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We have examined the purgative effect of three Jechun-jun formulas in sprague dawley(SD) rat. Three jechun-jun formulas were Jechun-jun(Sample I ) and augmented Jechun-jun(Sample II) and augmented Jechun-jun add rhubarb(sample III ). We examined the amount and the humidity of feces in rat. The experimental animals were devided into four groups. as control group and three Jechun-jun (sample I, II, III). We administerd the water extract of sample I, II, III to rat per oral for 8days long. After every 24hours measured the amount of wet feces from rats in metabolic cage. Humidity rate of feces from rat was at first measure wet feces for 24hours (W) and measure dried feces (W1) and then we consider W-W1 as humidity. High humidity rate means constipation changes into moistening stool. The amount of wet feces and humidity rate of feces in rats were increased in sample I, II, III. Sample I has highest humidity rate of feces. so showed strong moistening effect. Sample II has mild effect in treating constipation. sample III has most amount of wet feces. in conclusion Jechun-jun has an effect of moistening stool. and augmented Jechun-jun add rhubarb has strong purgative effect.
This study investigated the effect of Yanggyuksanhwa-tang on cerebral ischemia of the rats. Considering age-related impact on cerebral ischemia, aged rats (18 months old) were used for this study. Ischemic damage was induced by the transient occlusion of bilateral common carotid arteries(BCAO) under the hypotension. Yanggyuksanhwa-tang was administered twice orally. Then changes of immunohistochemical expression of c-fos and c-jun in ischemic damaged hippocampus were observed. The BCAO in aged rats led significant increase of c-fos expression in CA1 and DG of hippocampus. While the treatment of Yanggyuksanhwa-tang significantly attenuated the increase of c-fos expression in CA1 hippocampus following BCAO ischemia. Depending on changes of the normalized optical density(NOD) of immunohistochemical c-fos expression, the treatment of Yanggyuksanhwa-tang significantly attenuated the increase of NOD in CA1 and DG of hippocampus. And there was not changes in CA2 and CA3 hippocampus with respect to the control BCAO group. The BCAO in aged rats led significant increase of c-jun expression in CA1 hippocampus. While the treatment of Yanggyuksanhwa-tang significantly attenuated the increase of c-jun expression in CA1 hippocampus following BCAO ischemia. Depending on changes of the NOD of immunohistochemical c-jun expression, the treatment of Yanggyuksanhwa-tang significantly attenuated the increase of NOD in CA1 hippocampus. And there was not changes in CA2, CA3 and DG of hippocampus with respect to the control BCAO group.
( Seung Jun Jang ), ( Young Kul Jung ), ( Hae Lim Baek ), ( Hyun Hwa Yoon ), ( Seung Kak Shin ), ( Oh Sang Kwon ), ( Yun Soo Kim ), ( Duck Joo Choi ), ( Ju Hyun Kim ) 대한간학회 2013 춘·추계 학술대회 (KASL) Vol.2013 No.1
Background: Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), one of the most important pro-inflammatory cytokines, plays a key role in the immune or inflammatory responses to infectious disease. TNF-α inhibitors have been increasingly in the treatment of several rheumatic diseases or inflammatory bowel diseases. Treatment with TNF-α inhibitors in patients with concurrent HBV or HCV infection can promote viral reactivation and potentially fatal liver failure. The aim of our study is to evaluate the predictive factors of HBV reactivation after TNF-α treatment. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed medical records of the patients who were treated with TNF-α inhibitors(infliximab, etenercept, adalimumab) at Gachon University Gil Medical Center. From January 2010 to April 2013, one hundred seventy- six patients were treated with TNF-α inhibitors and followed up. We determined status of HBsAg, HBcAb, HBVDNA, anti-HCV, ALT. Results: A total of 114 of 176(64.8%) in the study population was tested status for HBsAg at baseline. 6 patients (6/114,5.2%) were HBsAg positive and 109 patients (109/114,94.8%) were negative. Only 10 patient of the HBsAg negative patients (10/109,9.2%) were checked HBcAb. 91 patients were check anti-HCV and 2 patients (2/91,2.2%) were positive. After TNF-α inhibitor treatment, total 3 patients were confirmed reactivation of HBV. All of them was HBsAg positive patients and one of them was treated with entecarvir. Conclusions: Reactivation of HBV after TNF-α inhibitor treatment was observed in HBsAg positive patients. For prevent of reactivation of HBV, screening of HBV infection status and close follow-up is needed. Especially, in HBsAg positive patients should be treated anti viral agent before TNF-α inhibitor inhibitor treatment.
Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most commonly encountered clinical arrhythmia. However, The impact of AF in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) on future major cardiac adverse events is uncertain in Korean population. Methods: Between November 2005 and November 2007, 12,928 patients were registered in the Korean Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (KAMIR). Patients were divided into 2 groups according to presence of AF: Group I (who had not AF, n=12,350) and Group II (who had AF, n=578). In-hospital mortality, mortality in 1 year, and overall mortality were compared between groups. Also, we examined independent predictors for mortality in AF groups. Results: The incidence of AF in AMI was 4.7%. AF group was significantly older (Group I: 62.5±12.7, Group II: 68.5±11.6, p<0.001) and more likely to have lower systolic blood pressure (Group I: 130.0±30.2, Group II: 122.1±31.7, p<0.001) and lower ejection fraction (Group I: 51.7±12.6, Group II: 48.7±13.1, p<0.001). There was no significant statistical differences in the prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and angiographic findings (p>0.05). There was significant difference in failure rate in percutaneous coronary intervention (1.6% vs. 3.8%, p=0.004), In-hospital mortality (4.2% vs 10.8%, p<0.001), mortality in 12 months (4.8% vs 9.7%, p=0.002), and overall mortality (12.1% vs. 27.8%, p<0.001). However, AF was not a independent predictors in overall mortality. In multivaritate analysis, age (OR 1.094, CI: 1.047~1.142, p<0.001), blood pressure (OR 0.979, CI: 0.964~0.994), left ventricular ejection fraction (OR 0.931, CI: 0.900~0.965, p<0.001), percutaneous coronary intervention (OR 2.409, CI: 1.036~5.60, p=0.041) were independent predictors for overall mortality in AF with AMI patients. Conclusion: Although has poor prognosis, AF in AMI is not a independent predictor for mortality. Age, blood pressure, left ventricular ejection fraction, percutaneous coronary intervention are independant predictors in AF with AMI patients.
In most previous investigations of plasmonic and metamaterial applications, the metallic film has been regarded as a perfect electrical conductor. Here we demonstrate the resonance characteristics of THz metamaterials fabricated from metal film that has a finite dielectric constant, using finite-difference time-domain simulations. We found strong redshift and spectral broadening of the resonance as we decrease the metal's plasma frequency in the Drude free-electron model. The frequency shift can be attributed to the effective thinning of the metal film, originating from the increase in penetration depth as the plasma frequency decreases. On the contrary, only peak broadening occurs with an increase in the scattering rate. The metal-thickness dependence confirms that the redshift and spectral broadening occur when the effective metal thickness drops below the skin-depth limit. The electromagnetic field distribution illustrates the reduced field enhancement and reduced funneling effects near the gap area in the case of low plasma frequency, which is associated with reduced charge density in the metal film.
Anodizing is a technology to generate thicker and high-quality films than natural oxide films by treating metals via electrochemical methods. Electrochemical manufacturing method of nano structure is an efficient technology in terms of cost reduction, high productivity and complicated shapes, which receives the spotlight in diverse areas. Especially, artificial films generated by anodizing technology possess excellent mechanical characteristics including hardness and wear resistance. It is also easy to modify thickness and adjust shape of those artificial films so that they are mainly used in sensors, filters, optical films and electrolytic condensers. In this study, experiment was performed to observe the effect of current density on porous film formation in two-step anodizing for Al alloy. Anodizing process was performed with 10 vol.% sulfuric acid electrolyte while the temperature was maintained at 10℃ using a double beaker. and 10 ~ 30 mA/㎠ was applied for 40 minutes using a galvanostatic method. As a result, both pore diameters and distances between pores tended to increase as the local temperature and electrolysis activity increased due to the increase in applied current density.