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This study was to provide basic data for aquatic ecosystem research using fishes. Field sampling was carried out at five selected sites of Gap Stream, and fish samples, especially for a selection of sentinel species were collected three times in June, September, and October 2007. We analyzed total length distribution of Zacco platypus in relation with the season and the sampling sites, and then compared with total body weight, condition factor (K), and age distribution of the fish. The fish population data were compared with physico-chemical water quality, obtained from the Ministry of Environment, Korea. Water quality analysis showed a significant nutrient enrichment, based on total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP), and organic matter pollution, based on biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the Site 5, which is directly influenced by wastewater disposal plant (WDP). Population analysis of the sentinel species showed that the total number of individuals, age distribution, and the population size-structure were influenced by the effluents from the WDP, and that reproductive failure of young-age population were evident in Site 5. According to the relation analysis of total weight to K, the disturbed population was mainly attributed to combined effects of habitat modifications and chemical degradations. Regression analysis of K values against water quality parameters showed significant (p<0.05) positive relations with nutrient and organic matter contents. Our data suggest that the population structure using a sentinel fish species reflected the ambient water quality in the stream and that diagnosis of aquatic ecosystem health using Z. platypus population may be practical for water resource and ecosystem conservations.
Coronary artery calcification(CAC) is found frequently in the atheromatous plaques. CAC is known to have increased frequency above 40 years. CAC without evidence of atherosclerosis in young adults is quite rare, however, CAC combined with aneurysms in young adults have been infrequently reported in patients with a past history of a Kawasaki disease in child. We report an autopsy case showing CAC and aneurysm in the absence of macroscopically identified atherosclerotic lesions in a healthy 23-year-old man. The autopsy examination revealed aneurysmal dilatation of the right coronary artery, which was connected with calcified lesion. A calcified lesion of the left anterior descending coronary artery was aslo noted. Microscopically, aneurysmal wall was non-specific except for hyalinized wall and foci of calcification. A striking histologic finding of calcified mass was ring calcification along the wall of the coronary artery. Antecedent Kawasaki disease in the past was suggestive as other reports.
Laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) is helpful if not an evidence of suspicious malignancy in huge adnexa tumors. This approach might be reasonable alternative to conventional laparoscopic surgery. We report two cases with LESS for huge cystic adnexal tumors in whole abdomen. A 58 years old multigravida woman in menopause underwent removal of a huge cystic adnexal mass that occupied her entire abdomen by LESS.(ca.5200ml aspiration) A 15 years old single nulligravida woman had a huge cystic adnexal tumor in whole abdomen reaching to the level of the xyphoid process. A needle through the transumbilical single port was inserted directly under the mass. Subsequently, 8000 ml of cystic fluid was aspirated without spillage.
As medical technology progresses rapidly, there is a rise in the average age along with the Korean dietary lifestyle becoming more westernized, which leads to an increase in the number of vascular disease patients in Korea. Thus, we need to manage the medical information of a disease systematically in order to diagnose and treat constructively. However, since there has been no standardized method of man agement to date, a great deal of information could not be properly utilized nor studied. Therefore, the departments of Cardiology, Radiology and Neurology of Samsung Seoul Hospital recently got together to develop an information management system called the Vascular Data System. This program was developed to be run on win98 O/S, upper Pentium Ⅲ, and upper 128 MB Memory, and its source code is Dephi 4.0. It was configured for the user to set the configurations as well as do a variety of search and analysis. If this program were to be updated continuously, it may be used extensively as well as in various parts of clinical research activities.
5-Bromo-methypent-2-ene(??)를 출발물질로하여 farnesol인(2E, 6E)-3, 7, 11-trimethyldodeca-2, 6, 10-trien-1-ol(??)의 입체선택적 합성을 수행하였다. 5-Bomo-2-methylpent-2-ene (??)을 요오드화 시킨후, 5-lithio-2, 3-dihydrofuran과 반응시켜 5-(4-methyl-pent-3-enyl)-2, 3-dihydrofuran(??)을 얻었다. Dihydrofuran ??를 MeMgI와 Ni(0)-촉매 짝지음 반응시켜 (3E)-4, 8-dimethylnona-3, 7-dien-1-ol(??)을 72%의 수율로 얻었다. 알릴알코올 ??를 4단계를 거쳐 (5E)-6, 10-dimethylundeca-5, 9-dien-2-One(??)으로 변환시켰다. 화합물 ??을 벤젠 용매하에서 dimethylmethoxycarbonylmethylphosphonate와 반응시킨 다음, 에탄올 용매하에서 NaBH₄ 환원시켜서 (2E, 6E)-3, 7, 11-trimethyldodeca-2, 6, 10- trien- 1- ol(??)을 얻었다. Dihydrofuran 4와 MeMgI와의 Ni(0)-촉매 짝지음반웅이 본 연구의 farnsol(??)와 합성에서 중요 단계이다. Stereoselective synthesis of farnesol (2E, 6E) -3, 7, 11-trimethyldodeca-2, 6, 10-tiren-1-o1 (?) , was carried out using 5- bromo-2-methylpent-2-ene (??) as a starting material. After conversion of 5-bromo-2-methyl-pent-2-ene (2) to the corresponding iodide compound, 5-(4-methylpent-3-enyl)-2, 3-dihydrofuran(??) was obtained by alkylation of 5-lithio-2, 3-dihydrofuran with 5-iodo-2-methylpent-2-ene. Ni(0)-catalyzed coupling reaction of the dihydrofuran ?? with MeMgI was proceeded to give (3E)-4, 8-dimethylnona-3, 7-dien-1-ol(??) in 72% yield. The resultant homoallylic alcohol ?? was converted to the (5E)-6, 10-dimethylundeca-5, 9-dien-2-one (??) in 4 steps. Compound 8 was condensed with dimethylmethoxycarbnylmethylphosponate in benzene followed by NaBH₄reduction in EtOH to yield (2E, 6E)-3, 7, 11 -trimethyldodeca-2, 6, 10-trien-1-ol(??), Ni(0)-catalyzed coupling reaction of MeMgI with dihydrofuran ?? was a key step in this synthesis of farnesol(??).
Optic neuritis presents differently in children than in adults. Children typically have bilateral involvement with papillitis following an antecedent viral illness. The development of multiple sclerosis is less common in children. The diagnosis of optic neuritis is usually made on a clinical manifestations. The major symptoms of optic neuritis include one or more of the following: 1) sudden blurred, "foggy" vision and sudden loss of vision, 2) pain with eye movement in the affected eye, 3) sudden color blindness, and etc. This condition progresses over a few days to two weeks. A 12-year-old girl presented with a history of sudden visual loss and color blindness. Treatment with high doses of steroid resulted in visual function returning to normal.
연구목적 : 본 연구의 목적은 광주광역시의 도시 및 농촌 지역에 거주하는 노인에서 치매의 유병률과 위험인자를 조사하고자 하였다. 부가적으로 이 두 지역간에 치매의 유병률과 위험인자를 비교하고자 하였다. 방 법 : 광주광역시의 전형적인 도시와 농촌지역의 65세 이상의 노인(N=1,598)을 대상으로, 2단계의 역학연구를 수행하였다. 1차 선별 단계에서는 38명의 훈련된 연구보조원이 대상노인을 면담하여, 사회인구학적 특징을 조사하고 한국판 간이정신상태검사(Korean version of Mini-Mental State Examination ; MMSE-K)로 평가하였다. 2차 임상 진단 단계에서는 1차 단계에서 MMSE-K 점수가 24점 이하인 노인(N=431)을 대상으로, 전문연구팀의 임상적 평가를 통해 치매를 진단하고 원인질환별로 알쯔하이머병(Alzheimer's disease ; AD), 혈관성 치매(vascular dementia ; VaD) 및 기타 치매로 분류하였다. 대상노인에서 치매의 유병률을 측정한 후, 광주광역시 전체 노인의 연령보정 유병률을 산출하였다. 전체 대상에서 AD의 위험인자를 조사한 후, 도시와 농촌군으로 나누어 분석을 다시 시행하였다. 결 과 : 1차 및 2차 단계의 참가율은 각각 71.0%(N=1,134) 및 83.2%(N=410) 였다. 연구 참여 노인(N=1,134)에서 전체 치매, AD 및 VaD의 유병률은 최소 각각 9.7%, 5.2%, 1.8%였다. 광주광역시 전체 노인의 연령 보정 유병률은 각각 10.7%, 5.7%, 1.9%인 것으로 산출되었다. AD의 독립 위험인자는 고령, 여성, 무학이었다. 도시와 농촌에 따른 유병률의 차이는 파악되지 않았다. 그러나 AD의 위험인자는 지역에 따라 차이가 있었다. 도시 노인에게는 무학만이, 농촌 노인에게는 고령과 여성인 경우가 독립 위험인자였다. 결 론 : 광주광역시 노인에서 치매의 유병률은 높았고, 이는 국내 다른 지역에서 수행된 선행연구 결과와 유사하였다. 알쯔하이머형 치매의 위험인자는 도시와 농촌에 따라 다른 결과를 보였다. 본 연구 결과는 한국에서의 치매의 실태를 반영하며, 치매의 적절한 관리와 예방을 위해서는 지역성 특성이 고려되어야 함을 시사한다. Objectives : The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence rate and risk factors of dementia in an urban and a rural sample of older persons in the metropolitan Kwangju area, Republic of Korea. In addition, the prevalence rate and risk factors of dementia between the two samples were compared. Methods : A two-phase epidemiological study of residents aged 65 or over(N=1,598) was conducted in a highly developed, urban and a non-contiguous, poorly developed, rural area of metropolitan Kwangju. In the first(screening) phase, 38 trained research assistants collectively peformed in-home interviews for all participants. Detailed sociodemographic characteristics were gathered and the Korean version of Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE-K) was administered. In the second (diagnosing) phase, diagnosis of dementia was established for those scoring 24 or less on the MMSE-K in the screening phase(N=431), and etiological types of dementia were classified to Alzheimer's disease(AD), vascular dementia(VaD) or miscellanous type by two teams of experts. Prevalence rate of dementia was determined in the participants, and age-standardized prevalence rate adjusted by age distribution in metropolitan Kwangju was estimated. For AD, the risk factors were investigated in all participants, and analyses were repeated for the urban and rural samples separately. Results : The participating rates in the first and second phases were 71.0%(N=1,134) and 83.2%(N=410), respectively. In the participants, the prevalence rates of dementia(all types), AD and VaD were 9.7%, 5.2% and 1.8%, respectively. The age-standardized prevalence rates were 10.7%, 5.7% and 1.9%, respectively. Aging, female gender and no education(complete lack of formal education) were identified as independent risk factors for AD. No difference between the urban and rural samples was observed in the prevalence rates of dementia(all types), AD and YaD. However, risk factors for AD differed between these areas. In the urban sample, no education was the only significant factor ; whereas, aging and female gender were identified as risk factors in the rural sample. Conclusion : A high prevalence rate of dementia was observed among old persons in metropolitan Kwangju, consistent with previous studies conducted in other Korean areas. The risk factor profi1es for AD differed between urban and rural settings. The results of this study reflect the current status of dementia in Korea and suggests that appropriate management and prevention strategies for dementia should be tailored toward the geographic settings.
The waxy rice flours were prepared from Sinsunchalbyeo and Hwasunchalbyeo using dry-pin and wet-roller mill, and the properties were investigated. Proximate composition and physicochemical properties of waxy rice flours were similar between two varities, but were different between milling methods. Water binding capacities, soluble carbohydrates and damage starch contents of waxy rice flours were similar between two varities, but were higher in waxy rice flour using wet-roller milling method than using dry-pin milling method. The crystallinities by X-ray diffractorgrams were all A-type. By Scanning Electron Microscope, waxy rice flours were shown large granule surrounded with film like material and the granules were attached with starch granules. The film like material was more tightly bound with granules in flours by dry-pin milling method. Peak viscosity of wet-roller milled flours by Rapid Visco Analyzer(RVA) was higher than that of dry-pin milled ones, but initial gelatinization temperatures were lower in flours by wet-roller milling method.
As a preliminary step to develop noble immunomodulatory lectins from Korean basidiomycetes, 32 species of wild mushrooms were collected and their lectin activities were screened using hemagglutination assay. As a result, cold-water extract of 21 species including Thelephora terrestris showed agglutination activities From T. terrestrisa, partially purified lectin fractions, cTTL_(50) and cTTL_(100), were prepared by extraction with cold phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.2), precipitation with ammonium sulfate and then dialysis Of these. cTTL_(100) was found to be a strong immunomodulating lectin in that it aggluinated BALB/c erythrocytes and sarcoma 180 tumor cells at the concentration of ≥1.95 ㎍/㎖ and ≥39 ㎍/㎖, respectively, and stimulated the peritoneal macrophages to spread at 200 ㎍/㎖.
Even thoght the nonketotic hyperglycemia is a metabolic disorder, it complicates hemichorea-hemiballism rarely. Moreover, generalized chorea-ballism associated with nonketotic hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus is very rare, so has not been reported in Korean literature. Although the precise pathophysiologic mechanisms of these disorders are still poorly understood, deficiency of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) in nonketotic hyperglycemia or reduced GABAnergic inhibition by striatal lesion may increase inhibitory output to subthalamic nucleus. These result loss of pallidal inhibition and produce contralateral hemichorea-hemiballism. The striatal lesions, such as transient ischemia with reactive astrocytosis or small amount of petechial hemorrhage, are related with changes of magnetic resonance image (MRI) findings presumably. We report a diabetic old woman who developed generalized chorea-ballismus as a very rare complication of nonketotic hyperglycemia. Her brain MRI showed high signal intensity in left lentiform nucleus and right pallidum on T1 weighted images and low signal intensity in bilateral putamen on T2 weighted images with highly enhanced corresponding lesions on T1 weighted enhancement images.