동에 따라 전통과의 관계 정립을 어떻게 할 것인가라는 문제를 각자 고민하고 있었다. 한국은 조선시대에 쇠퇴한 불교계의 근대적 정체성 확립과 국운의 쇠퇴와 식민지화를 극복하기 위한 저항적 민족주의의 노선을 걷지 않으면 안 되었다. 이러한 가운데 선각자들의 불교개혁론은 다양한 의미를 내포하고 있었다고 할 수 있다. 여기서는 백용성(白龍城), 박한영(朴漢永), 한용운(韓龍雲), 박중빈(朴重彬)의 불교개혁론을 중심으로 전통과 근대불교라는 관계를 고찰하고 있다. 이러한 개혁론은 메이지 유신 이후 일본의 불교계가 취한 불교개혁적 관점과도 연동되어 있음을 알 수 있다. 한국의 불교계 또한 식민지 하에서도 서구 문명에 대한 대응, 불법의 시대적 사명, 불법의 사회화와 미래의 전망, 전통불교의 개혁 등 다양한 측면에서 개혁론을 피력하고 있다. 특히 서구문명의 유입을 필두로 관습과 생활문화의 변화, 공동체와 새로운 형태의 국가 출현 사이의 간극이 드러나는 사회적 상황에서 불교개혁론은 새로운 활로를 모색하고 있었다. 식민지 하에서는 일본불교의 한반도 진출과 함께 불교를 통한 식민지 통치 전략에 대해 실질적인 불교개혁을 통한 대응 또한 일어나고 있음을 알 수 있다. 그리고 원불교의 경우, 전통에 귀속되지 않는 독자적인 교단 창립을 시도하고 있지만, 불교사상 등의 내적인 측면을 계승하고 있다고 할 수 있다. 결국 대승불교의 역사가 보여준 불법승 삼보의 재구성을 통한 불교개혁을 완수하고 있으며, 회통성과 같은 한국불교의 성격을 실질적으로 확립하고 있다고도 볼 수 있다. 근대불교개혁론에서 볼 수 있는 또 다른 의미는, 불법을 근대적 지(知)의 세계로 어떻게 승화시킬 것인가라는 관점에서 불교개혁론이 지향했던 학문의 발전에 대한 담론이 이루어지고 있다는 점, 그리고 개혁론을 주장했던 선각자들은 실제로 전 생애를 통해 근대적 불교결사를 주도하고 있다는 점을 새롭게 조명할 필요가 있다는 점이다. This paper will discuss how to newly understand the reformation theory of modern Buddhist communities. The modern Buddhist communities of East Asia, especially in the case of China, Japan and Korea, had different perspectives, but were concerned with the issue of how to establish a relationship with traditions in the wake of the arrival of a new civilization and changes in societies. Korea had to adopt the position of resisting democracy in order to establish the modern identity of the Buddhist community that declined in the age of the Joseon Dynasty, and to overcome the decline of national destiny, and Japanese colonization. While doing that, Buddhist reformation theory formulated by leading figures contained various meanings. In this paper, focusing on the theory of Buddhist reformation of Baek Yong-seong, Park Han-yeong, Han Yong-un, and Park Jung-bin, the relationship between tradition and modern Buddhism will be examined. These reformation theories are connected with the point view of the Buddhist reformation of Japanese Buddhism that took place after the Meiji Restoration. The Korean Buddhist community, also, even under Japanese colonialism, formulated reformation theories in different guises such as the response to Western civilization, the mission of Buddhadharma of the time, socialization of Buddhadharma and prospects of the future, and reformation of traditional Buddhism. Especially, in the social situation where gaps appeared as a result of changes in customs and life culture, and the community was faced with a new type of nation with the introduction of Western civilization, a theory of Buddhist reformation sought a new way out. Under colonialism, along with the introduction of Japanese Buddhism to the Korean Peninsula, responses arose through Korean practical Buddhist reformation against the colonial ruling strategy of Japan through Buddhism. And in the case of Won-Buddhism, it tried to establish an independent order that was not included in the traditional Buddhism, and yet, inherited and embraced the inner aspects of Buddhist thought. Finally, through the re-construction of the Three Jewels, namely, Buddha, Dhamra, and Sangha, that the history of the Mahayana Buddhism revealed, it completed the Buddhist reformation and practically established the nature of Korean Buddhism that featured such characteristics as communicative penetration. Another meaning that can be seen in the theory of modern Buddhist reformation was that the discourses for the development of studies that the Buddhist reformation theory aimed at were conducted from the view point of how to sublime Buddhadharma into the world of modern knowledge. It also needs to acknowledge that these pioneers who put forward the theory of reformation practically led the modern Buddhist association movement through their whole life.

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