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武人政變으로 명종이 즉위하면서 내시 구성에도 큰 변화가 생겼다. 어느 때보다도 새로운 인물이 대거 내시로 등용되었기 때문이다. 하지만 왕과 교분이 두터운 側近 출신은 많지 않았으며, 무반으로 내시가 된 예도 거의 없었다. 대신 親武臣的인 성향의 文臣이 다수 내시로 선임되었다. 이런 가운데 명종 3년 일부 문반 출신의 내시가 反武臣亂인 金甫當의 亂에 가담한 사건이 발생했다. 이에 집권 무신은 이들을 대신해 문반 관직을 겸임한 무신을 내시로 등용하는 방안을 적극 모색하였다. 李義方의 아우인 李隣이 그 시초였다. 그러는 한편 학문이 뛰어난 문신의 등용도 계속하였다. 직무수행의 효율성을 위해서는 어쩔 수 없었다. 그 결과 내시의 수는 한때 정원을 초과할 정도로 크게 늘어났다. 그리고 이 무렵 왕은 통치력을 거의 상실했다. 兵權은 물론 人事權과 刑罰權도 제대로 행사하지 못했다. 심지어 왕을 近侍하는 내시의 임면조차 집권 무신의 뜻에 따라 행해지는 경우가 허다했다. 이에 따라 왕보다 權臣에게 충성하는 내시가 훨씬 많아졌다. 이런 현상은 慶大升執權期까지 계속되었다. 그러다 명종 14년 李義旼의 집권을 계기로 상황이 달라지기 시작하였다. 財政權과 人事權을 중심으로 왕의 통치력이 상당 수준 회복된 것이다.내시를 비롯한 측근과 宗親?小君, 그리고 일부 朝官의 지지와 도움이 컸다. 이에 따라 내시의 구성과 성격에도 변화가 일어났다. 親王的 內侍의 수가 크게 늘어났고, 내시 구성도 그간의 親武臣 위주의 틀에서 벗어나 양자가 균형을 이루었다. 명종 말에 崔忠獻이 무더기로 내시를 축출하고 국왕마저 폐위한 것은 바로 이런 이유에서였다. 내시를 비롯한 측근세력의 도움으로 명종의 통치력이 상당히 회복되었던 만큼 권력기반을 확고히 하기 위해서는 이의민뿐 아니라 이들 모두를 제거하지 않을 수 없었던 것이다. 이런 면에서 최충헌의 집권은 단순한 무인집정자의 교체가 아니라 복고되어 가던 왕정체제를 재차 붕괴시킨 또 하나의 武人政變이었다고 할 수 있다. The organization of Nasi changed a lot after king Myoung-jong came to the throne with military revolution. A lot of new officials were picked for Nasis than before. However, there were not lots of surroundings of the king, and it was rare for military officials to be Nasis. Meanwhile, civil officials who kept friendly relationship with military ones were nominated to Nasis. In the 3rd year of Myoung-jong, some Nasis from civil officials took part in Kim Bo-dang"s(金甫當) rebellion which was against military revolution. So military rulers actively drew up a plan of nominating military officials who could play a role of civil officials at the same time, instead of taking Nasis from civil officials. Lee Ryn(李隣), Lee E?i-bang"s(李義方) brother, was the first man whose brother was the most powerful ruler. On the other hand, the government continued to appoint competent civil officials to Nasis for a high degree of efficiency. As a result, the number of Nasis increased a lot enough to exceed the fixed number of people. By this time, king almost lost his ruling power; He couldn"t control properly the authority of human, and the power of punishment and amnesty as well as his military power. As well, he could not help following the military rulers" decision even when it comes to the matter of appointing Nasis who had to support him. So it happened that many Nasis were loyal to military rulers who had strong power, not to the king. It continued to the period of Gyoung Dae-seung"s(慶大升) military rule. Therefore, in the 14th year of Myoung-jong, the political situation began to change with Lee E?i-min"s(李義旼) military rule. King"s power was recoverd around finance and personnel administration significantly. The king"s surroundings including Nasis, Royal families, sons of King"s concubine, and some civil officials made it possible. And it caused to change the organization and political character of Nasis. The number of Nasis who kept friendly relationship with the king increased a lot. And the organization of Nasis started to keep new balance breaking the frame that was composed of members who were co-operative to military rulers. For this reason, Choi Chung-hyeon(崔忠獻) expelled a lot of Nasis who were close to the king and took the crown from the king. He had to remove not only the military ruler, Lee E?i-min, but also king Myoung-jong and the king"s helpers to confirm the basis of political power, because king Myoung-jong had already recovered his ruling power a lot with the help of Nasis. From this point of view, we can say Choi Chung-hyeon"s rule the second military revolution that collapsed again the restoration of the royal regime, not simple military ruler"s exchange.
This research is purposed to observe the character of ideology and the symbolic meaning of space in Kwang Jang. In addition, it presents how a writer recognized the reality of divided country and signified such facts with focusing on the writer’s reaction. Yi, Myoung-jun, the protagonist of Kwang Jang got furious and disillusioned at the dark side of ideology through experiencing three cases: ‘violence case at S police station’,‘self-accusation at Labor Herald’and‘a conflict with released hostage in the process of a neutral power’. In this novel,‘S police station’is judged as ritual place to resurrection and ‘a cave’is symbolized for the space of union and birth. It means that the writer switched external social despairs to internal love affairs. Yi, Myoung-jun, lived as a watcher between reality and ideal, finally did not overcome the conflict world and fell into the situation because of the rules of reality. His ideal dream revealed just a day-dream that cannot come true in reality. Eventually, he realized a neutral power, which he believed in a slim chance of new life, was merely‘an island in fantasy’, and then this seemed to be a natural conclusion of an ideologist. The writer, Choi, In-hun’s descriptive recognition basically leans on individual sense of western modern. He presents external society to come true and internal love to keep relation ship through a character. Furthermore, the writer symbolizes these two worlds for open square and closed room, and also hope for reconcile both. In order to do this, he has a descriptive strategy to show a conflict such as different ideology and hypocrisy power through figuring out a problematic individual.
Restoration of neutral mechanical alignment of the lower limb is an important factor in the treatment of unicompartmental arthrosis. Traditionally, medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy has been widely performed to correct varus malalignment with unicompartmental arthrosis. However, an ideal indication for the high tibial osteotomy is the knee with metaphyseal tibial varus malalignment. The basic principle of corrective osteotomy is performing an osteotomy at the center of the deformity to prevent abnormal joint line obliquity. If pathologic distal femoral varus deformity is the cause of genu varum, the osteotomy should be performed in the distal femur. Reports of medial opening wedge distal femoral osteotomy (DFO) to correct varus malalignment are rare. We present a case of this very rare and challenging condition in a 47yearold male, which was successfully treated by medial opening wedge DFO.
각종 화재원인 중에서 차단기 및 터미널 등의 배선기구의 접촉불량으로 인한 전기화재가 증가하고 있는 추세이다. 본 논문에서는 매년 증가 추세에 있는 접촉불량으로 인한 전기화재 위험성에 관해 발생현황을 살펴보고, 저기화재 판별의 주요한 원인인 아산화동의 증식 발열현상에 대해서 살펴본다. 아산화동의 증식발열이 전기화재의 원인임을 밝히기 위하여 출화된 차단기의 단자에서 빼낸 전선을 확대경으로 관찰하여 아산화동에서만 발견되는 특징을 제시한다. 또한 접촉불량으로 인한 전기화재를 예방하기 위한 예방대책을 제시한다. Electrical fires due to the weakness of the electrical contact is being increased. In this paper, the various electrical fires due to the weakness of the electrical contact are investigated. In addition, the characteristics of Cu20 which is main cause of electrical fire are investigated. Further, the methods to prevent the electrical fires due to the weakness of the electrical contact are proposed.
The use of the apparel computer system is growing very rapidly. So must be developed program of every clothing to use apparel computer system efficiently. The purpose of the study was to develop a computer program for pattern making of divided skirt. IBM PC 80386 Computer and Auto CAD Release 10, Auto LISP, Roland DPX Plotter 3500 were used in this study. The results were as follows; 1. Basic points which could be connected to depict basic patterns were represented with the numerical expression. 2. The patterns of divided skirt were automatically depicted by inputting the standard size. Body measurements for pattern ; waist girth, middle hip girth, hip girth, skirt length, stature. 3. Grading of ready-made size was accomplished by using same method. 4. The patterns of divided skirt by inputting indivisual body measurements was depicted automatically.
본 논문은 공간벡터변조법을 아날로그 회로로 구현하는 방법을 제안한다. 공간벡터변조법이 기존의 삼각파비교 변조방식에서 변조전압에 영상전압성분을 첨가함으로써 얻어질 수 있슴을 밝히고, 영상전압 발생회로가 브리지다이오드와 연산증폭기로 간단히 구현됨을 보인다. 실험을 통해 제안된 기법의 응용가능성을 검증하였다. In this paper, a novel analog implementation of the space vector modulation is proposed. It is shown that the space vector PWM can be obtained from the existing triangle-comparison PWM with which a zero sequence voltage part is combined and that the zero sequence voltage is generated with six diodes and an operational amplifier. The possibility of its application has ben verified through the experiment.
One hundred and forty three patient with a fracture of tibia1 shaft has been treated and managed in the Depatment of Physical Therapy, (Chosun Universial Hospital, Hyou Sung Hospital, Cho Se Hyun Hospital, Kwangju Christian Hospial, Moon Myoung Ho Hospital) from January 1 , 1987 t o December 31, 1988. The resdts were as follows: 1. The sex ratio between male and female was 5. 5 : 1. 2. In age distribution, the most predorninent age group was over 31 -41 years(32.9%) . 3. Cause of fracture was traffic accident alrnostiy(77.6%). 4. In the shape of fracture, comunuted fracture, transverse fracture, oblique fracture were common in order. 5. Among the 143 cases, 33.5% was treated for 2- 3 monthe. 6. There was worked increasing range of month in 74.8% but not improved in 11.2%.
본 연구는 비사회적 놀이를 하는 아동 3명을 대상으로 타인과 공유할 수 있는 사회적 기술 중재 프로그램을 실시하여 아동의 또래상호작용의 변화를 살펴보고 사회적 기술 중재 프로그램의 효과를 검증 하고자 하였다. 연구의 대상 아동들은 2003년 5월부터 10월 사이에 또래 상호작용 향상 프로그램이 필요하다고 D대학 놀이치료실에 치료를 의뢰한 아동 중, 아동의 母를 대상으로 학령 전 놀이 행동 척도(PPBS)를 실시하여 비사회적 놀이 점수가 높은 순서로 6명을 선정하여 실험집단에 3명, 대기 통제집단에 3명씩 각각 무선배정 하였다. 프로그램을 실시하기 이전과 이후 아동들의 자유놀이를 녹화한 후 행동관찰을 분석하여 또래상호작용의 변화를 살펴보았다. 관찰을 통한 행동 양상 변화에서의 관찰기록은 행동관찰문항 작성에 참여한 D 대학 놀이치료전공 대학원생이 하였으며 관찰행동은 5초 관찰과 10초 기록으로 하였으며 전체 15초 간격으로 10분 동안, 40회 기록·분석하였다. 연구 결과에 의하면 비사회적 놀이 아동 3명의 경우 혼자놀이하는 경우의 빈도가 감소하고 상호작용 하는 경우의 빈도가 증가하는 등 또래 상호작용이 향상된 것으로 나타났다. In this study, we executed social-skill intervention program, sharing with other person, for non-social play with children. Through this test, we want to clarify the possibility of cooperative behavior change and the effectiveness of social-skill intermediation program. we select children as test samples who are qualified to be needed cooperation enhancing program from may to september in 2003 by playtherapy center of D University, among children whose mothers are ranked the highest 6th score in the PPBS test, and split randomly two group including 3 children each, experimental group and control group. we recorded free-play of children pre-post doing that program, and focused on change of peer cooperative behavior by analyzing BOR. Graduate student of D University help to make observational sheet by 40 times which recorded for 10 second in each 5 second observation, totally 10 minutes record and 15 second observation. According to this study, we could see that the frequency of non-social 3 children's playing alone decreased but the frequency of cooperative behavior increased. On the base of that kinds of facts, we could conclude that this program could enhance peer cooperative behavior of non-social children.
The in vitro effect of bisphenol A (BPA) on ovarian steroidogenesis of the longchin goby (Chasmichthys dolichognathus) was investigated. Oocytes taken during the maturing phase (vitellogenic, fully vitellogenic or germinal vesicle breakdown stage) were incubated with BPA (100 ng/mL) in the presence of exogenous precursor ³H-17α hydroxyprogesterone (³H-17αOHP). Steroids were extracted from the media and the isolated oocytes, and the extracts were separated and identified by thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The identities of the major metabolites were progestogens [17α-hydroxy,20adihydroprogesterone (17α20αOHP) and 17α-hydroxy,20β-dihydroprogesterone (17α20βOHP)], androgens [androstenedione (A4) and testosterone (T)] and estrogens [estrone (E₁) and estradiol-17β (E₂)]. BPA treatment inhibited production of estrogens in all the maturing phases and progestogens in the germinal vesicle migrating stage. Percentage yield of estrogens was decreased with increased yield of androgens. In conclusion, BPA had an inhibitory effect on the conversion of ³H-17αOHP to estrogens and progestogens. These results demonstrate that BPA can act either estrogenic or anti-estrogenic effects.