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This study attempted to provide a spectrum analysis for quantitative evaluation of singing voice quality of singing students rather than the presence or absence of the singer's formant. The regression analysis was used to analyse the relationship between ringing quality, SPR, and SPP of singing voice of college student subjects majoring in music. This study measured singing power ratio (SPR) in 41 singing students. Digital audio recordings were made in sung vowels for acoustic analyses. Each sample was judged by 1 experienced singing teacher and 4 voice pathologists on one semantic bipolar 7-point scales (ringing-dull). The results showed that the SPR and SPP had significant correlations with ringing Quality. The SPR had a significant relationship with ringing quality on singing voice in singing students. The SPR can be an important quantitative measurement for evaluating singing voice quality.
To analyze dialy meal of royal meal, studied Jook Soora Sang (Rice Gruel), Mieum Sang (Thin Gruel) and Bankwa Sang, Soora Sang in Hyun Neung Won were on record Wonheng Ulmyo Jungri Euigwae (1795). Historic book "Jungri Euigwae" described the king's visit to his father's royal tomb "Hyun Neung Won", during the domain of Cheung Jo, the 22nd king of Choson Dynasty. The results obtained from this study are as follows. Rice Gruel (Jook Soora Sang), taken before breakfast, was arranged the same as the Soora Sang. The table for thin gruel (Mieum) was arranged in three kinds of sets; one for thin gruel, the others for stewed meat (Goem) and sugared fruit (Jeong Kwa). The diet seems to have been quit scientific and restorative. Bankwa Sang and Soora Sang in Hyun Neung Won was arranged the same as the other Bankwa Sang and Soora Sang. Therefore setting the table of royal meal had a rule.
본 연구는 영화비평가 정성일이 <오아시스>(이창동, 2002)에 대해서 쓴 비평문「판타지, 기만적인 환영술」을 비판적으로 분석한다. 그간 한국영화계에서 영화비평은 독립적인 분과로 논의되지 못했다. 산적하는 영화들 안에서 영화적 가치를 발굴해 정리하고 새로운 영화 언어를 대중 언어로 번역하는 것이 영화비평의 역할이라 했을 때 이는 문제가 있다. 영화비평에 대한 그간의 접근은 한국영화사의 맥락에서 특정 영화비평집단을 세대론적으로 조망하거나 특정 개인의 비평 세계를 전기적 관점에서 서술한 것에 머문 한계가 있다. 정성일은 1990년대 한국영화비평의 전성기를 주도했던 한국의 대표적인 영화비평가이다. 호불호가 갈리지만 그의 글은 대중들 사이에서 영화비평이라는 개념이 성립되는 과정에 주요한 이미지를 제공했다. 특히 본 연구가 다루는 정성일의<오아시스> 비판은 논쟁 참여를 전제해 작성된 덕분에 비평담론 자체가 중심에 서있고 무엇보다 정성일의 영화에 대한 태도가 여타의 글에 비해 명확하게 드러나는 특징이 있다. 더구나 그 논쟁은 영화의 윤리, 완성도, 자의식 등을 두고 벌어진 영화비평계 내부의 마지막 논쟁이라는 영화비평사적 의의도 있다. 나아가 영화 한편에 대한 긴 글이기 때문에 한국의 대표적 비평가가 영화를 비평하는 구체적 실천 양상이 현장감 있게 녹아 있기도 하다. 영화를 종교처럼 대한다는 비판이 존재하지만 정성일 영화비평의 경쟁력은 숏의 배치, 장르 문법, 카메라 시선과 같은 영화의 자의식을 정밀하게 분석하는 것에서 나온다. 영화란 무엇인가와 같은 근본적인 질문에 기반을 둔 이런 태도는 영화를 여타의 학문에 종속시킨 종래의 비평 태도와 차별되며 영화를 진지하게 바라보는 태도를 대중화시킨 의의가 있다. 하지만 그것만큼의 오류도 발견된다. <오아시스>를 비판할 때 투영되는 정성일의 관점의 가능성과 한계를 구체적으로 밝힘으로써 한국영화비평의 전성기를 주도했던 한 영화비평가의 개성적 세계관을 비판적으로 조망하는 것이 본 연구의 목적이다. 독립적인 분과로 인식되기는커녕 죽음까지 운운되는 영화비평의 위기 시대에 한국의 대표적 영화비평가의 세계관이 상징적으로 녹아 있는 글을 정밀하게 분석하는 것은 그것 자체로 의미 있다. This study analyzes the critique “Fantasy, deceptive hallucination” which sung-il jung wrote about < Oasis >(Changdong Lee 2002). Film critique has not been recognized and discussed as an independent field in the Korean film industry so far. It can be problematic if the role of film criticism is to get the cinematic values arranged among the pile of films and to translate new cinematographic language into the public language. The approach to the film critique to this point has limitation that in the context of Korean film industry, it viewed certain group of film critics in the perspective of theory of generation and it described certain person`s world of criticism in a biographical way. sung-il Jung is one of the representative film critics in Korea who lead the golden age of Korean film criticism in the 1990s. His writings provided important image in the process of establishing the concept of film critique among the public, even though they are controversial. The Jung`s criticisms this study exclusively deals with are based on the premise of argumentative participation, so the discourse is central and fundamental, and it brings out the cinematic view of Jung precisely compared to the other writings and articles, which is the advantages of this study. Moreover, the argument has significance in the field of film criticism for being the last dispute inside the field of film critique over the morals, degree of completion, and the consciousness of identity. Above and beyond, because this paper is a long writing about a movie, it contains detailed and vivid practical aspect which the representative critic of Korea criticizes the movie. Although there are criticisms of discussing movies like a form of religion, sung-il Jung`s film critique is competitive for detailed and precise analyze of films` sense of identity such as plot of shots, code of genre, and the eyes of cameras. This attitude based on the fundamental questions such as what is film is considered significant for popularizing and promoting earnest attitude toward movies, and is differentiated with the traditional attitudes of criticism which are to subordinate films in the other fields of study. However, due to being so, some errors are discovered. The purpose of this study is to critically outlook a distinctive world view of a film critic who enjoyed the film critique`s prime by concretely describing its possibilities and limitations through revealing Jung`s point of view which is his prerequisite for watching movies. The work of precise analyzing of one of the Korean representative film critics` writings which contains symbolic world view is significant and meaningful by itself in the time of the film criticisms` crisis when the idea of the demise of film criticism is being mentioned, let alone its separation as the independent field.
The correlation between education and development, with time, went through many changes along with the changes of perspectives. Since both of these concepts encompass wide ranges of social phenomena and factors, the analysis remains always complicated. However, in the era of SDGs and at the time when post-development debates have been raised, it is important to address this conceptual correlation through the conceptual analysis. Diferent development theories, as refected in the discussion, have presented the vitality of education in development process from diferent angle, in deeper analysis it became clearer that actually two major trends exist—education ‘for’ development and education ‘in’ development—under which all can be grouped. However, the critics of those diferent development theories paint the picture with an assumption that the role of education in the process of development has been misunderstood and mis-presented to some extent. This poses the debate towards fnding how the role of education to development process can be better realized and, therefore, this paper analysed it from three key thoughts towards redefning the paradigm. Goulet argues that development needs authentic in ethical way where Sen more freedom should be given by widening individual’s capability. However, in close analysis on Freirean thoughts, the limits of this relation remain un-encompassed as the defnition of development is rather contextual and fexible for the discourses on the role of education for social justice.
Background Vitamin D (Vit. D) is used extensively during tuberculosis treatment. Low levels of serum Vit. D increase the risk of active tuberculosis development. Altered expression of the proteins involved in Vit. D metabolism impairs cathelicidin production, thereby increasing the host susceptibility to tuberculosis. Objective We are trying to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in LRP2, CUBN, and VDR genes could afect tuberculosis development. Methods We included participants of the Korean Association Resource (KARE), part of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES), and used their recorded data. A total of 8840 people (4182 men and 4658 women) were eligible subjects. The 5-kb regions from the ends of transcripts of GC, LRP2, CUBN, and VDR genes were amplifed to select 13, 47, 70, and 15 SNPs, respectively. For association analysis and statistical analysis, PLINK version 1.07 and PASW Statistics version 18.0 were used. Results Signifcant correlation was observed in 11, 2, and 1 SNPs in LRP2, CUBN, and VDR genes. The efect of rs6747692 of LRP2 on transcription factor binding was confrmed using RegulomeDB. We confrmed that rs2239182 of VDR is located in the genomic eQTL region and can afect transcription factor binding and gene expression. Conclusions Genetic polymorphisms in genes encoding proteins involved in Vit. D metabolism infuence immune system components. Therefore, such polymorphisms may infuence the susceptibility to Mycobacterium tuberculosis invasion and alter the defense mechanisms against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. The correlation between genetic variation and tuberculosis development can provide new guidelines for the management of tuberculosis.
This article begins with an awareness of two. One is to consider the meaning of "letter" sensibility, as expressed in Yi Sang`s text in relation to newspapers and printed media, which constituted modern media in the city of Gyeong-seong [京城] in the 1930`s. The other is to analyze Yi Sang`s dream of writing and of realizing his goals through the letter expression. Therefore, the objective of this article is to investigate the unique ideas about letters and the meaning of the expressions in the literary texts of Yi Sang, who omnidirectionally participated in the so-called "modernity of media," as he drew figures, blueprints, and illustrations and worked as a magazine editor and literary coterie within modern Korean literature in the 1930`s. On the basis of this investigation, we tried to clarify the patterns in Yi Sang`s dreams of writing. Yi Sang`s unique ideas about letters were incorporated into his works in various forms and expressed through his original literary language. Moreover, his ideas had a sociocultural impact at that time beyond the function of delivering literary meanings. In his essay, "Lingering Impressions of a Mountain Village," he expressed the natural mood that sprang up from rural society by replacing with metaphoric language acquired fromand sensitized by "urban emotions." Hence, various aspects of Yi Sang`s literature constituting the so-called "rhetoric of city" were patterned by reflecting urban phenomena in visual forms in many parts of his works. The metaphoric system of the "rhetoric of city" established the unique metaphor in the viewpoint of the new modernity by the emotions and senses of those living in a city in the 20th century, saying good-bye to the senses of the 19th century. The characteristic elements of Yi Sang`s literature in the area of Korean literature in the 1930`s, which resulted from various forms of letters and their application to literary works, can ultimately be considered ventriloquial reactions to the speed of the capitalistic society that was changing rapidly, as well as to the disturbance of time and the entanglement of space in the changing process. This is a key factor in Yi Sang`s literature as well as the novel writing pattern that advocated the autonomy of art as "objectless writing`" based on the letter sensibility and the sign game method. Moreover, the new form of literature realized by Yi Sang`s letter sensibility and his literary world still requires an interpretation from a novel point of view, in the sense that it was an abstract painting that expressed the uneven consciousness of those living in a city, generated from the regulatory system of capitalistic reason that was rapidly expanding in the urban space of Gyeong-seong in the 1930`s.
많은 연구 보고서들은 미래 사회에 필요한 중요한 핵심 역량으로서 창의성을 지적하고 있다. 음악과 교육과정에서도 음악적 능력을 기르고 창의성을 계발시키는 것을 음악교육의 일차적 목표로 삼고 있다. 이와 같이 창의성은 미래 사회를 대처하고 주도하기 위해 학습자들에게 계발시켜야 할 교육의 목적이 되고 있으며, 따라서 창의성을 계발시킬 수 있도록 하는 다양한 교수·학습 방법의 연구가 각 교과교육에서 이루어질 필요가 있다. 이에 따라 본 연구는 창의성과 음악적 능력을 기를 수 있도록 하는 음악과 교수·학습 방법을 모색하기 위해, 셴커식 분석 이론을 가창(노래 부르기) 교수·학습 방법에 적용하여 보았다. 먼저 셴커식 분석 이론의 고찰을 통하여 악곡의 근본선율과 구조적 계층, 연장(장식) 기법 등의 학습 요소들을 추출하였으며, 2007년 개정 음악과 교육과정의 가창(노래 부르기) 영역에 대한 분석을 통하여 `악보 보고 노래 부르기`와 `악곡의 특징을 살려 노래 부르기`의 활동 요소를 추출하였다. 이어서 교육학의 교육심리와 교육방법에서 제시하는 정보처리이론 및 Gagne의 이론과 모형, 음악교과의 가창중심 교수·학습 모형을 분석하여 학습자에게 학습이 일어나는 조건과 상황, 인지적 과정, 이론과 모형에서의 계열 단계 등 설계에 적용하기 위한 고려하여야 할 사항들을 추출하였다. 이러한 이론적 고찰에 의한 연구 내용을 기반으로 셴커식 분석 이론에 의한 가창(노래 부르기) 교수·학습 모형을 설계하였으며, 그 설계에 터 해서 모형을 개발하여 제시하고 설명하였다. 또한 모형의 적용 방안을 탐색하는 과정으로서 중학교의 가창 단원 하나를 선택하여 학교 현장의 단위 수업에 직접 적용할 수 있는, 본 연구를 통하여 개발된 셴커식 분석 이론에 의한 가창(노래 부르기) 교수·학습 모형이 적용된, 교수·학습 과정안을 개발하여 제시하였다. This study aims to incorporate Schenkerian Theory to teaching and learning of singing to develop a model that equips learners with creativity and a knowledge of music. Through extensive literature reviews, many factors that decide the success of music learning were identified and considered. The model in this study included content such as fundamental line, structural level, and prolongation suggested by Schenkerian Theory, as well as activities such as `read music and sing` and `sing different music` in the 2007 Revised Music Curriculum. In addition, the study reviewed Information Processing Theory in educational psychology and methodology, Gagne`s theories, and singing-focused teaching and learning models. Through the review, this study took into consideration many factors such as learning conditions, cognitive development, and system stages. Furthermore, in order to support music teachers to implement the teaching and learning model of singing based on Scehnkerian Theory, the study presented a lesson plan for a unit in a middle school music textbook.
On this paper, it was studied separately in chronological order, characteristics of woodcut printing(木版) that had been published at Sung, Yuan, Ming(宋, 元, 明), three dynasties. First, during the Sung dynasty(A.D.960-1280), it was famous the small book (巾箱本)and we can easily see that even ancient books, reproducted by copying, had pictorial embellishment. We can say that Sung dynastys publication superior in the quality of paper, in the calligraphy style, typography, and in the contents of copybooks. Second, Yuan dynasty (A.D 1281-1367) was envented the chromatic books in general the fever skillfulness with which books were published during this dynasty are sometimes superior to those prevailing in Sung dynasty and the printing of auditorium was the best woodcut printing among books were published during this dynasty. Third, in Ming dynasty (A.D 1368-1662), the commercial publication was extreme with the universalization of the five-color printings. Finally, in order to get the data of woodcut printings study, this paper was recorded the important wood carvings of successive dynasties, thirty-five sheets and the tools of woodcut, six sheets.
특히 국가이념이 비교적 많이 담겨 있는 공산주의 도덕과 국어 교육에 어떠한 변화가 일어났는가 하는 점을 성찰해보고자 한 것이다. 해방 이후 북한은, 1948년 9월 맑스-레닌주의에 입각한 헌법을 제정하여, 정부를 수립한 이래 몇 차례에 걸쳐 헌법을 개정하였다. 1) 1960년대 후반 ‘주체사상’을 확립하면서 이 이념을 첨가하기 위하여 1972년에, 2) 1980년대 후반 ‘조선민족제일주의’와 ‘우리 식 사회주의’를 외친 이후 소련이 붕괴되는 것을 지켜보면서 1992년에, 3) 김일성 사망 이후 ‘붉은기사상’으로 ‘강성대국론’의 입장을 띠면서 ‘유일사상’을 강화하기 위하여 1998년에 이루어졌다. 그 결과, 이들 교과서에서는 소련식 사회주의기에는 ‘프로레타리아 혁명’과 더불어 ‘일제 청산’이, 주체사상기에는 ‘공산주의적 혁명가’가, 민족제일주의기에는 ‘사회주의 · 공산주의 건설자’가, 그리고 강성대국론기에는 ‘주체혁명 위업 완수’가 주된 이념을 이루고 있는 것을 확인할 수 있었다. This study is focused on the changes of the educational ideologies shown in the North Korean textbooks, especially how they have been changed according as the Constitutional law has been revised. The North Korea established the law in 1948, which was based on Marx-hninism. I would like to call it 'the period of Soviet Socialism.' Since then, it has been changed three times. First, it was revised to introduce hnin+Juche Ideology in 1972, which can be called 'the period of Self-reliance Ideology.' Second, it was revised in 1992 and the revision was based on Juche ideology completely. It can be called 'the period of Nations First. 'Third, it was revised to reinforce Juche ideology in 1998. It can be called 'the period of Forceful Nation.' In the first period (1945-), they specified that the most important educational ideologies were 'proletarian revolution' and the 'liquidation of Japanese imperialism' in their constitution. In the second period (1967-), the most important educational ideology was to be a 'communistic revolutionist'. In the third period (1986-), the most important educational ideology was to be the 'socialistic-communistic construhr.' And in the forth period (1994-), the most important educational ideology is to accomplish the 'Juche revolution.' The educational ideologies shown in the North Korean textbooks have been changed according to the revisions of constitution. First, in the period of Soviet Socialism, they were focused on rejecting the Japanese-American imperialism, hostility towards bourgeoisie and beautification of I1 Sung Kim in their ''North Korean" language education. Second, in the period of Self-reliance Ideology, idolization of I1 Sung Kim was reinforced in them. Third, in the period of Nations First, they reinforced rejecting the Japanese-American imperialism and began to make an idol of Jung I1 Kim in them. Forth, after the death of I1 Sung Kim, in the period of Forceful Nation, they have deified I1 Sung Kim and strengthened idolization of Jung I1 Kim. Furthermore, in the education of ethics, most of textbooks begin with indoctrinating the ideas of I1 sung Kim and his son. They were focused on rejecting the Japanese-American imperialism, hostility toward bourgeoisie, and proletarian revolution. This inclination was exactly same as moral education. But their socialism and denunciation of revisionism was reinforced in its textbook, also.
Korean literature reaped a precious harvest of two splendid and long epic poems during the one century period from the late 12th to the late 13th century. These are Dong-Myung-Wang-Pyun (東明王篇), the Geste of King Dong-Myung by Yi, Kyu-Bo (1168-1241), and Je-Wang-Woon-Ki (帝王韻紀), the Geste of the Kings by Yi, Sung Hyoo (1224-1300). The Geste of King Dong-Myung clarifies in the opening chapters the remote genealogy of King Dong-Myung, hero and the founder of Koguryo; and in the main chapters, it depicts the King's history from the birth to his great work of foundation; and finally in the closing chapters, his history up to the coronation of King Luri who succeeded to his heroic works and also the impressing comments expressed by the poet. The Geste is written in Chinese poetry, composed of the main part of a little over two hundred and eighty lines and of the descriptive part of four hundred and thirty some lines. Each being a five-word line, the total Chinese word-characters used in the Geste amount to a length of three thousand six hundred (3,600). Je-Wang-Woon-Ki, the Geste of the Kings,(hereafter referred to as simply the Kings), consists of two volumes. The first volume carols the history of the ancient Chinese dynasties, from Bango (盤古) to Kum (金) and in the second volume, the history of Korea. The second volume is of two parts. The first part deals with the rise and fall of the Korean dynasties, starting from Dan-Goon (檀君), the remotes founder of Korea, to the dynasties of Wiman (衛滿), Sagoon (四群), Samhan (三韓) (Three-Kingdoms), Silla (新羅), Koguryo (高句麗), Bekje (百濟), later Koguryo, later Bekje and Balhe (渤海). The first part consists of two hundred and ten (210) seven-word lines, total character-words amounting to one thousand four hundred and sixty. The second part deals with the history of the period from the foundation of Koryo (高麗) down to the reign of King Choongyul (忠烈王) under which the poet lived. The second part is of seven hundred character-words in total, in one hundred and twenty (120) lines, each containing five words. The Geste and The Kings have attracted the attention of the scholar historians, both domestic and foreign, as the historical documents since much earlier days, but it is quite recently that they have come to be considered valuable from the viewpoint of literature. In fatc, they began to be revaluated as "folk epic" when the present author of this thesis published "A Study of the Generation of Yi, Kyu-Bo and Yi, Sung-Hyoo", at Pusan in 1956, and in the following year, Professor Chang, Duk-Soon made his thesis public under the title of "King Dong-Myung, an Epic", which found its place later in his "General Survey of Korean Literature". Quite recently, Professor Yi, Byung-gi presented a new viewpoint, in his "Complete History of Korean Literautre", that the Geste and the Kings are the truthful origin of "Kasa" (歌辭), the ancient folk poetry. About this new theory, however, the author would refrain from mentioning because it has no direct relation with the following thesis of the present author. The present author's interest lies rather in that these two poems in Chinese style should find a position with importance in the system of Korean literature, which has been so far neglected by the Korean literary scholars. A word about the thesis of Professor Chang, Duk-Soon. The thesis is sufficient enough to give the readers a profound understanding of the "Geste of King Dong-Myung" through his structural analysis of the narrative of King Dong-Myung and its detailed comparison with the western getse, which are done in his fluent, rich style. To the regret of the present writer, however, Professor Chang's studies on the Geste ended only in the field of said "analysis" and said "comparison", largely destitute of the due historical background of it. As the result, he ventured to ascribe the motive of the creation to a "nostalgic fidelity" of a Koryo-man to the prceeding Dynasty, Koguryo, and also to determine that the epic poem of the Koryo era was entirely an "accidental eruption of the 13th century". All the literary heritage is the products of the history. We cannot easily be contented by hastily treating our literary heritage. Therefore, the present writer particularly intends to examine the historical background of the Geste to comprehend the position of the poet's subjecthood and furhtermore grasp the true significance of the work from the viewpoint of resuscitated moving history of that age. A rough survey of the dynastic history of Koryo shows us that the Dynasty, since its foundation in 919 A.D., aimed high at expanding its territory towards the North as its state principle. This enterprising spirit of early Koryo had constantly been checked by the powerful suppression on the part of "Kuran"(契丹), and "Yojin"(女眞), two northern races. And without any chance, the Dynasty had to meet the Mongolian Aggression (1231-1256). In this warfare, the regime of "Choi"(崔氏) family ruled Koryo standing siege in KangWha Island. Choi's regime had resisted against the Aggressors thirty, long years before the Dynasty met its total defeat. And the former, the failure of the expansion policy was caused by the corruption and inability of the then ruling aristocracy; and the latter, the defeat at the hands of Mongolians, was brought about by the decrepitude of Royal House, and also by the reactionary bureaucrats who overthrew the Choi regime through treason. In the history of Koryo, however, we should not fail to observe the strong flow of the people's movements. During the period, 1128-1135, people urged the government to transfer the capital to Pyungyang, a border city, to face and suppress the enemy nation, "Kum" (金) (Yojin), and also they advocated that Koryo's King should be retitled as "emperor" like in China, setting up Koryo's own new era, which, till then, had been forbidden by Great China, the powerful dominator. Another incident of the people's movement is seen in heroic resistance against the enemy throughout the Mongolian Aggression. People fought at every part of the country in conjunction with the army, refusing to surrender to the Mongolians till the last. The high spirit and energy of the people had led to the formation of "Sam-Byul-Cho" Army which continued, in isolation from the government, its resistance war for four years until 1273. The 12th and 13th centuries mark the period of great trials suffered by the Korean race. The great spirit of resistance oppressed by the realities inevitably found it way to inwardness, and again was fermented to find its spout in the essence of literature. Yi, Kyu-Bo and Yi, Sung-Hyoo were the writers representing this troubled age, both of whom reached the greatness under favorable care of the Choiregime. They were "Rising Intellectuals" who heralded" New Officials", that is, the class of "Literary Intellectuals" during the second half period of Koryo. They were entirely different in character, from those old aristocrats who had held power during the first half period of the Dynasty. Therefore, these two literary men belonged to the transitional, progressive group of people who later prepared the seed-bed for the new culture. The new culture meant the culture for the people, while the old culture meant the culture forthe aristocrats. No wonder that folk epic such as the Geste and the Kings should be written by these "Rising Intellectuals", and not "accidental" at all. There is no objection in concluding that the Geste and the Kings both are the folk epic. However, we should discern the considerable difference which exists between these two poetical works, either in their subjects or either in their structure. The Geste carols one and single prototype, King Dong-Myung who was the hero of dynastic foundation; while the Kings deals with various, important historical happenings during the entire period from the earliest mythical foundation of the country by "Dangoon" down to the author's age. Here, just for the convenience's sake, the present writer take the liberty of calling the Geste a heroic poem; and the Kings, a history poem, regardless of the fact that a heroic poem and a history poem are essentially the same. Firstly, the writer desires to deal with the Geste laying stress on the following two points: (1) the method of the plot development, and (2) the characteristic of the prototype. In the heroic poem, the development of the plot differs according to the singularity or plurality of the hero prototype. When single, the plot develops towards the direction of the will of the hero; meanwhile, when plural, the plot becomes a succession of human contrasts, and collisions. In the Geste which is a biographic description of a King, the only prototype is King Dong-Myung himself. And the principal actions of the King are narrated in chronological order. However, Yi, Kyu-Bo, the author of the Geste tactfully dealt with the single hero additionally presenting his counterparts to produce a variety in the plot-flow. As the result, contrasts, collision occurs in succession constantly taking a new turn towards a third phase. The plot, therefore, constantly flows breaking the stalmate deadlock. Thus the Geste, which otherwise would have ended by an individuals biography, is heightened up to a realm of heroic poem. In the Geste, the poet succeeded in portraying the character of the hero. The willpower and ambition of the King as a hero are successfully expressed in his escape from Buyo,(扶餘) the capital, and in his founding of a new counrty and a new capital in the South and also in his fight against a neighboring state, "Biru-Kuk"(沸流國). The portrayal of the King's character as hero is vivid and acute in his strategy, violence, cruelty and egotism. The violent hero who exhausts every mean to accomplish his purpose falls easily, like a child, in the arms of his tender mother. Readers of the Geste are struck to find themselves disposed to agree with the hero's strategy, egotism and violence. In this, we are obliged to acknowledge the author's success in sculpturing the fresh, healthy, original humanity of the ancient type. The Geste is a success as a hero poem, but is still insufficient as a folk epic, that is, an epic of the Korean Race. The present writer is of opinion that King Dong-Myung certainly is a hero of a tribe, but not the common patriarch of the entire Korean Race. He is a heroic chief of the tribe of Koguryo which is the predecessor of Koryo "people" since it is evident, in history, that Koryo is the successor of Koguryo. And the author of the Geste so treated the King. In this strict sence, the Geste is, the present writer concludes, more of "heroic poem" than of "history poem". The great task of discovering the common patriarch of the entire race of this land was possible at the hand of Yi, Sung-Hyoo, a little later than Yi, Kyu-Bo's time. Yi, Sung-Hyoo described, with his wider range of view, the total historical activities of the entire Korean Race. In this sence, Je-Wang-Woon-Ki, the Kings is the comprehensive compilation of "folk epic", or perhaps, more properly, of "racial epic", and is characteristic of history poem. The Kings sets in its uttermost beginning Dangoon, as the sole patriarch of the entire Korean race, and clarifies that all the tribal states, which had ever existed in this land covering from northern end to south, are the equal descendants of Dangoon, the Great Patriarch. These tribal states mentioned in the Kings are Shira" (尸羅), "Koye" (高禮), "Ye" (濊), "Mek" (貊), "Buyo" (扶餘) and "Okju" (沃沮). Here, the position of Dangoon far surpasses, in height, that of King Dong-.Myunp. In Sam-Kuk-Sa-Ki (三國史記) (The History of Three-Kingdoms), not a word is mentioned about the racial patriarch. In Sam-Kuk-Yu.-Sa (三國遺事), another old history book, Dangoon is breifly mentioned but his dominion and successors are not intelligibly stated. It is very interesting to find that in the Kings, which was written only ten years later than Sam-Kuk-Yu-Sa, the myth of Dangoon is so surprisingly concrete. The formation of racial consciousness having its base on common Patriarch influenced greatly on the view of history to awaken the various tribes in constant conflict to the sense of homologue. History was no longer regarded by the dynastic unit. A new insight, after the Kings, was given to the view of history that a consistent flow of racial life, regardless of the rises and the falls of dynasties, formed the unending history of the Race. This new consciousness motivated the author of the Kings to begin at the remotest origin of the Race and trace all the way down through to his age, and have a long view towards the future of the race. Thus, the author viewed the complexity of the racial history, the extensiveness of its crosswise comprehension, the remoteness of its lengthwise survey, but he integrated them all in his Kings and reduced them all to Dangoon, the Racial Patriarch. . The Kings, this history poem, is indeed the greatest and the most valuable among all the works including Sam-Kuk-Sa-Ki and Sam-Kuk-Yu-Sa, that have ever been written by the hands of Korean prose writers. The 12th and 13th centuries represented by Yi, Kyu-Bo and Yi, Sung-Hyoo were the golden age of epic poetry in Korea. We regret, however, that this literary trend was not succeeded by their posterity. Epic poem died out with the death of those two poets, which results from the historical reality of Koryo Dynasty. Epic poetry is above all characteristic of collective consciousness rather than individual, for essentially it is a product of collective consciousness. The cosufferings and the co-resistance of the Korean race in the 12th and 13th centuries led the Race to the racial consciousness of common destiny-to the formation of a collective consciousness. Both heroic and history poems were based on this collective consciousness. Unless comes any split in this homologue, collective consciousness can be maintained. However, the historical reality of Koryo was different. The Mongolian invaders were the common enemy of the people of Koryo. Therefore the entire people rose and fought. But the ruling class of Koryo government forsook the people's volition to resist and shamelessly surrendered to the foreign aggressors. The government, even allied with the Mongolian army to destroy its own resisting army and people. By these means, the ruling class once more enjoyed the wealth and power under the grace of the Mongolian Empire; on the other hand, the detressed people suffered under the duplicated tax privations by both Koryo government and Mongolian colonial government. Here, the interests of the government and people were seriously conflicting. A total collapse came in the collective consciousness of the people as a race with common destiny. This tragic collapse, it meant the loss of the base on which was to grow the epic poetry. Thereafter, no epics were ever produced in the literature of Koryo, but its literature took two different flows: the one was Kyong-Ki-Che-Ka (景幾體歌), the literature of the ruling class; and the other, Chang-Ka (長歌) (meaning long ballad), which was the literature of the people. - The End -