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Obesity is a risk factor for various diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, renal disease, hypertension, cancer, and neural disease. Adipose tissue in animals is important for the mobilization of lipids, milk production, deposition of fat in different depots, and muscle and meat production. Understanding the genetic and physiological causes of metabolic disease is a priority in biomedical genome research. In this study, we examined several variables in mice fed a high-fat diet, including serum composition, body weight, total calorie intake, and differentially expressed genes. Body weight and blood glucose levels were not significantly different between animals fed high-fat and normal diets. However, high-fat diet groups showed reduced calorie and food intakes. Levels of sodium, ionized calcium, glucose, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pH, PCO2, PO2, TCO2 +, HCO3 +, base excess, and SO2 in the blood were not significantly different between mice fed high-fat and normal diets. Serum potassium concentration, however, was lower in mice a high-fat diet. Differentially expressed genes were also compared between the two groups. The purpose of this study was to discover new genes as a result of annealing control primer (ACP) PCR using 20 random primers. Five down regulated genes were identified and three of others were upregulated by high-fat diet. Known genes were excluded from this result. In addition, the relationships among candidate genes and high-fat diet should be investigated according to potassium concentration in the blood. In conclusion, mice fed normal and high-fat diets showed no significant difference in body weight, whereas high-fat diet led to changes in blood composition and differential expression of several genes. These findings may provide a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the association between obesity and metabolic diseases.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the lesions of a mouse collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA) model using fluorescence bioimaging and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and to compare it with histopathological examination. Twelve mice were randomly divided into three groups: group 1 (G1) as control, group 2 (G2) as fluorescence probe control and group 3 (G3) as collagen antibodyinduced arthritis. The mice of G3 intravenously received anti-type II collagen 5-clone antibody cocktail (2 mg/mouse) on day 0 and intraperitoneally received lipopolysaccharide (50 μg/mouse) on day 3. On the while, the mice of G1 and G2 received 0.9% saline in equal volumes at equivalent times. Fluorescence bioimaging and micro-CT analysis were carried out to assess arthritis. Treatment with the collagen antibody cocktail increased the paw thickness of mice compared to those in both the control and probe-treated groups. Fluorescence bioimaging using a near infrared imaging agent showed high intensity in the joints of collagen antibody-treated mice, whereas those of control mice showed no signal. Micro-CT analysis of the knee joints of collagen antibody-treated mice showed rough and irregular articular appearance, whereas those of control mice showed normal appearance. Histopathological examination of the knee joints of collagen antibody-treated mice revealed destruction of cartilage and bony structure, synovial hyperplasia and infiltration of inflammatory cells. No cartilage destruction or inflammation was observed in control or probe control mice. Taken together, it is concluded that analyses of fluorescent bioimaging made it possible to evaluate CAIA lesions, comparable with those by micro-CT and histopathological examination in mice.
Adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder is a common cause of pain that occurs during shoulder movement, thereby restricting shoulder rotation in clinical practice. Although most patients respond to pain relief treatment (NSAID or corticosteroids) by improving their range of motion, it remains poorly understood without any definitive treatment algorithm. In addition to immune cells, synoviocytes, chondrocytes and osteoblasts in the joint are known to produce pro-inflammatory mediators such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), inflammatory cytokines and lipid mediators, presumably contributing to the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA) and adhesive capsulitis. Although inflammation and also fibrosis are proposed to be the basic pathological changes of a frozen shoulder, there is a lack of information regarding the downstream targets of the pro-inflammatory ROS signaling pathway in the synoviocytes and also how these ROS targets are modulated at the transcription level by a corticosteroid - dexamethasone. In this study, we used human fibroblast like synoviocytes (HFLS) to characterize the signaling targets of ROS by employing a human DNA microarray tool and studied the role of dexamethasone in this process. Our data suggest that several genes such as FOS, FOSB and NFkBIZ, which are known to be involved in pro- or anti- inflammation response, are modulated at the transcription level by ROS and dexamethasone.
A 40-year-old man was admitted with dry cough of two months’ duration. Radiologic examination revealed an endobronchial mass obstructing right middle lobar bronchus and poststenotic pneumonia. We performed a right middle lobectomy because of suspected malignancy and difficulty for bronchoscopic resection, despite of failure in bronchoscopic diagnosis. The histopathological diagnosis was a lipomatous hamartoma which was exophytic and endobronchial. We report a rare surgical case of endobronchial lipomatous hamartoma which had occlusive and exophytic growth across the bronchial wall.
Uncovering enzyme (UCE), encoded by the human NAGPA, is a trans-Golgi enzyme that adds the mannose-6-phosphate recognition tag on lysosomal enzymes destined for the lysosome. Mutations in NAGPA are known to cause stuttering, a common speech disorder with unknown etiology. The human NAGPA gene is transcribed into two different forms, probably due to alternative splicing. One of them, known as a brain isoform, is lacking exon 8 (102-bp). We performed quantitative real-time PCR for the NAGPA brain and non-brain isoforms in a cDNA panel originating from 16 human tissues and 24 sub-brain regions. According to our findings, the relative quantity of the NAGPA brain isoform in the brain was 4.7 times more than that in the control cDNA, a pooled mixture of equal amounts of cDNAs from the 16 different tissues. Further analysis using the cDNA panel originating from 24 different sub-brain regions revealed that the cerebral cortex contained the largest amount of NAGPA brain isoform. Relative quantity in the cerebral cortex was 8.6 times more than that in the control cDNA (P=0.00004). The lowest quantity of this isoform was detected in cDNA from the pituitary gland. In conclusion, findings of the current study suggest that the cerebral cortex, expressing the highest quantity of the NAGPA brain isoform, might be the region associated with speech function.
This study was performed to investigate the preventing effects to liver injury of Acer tegmentosum Maxim. extract (ATE). After oral administration ATE to SD rats, liver injuries were induced by CCl4, galactosamine or ethionine treatments. The aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), triglyceride and cholesterols in blood were used as indicators of liver damage. When acute hepatitis was induced by CCl4 or galactosamine, ATE-fed rats showed low level of AST and ALT in plasma than the ATE-unfed rats. In case of ethionine-induced fatty liver, the triglyceride in plasma were shown to reduced level in ATE-fed rats than ATE-unfed rats. These results indicate that Acer tegmentosum Maxim. extract protected hepatic failure.
With emphasis on native genetic resource, Korean native chicken is one of the major native breeds in poultry in Korea. The weight-age data from 216 pullets of Korean native chicken were used to fit the growth curve using Gompertz model. Live weights have been recorded every three weeks for 36 weeks for 5 strains. All available weight data from birth to the 6 specific ages of week were used for the estimation of parameters. The variation in estimates of mature weight (A) decreased with the increase of age 21 through 36 weeks for all 5 strains studied. However, the variation of rate of maturing (k) showed a tendancy increase with the increase of age. These results indicate that the fitting of growth curve is getting more stable for asymptotic value (A) and more flexible for curve shape (k) with the increase of weight-age data range. Correlations among estimates of A and among estimates of k at various ages showed the highest range of 0.93 ~ 0.99 between 30 and 36 weeks except for the maturing rate (k) of red brown strains. The correlations between A and k tended to fluctuate and were not significant statistically at various ages. Thus, the estimates of growth curve parameters, A and k suitable for genetic studies in Korean native chicken can be derived from accumulated weight-age data after 30 weeks of age.