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Red pepper have affected traditional cuisines through various ways since they were first introduced in Korea over 400 years. But we can easily determine that red pepper powder and red pepper paste were not used daily dishes until 1940 as we look into traditional cookbooks. Chinese pepper and black pepper were used for hot spices before red pepper was introduced in Korea. It is estimated that red pepper was introduced during the last of 1500s the Japanese invasion of Chosun dynasty, but it was first used to make Sunchang red pepper paste in 『Sumunsasul(수문사설)』(1740), and to make Kimchi in 『Jeungbo Sanlimkungje(증보 산림경제)』(1766), and it became a general spice for vegetables in the middle of the 1800s. Pepper is mostly used to make Kochujang(red pepper paste), Kimchi, Jutkal(salted fish) and Jangajil (salited veg.) etc as fermentable cuisines. The attribute of using pepper was developed for fermentable spices, and to give spicy flavor to cuisines. The types of peppers using traditional cuisines are various such as unripened pepper, red pepper, red pepper powder, red pepper paste, and pepper leaves. Traditional dishes with vegetables mostly use red peppers. Fish dishes(soup, stew. brasing, roasting, steaming) also use red peppers. Soup & stew with meat item partly use red pepper but steaming, roasting dishes with meat item not use pepper. roasted pork, pork ribs, steamed chicken of spicy meat cuisines in the 1930s did not use pepper. Kochujangbokkum(고추장볶음) is one of the oldest cuisines for using red pepper paste in the1800s. Sliced red peppers and red pepper powder are mostly used for garnishing of cuisines.
Natural substances, exploited in our daily life, have been applied to drugs to treat diseases and developed to functional foods by appropriate preparations, and these foods give beneficial effects on physical activities. In this paper, the utilization of traditional functional foods was studied with referring to old ancient writings published in the front-end of Chosun dynasty. The utilized vegetables were march mallow, turnip, radish, Chinese cabbage, lettuce, spinach, cucumber, winter buds, flesh of a gourd, eggplant, taro, burdock, parsley, watershield plant, crown daisy, bamboo shoots, garlic, scallion, onion, acorn, bark of a tree, white goosefoot leaf, leaf of bean, pine mushroom, bracken, yam, mugwort, tea, ginseng, peppermint, fruit of the Maximowiczia chinensis, smartweed and pepper. The utilized fruits were chestnut, Chinese date, pine nuts, walnut, gingko nut, citrus, crab apple, pear, peach, grape, pomegranate, plum, Chinese quince, fig and watermelon. The utilized cereal were rice, barley, bean, buckweat and Job's-tears. The utilized sweetenings and seasonings were honey, wheat-gluten, sugar, oil, salt, soy sauce and vinegar. Our ancestors had a balanced diet using the various foods, and especially had a fundamental concept of "Foods have the efficacy of a remedy".
It is estimated that sesame spread to Korea about B.C.1000 years and people cultivated sesame and ate sesame-oil age of three-nations. In the Koryo dynasty, sesame was cultivated as the major crop and there were specialists for making sesame oil. The sesame oil was enough for the both upper and lower classes. In the Chosun dynasty, it was introduced widely the method of sesame and deul-sesame (Perilla japonica) cultivation, the way of keeping sesame oil, and how to make sesame oil. Also, there were several ways of making sesame oil; press oil from raw sesame, or from roasting, boiling, and steaming sesame and etc. Even though sesame-oil and sesames were consumed in large quantities to cook Chan (찬 side dishes) and Byung-gwa (병과 Korean traditional dessert), most of common people could not use freely because it was expensive. You-mil-gwa (유밀과) took always a major dishes in the ceremony or party of the royal classes to the ordinary classes in the Chosun dynasty. Sesames and Sesame-oil made a major role in adding flavor to Chan-mul and Coookies in the Korean traditional cuisine. Especially, sesame-oil was consumed a lot to cook You-mil-gwa, You-kwa (유과), You-jeon-byung (유전병 fried rice cake) and Yak-bab (약밥). Roasted sesame and black sesame were used to cook Da-sik (다식), Gang-jung, and rice cake. Sesame oil and sesame was the major part of vegetable dishes such as Na-mul and it was used to add flavor to steamed, roasted and, pan-fried dishes and to roast, fry, and stew food. Heuk-im-ja-jook(black sesame porridge) and Im-ja-su-soup(임자수탕).
The review of side dishes, oereal dishes and seasonings of the banquet on the 24th year of King Kojong in Chosun Dynasty were summarized as follows: 1. Ten kinds of soups(=Tang), that is Yyolguja Tang$.$Guja Tang$.$Keumjung Tang$.$Whanja Tang$.$Jap Tang$.$Gol Tang$.$Seunggiwa Tang$.$Jeopo Tang$.$Haesam Tang$.$Yang Tang were served. The most frequently served soup among them was Yyolguja Tang. 2. Various kinds of dried meat/fish were piled up most highly among dishes. Sliced beef and minced beef among dried meats, white cud$.$yellow cud$.$flatfish$.$skate$.$shark$.$octopus$.$dried abalone$.$cuttle fish$.$dried scallop were piled up together. 3. Sliced of boiled beef/pork and gelatined knuckles were assorted. Boiled meat which was made of beef, pork, lamb, liver, stomach, brisket and plat flank of caw was chiefly used for boiled beef, hams for boiled pork, mediumsized lamb for boiled lamb. And the legs and stomach of caw, old chicken, mullet were used for gelatined knuckle. 4. Three kinds of pan-frying dishes that was stomach and liver of caw, and mullet were usually piled up, If one kind in one dish, sea cucumber and mullet were used respectively. 5. Boiled abalone was dried abalone with soaked, sliced and boiled down in soysauce. 6. Roasted dish was usually made of assorted food stuffs. Sometimes chicken an pheasant was used for roasted dish. 7. Steamed dish was like this : assorted beef, fresh abalone, sea cucumber, mullet, young pork, chicken, dried abalone. 8. Raw dish was made of intestine of caw, fresh abalone and mullet. 9. Poached egg was serving decorated with red pepper, pine-nut and green onion. 10. Seasoned green-been-jelly was served only one time. 11. Radish kimchi was served only one time. 12. Chief foods were nuddle and stuffed bun. 13. Served seasings were honey, mustard, soysauce with vinegar, salt. Review from banquet menu, 34 kinds of side dishes were served : 10 kinds of soup, dried fish/meat, boiled beef, boiled pork, gelatined knuckle, 5 kinds of panfrying, boiled-down-abalone in soysauce, 3 kinds of roast, 5 kinds of steamed, 3 kinds of raw dishes, pouched egg, green-bean-jelly, kimchi. 4 kinds of chief foods were served : nuddle, dry nuddle, 2 kinds of dumping.
"Sinsulro(신선로)" is the famous soup of Cho-sun Dynasty Royal Cuisine, and the original food name is "Yulgujatang(열구자탕)". The first record is on 「Sumunsasul」(1740) and the origin history related with Hirang-Jung is on 「Headongjukji」 and 「Chosunyorihak」. From the analysis with Royal banquet menu(進饌儀軌) and 16 kinds of old culinary literatures, "Sinsulro" are contained 54 and 70 material items and used variety cooking methods. Soup base of "Sinsulro" is well boiled meat, shank, brisket, stomach and intestine of beef with water. Some of beef is made meatball and seasoned raw meat. Beef marrow and tripes and liver are sauted with egg. Dried abalone and sea cucumber are soaked in water and then cutting slices after well boiled. Sliced white fish fillet are sauted with egg. Egg white and egg yolk made to thin sheet on pan with oil. Dropwort made to one sheet with flour and egg. Radish are boiled with meat soup and other vegetable are cooked with boiled or sauted. Seeds of pinenut, gingko, walnut are used of decorative seasonings. Filling methods of the Sinsulro casserole, the first layer is seasoning raw beef meat, 2nd layer is cooked slice of meat and radish, 3rd layer is rectangle pieces of egg sheet and sauted fish and intestines of beef. The top layer is decorated with meatball and naked nuts. After hot soup is poured until top of the materials, buning charcoal put into the center fire place and then served.
Yangroyun(養老宴), the ceremony for elderly people, originated with the ancient chinese, but the ceremony was held as almsgiving in the early period of Three Kingdom - Shilla·Goguryo·Backje. During the period, a king participated in the ceremony and gave elderly people grain and cloth. Also, in the unified Shilla dynasty, as it were. According to establish the aristocracy in the Three Kingdom period, Yangroyun became the royal ceremony. In Goryo dynasty, Yangroyen was developed as a ceremony for awarding a person with filial piety prizes. In Chosen dynasty, Yangroyun was performed in the rigid regulation. It was begun from the king Sejong, According to『Kyungkukdaejeon(經國大典)』, Yanroyun was held in September of the lunar year for over eighty years old, and queen held a banquet for the wives of the elderly. According to 『Chosunwangjosilrok(朝鮮王朝實錄)』, 『Gisaji(耆社志)』, and 『Jungbomunhunbigo(增補文獻備考)』, Yangroyun held totally eighty times in Chosun dynasty, however, in the late Chosun dynasty, Yangroyun was held few times.