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      • KCI등재

        알칼리장석-일라이트가 육용오리의 생산성 및 육질에 미치는 영향

        국길,김정은,정진형,김재필,선상수,김광현,정완태,정광화,안종남,이병석,정일병,양철주,양재은,Kook,K.,Kim,J.,E.,Jeong,J.,H.,Kim,J.,P.,Sun,S.,S.,Kim,K.,H.,Jeong,Y.,T.,Jeong,K.,H.,Ahn,J.,N.,Lee,B.,S.,Jeong,I.,B.,Yang,C.,J.,Yang,J.,E. 한국가금학회 2005 韓國家禽學會誌 Vol.32 No.4

        본 연구는 3주령의 육용오린 사료에 알칼리장석-일라이트를 0, 0+ 항생제, 0.5, 1.0 및 $1.5\%$ 첨가한 5처리구에 3반복으로 각각 12수씩 배치하여 43일간 급여하여 생산성 및 육질에 미치는 영향을 알아보고자 실행하였다. 육성오리의 일당 증체량은 알칼리장석-일라이트 1.0와 $1.5\%$ 첨가구에서 약간 증가하였다(p>0.05). 사료섭취 량은 알칼리장석-일라이트 첨가구에서 증가하는 경향이었다(p>0.05). 혈중 글루코스 농도는 알칼리장석-일라이트 $0.5\%$ 처리구에서 약간 감소한 반면에(p>0.05) 혈중 요소태 질소 함량은 알칼리장석-일라이트 $0.5\%$ 첨가구에서 유의적으로 증가하였다(p<0.05). 콜레스테롤 함량은 알칼리장석-일라이트 $0.5\%$ 첨가구에서 유의적으로 감소하였다(p<0.05). 도체중과 도체율은 알칼리장석-일라이트 첨가수준에 따라 증가하는 경향이었다(p>0.05). 알칼리 장석-일라이트 급여에 의한 육용오리 가슴육의 조지방 함량은 알칼리장석-일라이트 $1.5\%$ 첨가구에서는 유의적으로 감소하였다(p<0.05). 육색의 명도와 황색도는 알칼리장석-일라이트에서 높게 나타났으며(p>0.05), 콜레스테롤 함량은 알칼리장석-일라이트 첨가구에서 감소하였다(p>0.05). 지방산 패도는 알칼리장석-일라이트 첨가구에서 약간 감소하였다(p>0.05). 알칼리장석-일라이트 첨가에 의한 포화지방산 비율이 약간감소하는 경향인 반면에 불포화지방산 비율이 약간 증가하는 경향을 나타내었으나 유의적인 차이는 없었다(p>0.05). 알칼리장석-일라이트 첨가에 의한 육성오리 간의 중금속 함량은 납 축적량이 비교적 높게 나타났다(p>0.05). 관능 평가(appearance)에서 알칼리장석-일라이트 1.0와 $1.5\%$ 첨가구에서 외관의 유의적인 개선 효과를 나타내었다 (p<0.05). 이상의 결과를 종합해 볼 때 육성오리에 대한 알칼리장석-일라이트 급여는 증체량의 개선효과와 더불어 가슴육의 조지방 함량의 감소 그리고 관능평가에서 외관의 개선 효과가 있음을 알 수 있었다. This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of the supplemental alkali feldspar-ilite(feldspar) on growth performance and meat quality in broiler ducks for 43 days. One hundred eighty broiler ducks were divided into 5 groups of 12ducks. Dietary levels of feldspar 0, 0+antibiotics, 0.5, 1.0 and $1.5\%$ were added to experimental diets of each of the groups. Daily weight gain was slightly increased in 1.0 and $1.5\%$ feldspar treatments. Feed intake was slightly increased at all feldspar treatments. Glucose concentration of serum profile was decreased whereas BUN concentration was significantly increased (p<0.05) at $0.5\%$ feldspar. Cholesterol concentration was decreased at all feldspar treatments, this difference was especially observed in supplemental levels of $0.5\%$ feldspar(p<0.05). Carcass weight was increased at all feldspar treatments. Moisture and crude fat contents of proximate chemical composition in duck meat were decreased at all feldspar treatment, this difference especially was observed in supplemental levels of $1.5\%$ feldspar(p<0.05) on crude fat content. Lightness and yellowness was increased at all feldspar treatment. Cholesterol contents and TBA in meat were decreased, but this parameters were not difference by feldspar treatment. The composition of saturated fatty acids(SFA) was decreased, whereas unsaturated fatty acids(USFA) was slightly increased by feldspar treatment. The Pb content of heavy metal concentrations was increased with compared control, but not difference. The appearance of sensory evaluation was improved by supplemental feldspar, especially in supplemental feldspar, 1.0 and $1.5\%$(p<0.05). The results of this study indicate that the supplemental alkali feldspar may improve the production and meat quality of broiler ducks.

      • KCI등재후보SCOPUS

        In vitro Evaluation of Phalaris minor Seeds as Livestock Feed

        J.,Kaur,M.,S.,Pannu,S.,Kaushal,M.,Wadhwa,M.,P.,S.,Bakshi 아세아·태평양축산학회 2006 Animal Bioscience Vol.19 No.3

        The nutritional worth of Phalaris minor seeds was assessed in comparison to conventional cereal grains like maize and wheat. P. minor seeds had higher total ash and cell wall constituents as compared to wheat and maize grains. The CP content of P. minor was comparable to wheat grains but higher than maize grains. The in vitro studies revealed that the net gas production and availability of ME from P. minor was comparable to that of maize but the digestibility of nutrients was significantly (p<0.05) lower than that of conventional cereal grains. The digestion kinetic parameters for DM and CP revealed that P. minor had the highest (p<0.05) soluble fraction (a) followed by wheat and maize. Reverse trend was observed for insoluble but potentially degradable fraction (b). The effective and true DM and CP degradability was significantly (p<0.05) higher in wheat grains followed by that in P. minor and maize grains. The digestibility of OM and NDF was not affected by replacing cereal grains in concentrate mixture with P. minor seeds up to 75 per cent level. But the availability of ME from concentrate mixtures was comparable to control only up to 50% level of replacement. Replacement of cereal grains with P. minor did not affect the rapidly soluble fraction and insoluble but potentially degradable fraction of concentrate mixture containing P. minor up to 75 per cent, but it was depressed significantly at 100% replacement level. The effective and true degradability of DM of concentrate mixtures containing P. minor from 50 to 100 per cent was comparable to that of conventional concentrate mixture (CCM). The wheat based concentrate mixtures showed higher net gas production (208 vs. 201 ml/g DM/24 h), digestibility of nutrients and ME availability (9.64 vs. 9.54 MJ/kg DM) as compared to maize based concentrate mixture. The wheat based concentrate mixture had significantly (p<0.05) higher rumen undegradable fraction and effective degradability. The data conclusively revealed that conventional cereal grains could be replaced with P.minor seeds up to 75 per cent without affecting the availability of nutrients. The nutritional worth of Phalaris minor seeds was assessed in comparison to conventional cereal grains like maize and wheat. P. minor seeds had higher total ash and cell wall constituents as compared to wheat and maize grains. The CP content of P. minor was comparable to wheat grains but higher than maize grains. The in vitro studies revealed that the net gas production and availability of ME from P. minor was comparable to that of maize but the digestibility of nutrients was significantly (p<0.05) lower than that of conventional cereal grains. The digestion kinetic parameters for DM and CP revealed that P. minor had the highest (p<0.05) soluble fraction (a) followed by wheat and maize. Reverse trend was observed for insoluble but potentially degradable fraction (b). The effective and true DM and CP degradability was significantly (p<0.05) higher in wheat grains followed by that in P. minor and maize grains. The digestibility of OM and NDF was not affected by replacing cereal grains in concentrate mixture with P. minor seeds up to 75 per cent level. But the availability of ME from concentrate mixtures was comparable to control only up to 50% level of replacement. Replacement of cereal grains with P. minor did not affect the rapidly soluble fraction and insoluble but potentially degradable fraction of concentrate mixture containing P. minor up to 75 per cent, but it was depressed significantly at 100% replacement level. The effective and true degradability of DM of concentrate mixtures containing P. minor from 50 to 100 per cent was comparable to that of conventional concentrate mixture (CCM). The wheat based concentrate mixtures showed higher net gas production (208 vs. 201 ml/g DM/24 h), digestibility of nutrients and ME availability (9.64 vs. 9.54 MJ/kg DM) as compared to maize based concentrate mixture. The wheat based concentrate mixture had significantly (p<0.05) higher rumen undegradable fraction and effective degradability. The data conclusively revealed that conventional cereal grains could be replaced with P.minor seeds up to 75 per cent without affecting the availability of nutrients.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        In vitro Evaluation of Phalaris minor Seeds as Livestock Feed

        Kaur,,J.,Pannu,,M.S.,Kaushal,,S.,Wadhwa,,M.,Bakshi,,M.P.S. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2006 Animal Bioscience Vol.19 No.3

        The nutritional worth of Phalaris minor seeds was assessed in comparison to conventional cereal grains like maize and wheat. P. minor seeds had higher total ash and cell wall constituents as compared to wheat and maize grains. The CP content of P. minor was comparable to wheat grains but higher than maize grains. The in vitro studies revealed that the net gas production and availability of ME from P. minor was comparable to that of maize but the digestibility of nutrients was significantly (p<0.05) lower than that of conventional cereal grains. The digestion kinetic parameters for DM and CP revealed that P. minor had the highest (p<0.05) soluble fraction (a) followed by wheat and maize. Reverse trend was observed for insoluble but potentially degradable fraction (b). The effective and true DM and CP degradability was significantly (p<0.05) higher in wheat grains followed by that in P. minor and maize grains. The digestibility of OM and NDF was not affected by replacing cereal grains in concentrate mixture with P. minor seeds up to 75 per cent level. But the availability of ME from concentrate mixtures was comparable to control only up to 50% level of replacement. Replacement of cereal grains with P. minor did not affect the rapidly soluble fraction and insoluble but potentially degradable fraction of concentrate mixture containing P. minor up to 75 per cent, but it was depressed significantly at 100% replacement level. The effective and true degradability of DM of concentrate mixtures containing P. minor from 50 to 100 per cent was comparable to that of conventional concentrate mixture (CCM). The wheat based concentrate mixtures showed higher net gas production (208 vs. 201 ml/g DM/24 h), digestibility of nutrients and ME availability (9.64 vs. 9.54 MJ/kg DM) as compared to maize based concentrate mixture. The wheat based concentrate mixture had significantly (p<0.05) higher rumen undegradable fraction and effective degradability. The data conclusively revealed that conventional cereal grains could be replaced with P.minor seeds up to 75 per cent without affecting the availability of nutrients.

      • KCI등재

        열처리 단백질-광물질 복합제제 첨가가 In Vitro 발효성상과 착유우의 유량 및 유성분에 미치는 영향

        최낙진,배귀석,남경표,장문백,엄재상,고종렬,하종규 한국동물자원과학회 2002 한국축산학회지 Vol.44 No.5

        본 연구의 in vitro 실험결과를 살펴보면, 배양액의 pH와 암모니아 생성량은 전 배양시간 동안 처리구간 통계적 유의차가 없었다. Total VFA, acetate, propionate, butyrate 생성량은 12 h에서 HPM을 0.2%, 1% 첨가한 시험구에서 대조구와 비교하여 증가하는 경향이 있었으나, 2% 첨가구에서는 오히려 감소되었고, 48 h 에서는 HPM 첨가한 세 처리구에서 대조구와 비교하여 모두 증가하는 경향을 보였다. 반면에, 다른 배양시간대에서는 처리구간 통계적 유의차는 발견되지 않았다. A/P ratio 경우에도 처리구간 유의차는 없었다. 총 gas 생성량은 배양시간 24 h과 48 h에 HPM 처리구에서 대조구와 비교하여 증가하였다 (P<0.05). 한편 사양실험은 열처리된 단백질 (대두박)과 광물질의 복합 제제 (HPM)가 젖소의 유생산량과 유성분에 끼치는 영향을 조사하기 위하여 수행되었는데 그 결과를 요약하면, 유생산량은 대조구와 비교하여 HPM 시험구에서 하루에 약 1㎏ 정도 더 높았고 (27. 7 vs 28.8 ㎏/d, P<0.001), 4% FCM 생성량 또한 대조구와 비교하여 볼 때 HPM 시험구에서 1.3㎏/d 이 더 높았다 (P<0.001). 유단백 (P<0.05)과 SNF (P<0.05)도 대조구와 비교하여 HPM 시험구에서 그 생산량이 증가되었다. 반면에, 유지방, MUN과 체세포수는 처리구간 통계적 유의차가 발견되지 않았다. 이상의 결과로 보아, HPM 첨가에 의한 반추위 발효 저해현상은 없었으며, HPM 내 함유되어 있는 열처리된 단백질과 광물질의 결합체와 잔여 광물질이 반추위 내 단백질과 결합하여 단백질 분해 속도를 지연시킴으로써, 단백질의 by-pass율을 증가시켜, 유생산량 증가와 유질을 개선 (유단백질, SNF 함량 증가 등) 하는 등 젖소의 생산성을 향상시킨 것으로 요약할 수 있다. This study, consisting of two experiments, was conducted to determine the effects of feeding heat treated protein and mineral complex (HPM) on milk production and composition, and ruminal fermentation of Holstein dairy cows. In in vitro experiment, HPM levels were 0, 0.2, 1 and 2%, and Timothy hay, which was substrate, was milled as 1 ㎜ size, and the effect of HPM on pH and ammonia and VFA were analyzed after incubation times of 0, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h, respectively. The pH and ammonia production were not significantly different between treatments during the incubation. In addition, generally, total VFA and individual VFA were not affected by HPM on 0, 6 and 24 h. While, total VFA and individual VFA were increased in 0.2% and 1% of HPM supplemented treatments, but decreased in 2% of HPM treatment compared with control on 12 h. On 48 h, total VFA and individual VFA were increased in HMP treatment compared to control(P<0.05). However, A/P ratio was not affected by HPM supplementation. Gas production was higher in HPM treatment compared to control on 24 h (P<0.05) and 48 h (P<0.05). In lactating experiment, fourteen lactating Holstein cows were used for 4 months in a cross over experimental design. There were two treatment; no added HPM as a control and 0.2% of HPM added as a test treatment. Daily milk yield (P<0.001), 4% FCM (P<0.001), milk protein (P<0.05) and SNF (solid not fat; P<0.05) were increased in HPM treatment compared to control. While, milk fat, MUN (milk urea nitrogen) and SCC (somatic cell count) were not significantly different between treatments.

      • KCI등재

        Comparative antihyperglycaemic and antihyperlipidemic effect of Origanum majorana extracts in NIDDM rats

        Pimple,,B.P.,Kadam,,P.V.,Patil,,M.J. 경희한의학연구센터 2012 Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine Vol.12 No.1

        Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder prevailing throughout the world irrespective of age, sex and race. The present study deals with phytochemical, antioxidant, antihyperglycaemic and antihyperlipidemic potential of Origanum majorana (OM) leaves. Various extracts of OM were used for the study such as, hydrodistilled volatile oil (OMO), petroleum ether extract (OMPE), methanolic extract (OMM) and aqueous extract (OMW). Three doses of each extract viz. 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o. were used for the study. Streptozotocin, STZ (65 mg/Kg, i.p.) along with nicotinamide (120 mg/kg, i.p.) was used to induce non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) in rats. Various biochemical markers of blood and tissue origin were estimated. The results were statistically analyzed by ANOVA followed by Dunnett's test. Glibenclamide, a well known antidiabetic drug, was used as a standard. Volatile oil (OMO, 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o.) and methanolic extract (OMM, 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o.) exhibited dose dependent significant (p<0.01) antihyperglycaemic activity. The aqueous (OMW, 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o.) had moderate (p<0.05) effect on blood sugar level. The volatile oil (OMO, 100 mg/kg p.o.) was less significant (p<0.05) in lowering the elevated triglyceride and cholesterol levels. Whereas; methanolic (OMM, 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o.) and aqueous (OMW, 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o.) extracts substantially (p<0.01) showed antihyperlipidemic effect. From this study, it was concluded that the volatile oil and methanolic extract of Origanum majorana leaves could prove to be beneficial in management of NIDDM and its associated lipid imbalance.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        Factors Affecting Reproductive Performance in the Nepalese Pakhribas Pig: Effects of Nutrition and Housing during Lactation

        Shrestha,,N.P.,Edwards,,S.A.,English,,P.R.,Robertson,,J.F. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2003 Animal Bioscience Vol.16 No.5

        The effects of housing and nutrition on the performance of first lactation sows of the Nepalese Pakhribas breed were investigated. A total of 36 sows, from a previous experiment on nutrition during gilt rearing, were allocated according to a factorial design with 2 levels of nutrition, 60 or 80% of the calculated lactation requirement, and two types of housing, traditional or improved. The mean live weight loss of sows during lactation was reduced to a slightly greater extent by improved housing (p<0.05) than by better nutrition (p<0.10). There was also a significantly lower loss of $P_2$ backfat thickness (p<0.05) and mean body condition score (p<0.05) for sows on the higher plane of nutrition. Piglet weight gain in early and mid lactation was influenced by gestation feeding of the gilt (p<0.10) and by housing (p<0.05). Late lactation gain was influenced only by lactation feeding (p<0.05). In consequence, piglet weight at 42 day weaning was increased to a similar extent by improved housing (p<0.05) and better lactation nutrition (p<0.01). Significantly more sows were remated by day 10 after weaning from a higher level of rearing nutrition ($x^2=13.57$, p=0.001), and from improved housing and improved lactation (both $x^2=4.57$, p=0.033). It is concluded that, under Nepalese village conditions, improvements in housing may be a more cost effective way of improving sow performance than expenditure on additional feed resources.

      • 국내이용 말사료의 영양적 가치와 YEAST CULTURE 첨가시 소화율 , 광물질 이용율 및 혈액성상에 미치는 영향

        김병진,정태영,김종민,김성민,이현기,박원표,임영재 한국영양사료학회 1991 韓國營養飼料學會誌 Vol.15 No.5

        國內 馬匹主飼料로 이용되고 있는 이탈리안라이그라스 건초, 알팔파 건초큐브, 보리, 귀리 그리고 밀기울 등의 營養的 價値를 알아보기 위해서 성숙한 Thoroughbred 5두를 5×5 Latin square 방법으로 8주동안 代謝試驗을 실시하여 평가 하였고(試驗 1), 國內 飼養管理環件에서 말사료에 YC를 4주간 첨가 급여하여 각종 영양소의 소화율, 광물질이용율 및 혈액성상에 미치는 영향(試驗 2)을 조사하였다. 그 試驗 결과는 다음과 같다. 1. 이탈리안라이그라스 건초, 알팔파 건초큐브, 보리, 귀리 그리고 밀기울의 乾物 消化率은 57.95, 61.30, 65.66, 65.41 및 64.74% 였으며, TDN함량은 각각 57.54, 57.75, 81.33, 69.74 및 68.65%으로 나타났다. 2. YC첨가구의 DM, ADF, NDF및 Hemicellulose소화율은 대조구에 비해 유의하게(P<0.05) 높았으며, 특히 조회분의 소화율은 YC첨가구가 월등히 높았다(p<0.01). 반면 조단백질과 조지방의 소화율은 YC 첨가구가 대조구 보다 다소 높은 경향을 보였으나 유의성은 없었다. 3. Ca 및 P 이용율의 경우 YC첨가구에서 P은 고도로 유의하게 (P<0.01) 증가한 반면 Ca은 두처리 구간에 차이가 없었다. 4. 血液性狀 中 적혈구수와 hemoglobin수준은 아침사료 급여 前과 後 두 처리간에 共히 유의있는 증가는 없었으나, YC첨가구가 대조구에 비해 증가하는 경향을 나타냈고 백혈구수는 처리간에 사료급여 前 後 共히 차이가 없었다. 그리고 血液內 glucose, total protein, calcium 및 phosphorus 함량은 YC첨가구와 대조구간 차이가 없었다. 以上의 結果를 綜合하면 YC를 말사료에 첨가할 때 乾物, 纖維素, 灰分의 消化率을 향상시키고 P의 利用率을 제고 시킴으로서 사료 利用效率과 運動生理 조건이 증진될 것으로 思料되나 앞으로 더 많은 硏究가 요구된다. An metabolism trial with five Thoroughbreds (in a 5 ㏖ 5 Latin square) was conducted for t3 weeks to evaluate the feed values of Italian ryegrass hay, alfalfa hay cube, barley, oat and wheat bran available in domestic market for horse feeding. In the second trial six Thoroughbred having average 439 ㎏ live weight were assigned to two treatments with or without yeast culture (YC, Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in order to detect digestibilities of DM, CP, EE, NDF, ADF, ash and utilization of Ca and P, and blood parameters such as red blood cell, white blood cell, hemoglobin, glucose, total protein, Ca and P. The results obtained are as follows : 1. Dry matter digestibilities of Italian ryegrass hay, alfalfa hay cube, barley, oat and wheat bran were 57.96, 61.30, 65.66, 65.41 and 64.74%, respectively, and TDN of those of feedstuffs were 57.54, 57.75. 81.33. 69.74 and 68.65%, respectively. 2. Digestibilities of DM, ADF, NDF, hemicellulose(P<0.05) and ash(P<0.01) were significantly higher for YC treatment than for the control. YC treatment tended to increase digestibilities of crude protein and crude fat. 3. P utilization was significantly higher(P<0.01) in the YC treatment group compared to the control. However, Ca utilization was not different between two groups. 4. In the blood parameters, red blood cell and hemoglobin level tended to be higher for the YC treatment than for the control. However, white blood cell counts, glucose, total protein, Ca and P contents in blood were not different between two groups at sampling before or after meal. Overall results indicate that YC supplementation in horse diet may improve feed efficiency and exercise physiological condition in horse on account of raised DM, ADF, NDF, hemicellulose and ash digestibilities, and enhanced P utilization

      • 면양(緬羊)에 의한 Formaldehyde 처리 Alfalfa 엽(葉) 분미의 단백질 가치평가에 관한 연구

        강희신,R.,H.,Weston,J.,R.,Ashes,P.,Davis,R.,W.,Edols 한국낙농학회 1985 韓國酪農學會誌 Vol.7 No.4

        低質 粗飼科 밀짚으로 飼育되는 交雜種 緬羊 6頭를 供試하며 alfalfa 葉 粉末, 當年葉, 貯藏葉, 2% HCHO處理 當年葉 및 4% HCHO處理貯藏葉을 供試 飼料로 하고 밀짚 基本飼料 700g 및 alfalfa 粉末 補充飼料 300g 計 1.0㎏를 日量 飼料로 連續 給餌器에서 3시간 間隔으로 1日 8回 給與하며 20日間씩의 代謝試驗을 4回 實施하였다. ^(51)Cr-EDTA 및 ^(103)Ru-phe의 二重 標識物質을 使用하여 腸內 內容物의 通過量 및 滯在時間反芻胃 溶量, 有機物 및 窒素의 利用性을 測定한 結果 다음과 같은 結果를 얻었다. 1. 反芻胃 溶液中의 NH₃態 窒素 濃度는 貯藏葉이 當年葉보다 17.5% 높으며(P<.01) 2% HCHO處理 當年葉은 그 無處理보다 7% 程度 減少되고 4% HCHO處理 貯藏葉은 無處理보다 34.0% 程度 減少(P<.01)되었다. 2. 反芻胃로부터 流入되는 NH₃態 窒素 量은 當年葉보다 貯藏葉이 18% 增加(P<.01)되고 2% HCHO處理 當年葉은 無處理보다 6% 減少 (P<.05)되며, 4% HCHO處理 貯藏葉은 無處理보다 32% 減少(P<.01)를 나타내었다. 3. 第4胃內 NAN含量은 當年葉이 貯藏葉보다 6% 增加되며 2% HCHO處理 當年葉은 無處理보다 5.6%의 增加(P<.05) 4% HCHO處理 貯藏葉은 그 無處理보다 17% 程度의 增加(P<.01)를 나타내었다. 4. 第4胃로부터 排出되어 小腸에 流入되는 NAN의 量은 當年葉보다 貯藏葉이 9.0% 더 流入되며(P<.05) 2% HCHO 處理 當年葉은 그 無處理보다 6% 程度 增加(P<.05) 流人되었다. 5. 飼料源 室素 100g 攝取量當 NAN의 小腸內 消化量은 當年葉보다 貯藏葉이 10% 程度 消化가 增進(P<.05)되며 2% HCHO 處理 當年葉은 無處理보다 6% 程度 消化가 增進(P<.05)되었다. 6. 飼料源 室素 100g 攝取量 當 糞中 窒素의 排泄量은 當年葉보다 貯藏葉이 8% 정도(P<.01), 2% HCHO處理 當年葉은 無處理보다 6% 程度(P<.05) 더 排泄되었으며 4% HCHO處理葉은 그 無處理에 比하여 2% 程度 더 排泄되었으나 有意差는 認定되지 않았다. 7. 反芻胃液(Y, ㎎ N%)과 第4胃 濾液(X, ㎎ N%)中의 NH₃態 室素 濃度와의 關係는 다음 回歸 方程式으로 表示되었다. Y = 3.981 + 1.2783(±0.3736)X (r = 0.59, n-2=22) 8. 飼料 窒素 攝取量에 對한 補充飼料 alfalfa 葉 粉末의 小腸內 流入 NAN의 百分比는 當年葉, 2% HCHO處理 當年葉 및 無處理 貯藏葉의 順으로 각각 57.0%, 68.0% 및 65%로 推定되었다. 따라서 小腸內 流入 NAN은 2% HCHO處理 當年葉이 無處理보다 19%, 貯藏葉은 當年葉 無處理보다 14% 程度 增加된 것으로 推定된다. 9. 貯藏葉 補充時 音機物 消化率은 當年葉을 補充할 때 보다 約 1% 減少되고 當年葉 및 貯藏葉에 HCHO處理는 葉中 有機物의 排泄量을 0∼3.4% 程度 增加시키는 傾向이었으나 有意差는 當年葉과 貯藏葉 間에만 認定되었다. 10. 反芻胃液 및 第4胃液의 各 腸器 通過率, 反芻胃 容量 및 그 內容物의 滯在時間은 處理間有意差가 認定되지 않았다. 1. The OM out-put in the faeces was about 3% unit higher with the Old than that with the New, while with the HCHO treated meals there was only a slightly and insignificantly increasing tendency in the OM out-put. 2. No significant differences in the liquor flow rate of the rumen and the abomasum fluid, and in the rumen volume and retention time were found between the treatments. 3. The ruminal NH₃-N concentration in the Old was about 17.5% unit higher (P<0.01) than that in the New, while the New + 2% HCHO was about 7.0% unit (P<0.10) and the Old + 4% HCHO was about 34% lower (P<0.01) than those in the untreated-New and Old. 4. The amount of NH₃-N excreted from the rumen in the Old was 18% unit higher (P<0.01) than that in the New, and that in the New + 2% HCHO about 6% unit was lower, though insignificant, than that in the New, while that in the Old + 4% HCHO was about 32% unit lower (P<0.01) than that in the Old. 5. The NAN content of the intestine in the New was about 6% unit higher (P<0.10) than that in the Old, while in the New + 2% HCHO and the Old + 4% HCHO about 6% unit (P<0.05) and 17% unit (P<0.01) were higher than those in the New and the Old, respectively. 6. The amount of NAN excreted from the abomasum in the Old was about 9% unit higher (P<0.05) than that in the New, while the New + 2% HCHO resulted about 6% unit higher (P<0.01) NAN excretion than the New. 7. The NAN digested in the intestine per 100g of dietary nitrogen intake in the Old was about 10% unit higher (P<0.10) than that in the New, while in the New + 2% HCHO about 6% unit was higher (P<0.05) than that in the New. 8. The fecal nitrogen output per 100g of dietary nitrogen intake in the Old was about 8% unit (P<0.01), in the New + 2% HCHO was about 6% unit and in the Old + 4% HCHO about 2.4% unit was higher (P<0.10) than in the New and the Old. 9. The significant correlation between the concentrations of NH₃-N in the abomasal filtrates and those in the ruminal fluids permitted to draw a predictive equation by regression analysis as follows: y = 3.981 + 1.2783(+0.3736) X, where, Y = Ruminal NH₃-N concentration (㎎ N%) X= NH₃-N concentration in abomasal filtrates (㎎ N%), (n-2=22) and (r=0.59) 10. The percent of NAN entered the intestines over supplemental leaf meal nitrogen intake in the New, the New + 2% HGHO and the Old were 57.0, 68.0 and 65%, respectively. The NAN entered the intestine in the New + 2% HCHO and the Old were 19% and 14% higher than those in the New, respectively.

      • KCI등재후보SCOPUS

        Effects of Feeding Different Protein Supplements on Digestibility, Nitrogen Balance and Calcium and Phosphorus Utilization in Sheep

        T.V.,Viswanathan,J.P.,Fontenot 아세아·태평양축산학회 2009 Animal Bioscience Vol.22 No.5

        Two metabolism trials were conducted with 24 wether lambs to investigate the effects of feeding crab meal and other protein supplements on N utilization, digestibility and Ca and P balance in sheep. The lambs (avg. BW, 25 kg) were randomly allotted to eight diets in each of two trials. The supplements were: i) none, negative control (NC); ii) soybean meal (SBM), control; iii) supplement based on industrial byproducts of both plant and animal origin (IPA); iv) experimental supplement based on byproducts of animal origin (ESA); v) hydrolyzed supplement No 4. (HESA); vi) commercial supplement based on animal protein (CS), Pro-LakⓇ ; vii) crab meal (CM); and viii) urea (U). The supplements supplied 33% of the total dietary N (CP, 9.8%; DM basis). Lambs fed the NC diet had lower (p<0.05) DM and OM digestibility. Lower (p<0.05) apparent absorption of N was recorded for the lambs fed the HESA and NC diets. Sheep fed CM had lower Ca absorption compared to SBM. Highest (p<0.05) P absorption was observed for lambs fed CS and CM and lowest for U and NC diets. Sheep fed CM had higher (p<0.05) total VFA concentration (65.7 μmol/ml), compared to those fed ESA, CS, and NC diets (47.3, 49.8, and 49.5 μmol/ml, respectively). Highest (p<0.05) ruminal NH3 N (29.6 mg/dl) was observed in lambs fed the U diet, while those fed the NC diet had the lowest (p<0.05) average value (7.66 mg/dl). Lambs fed the U diet had the highest (p<0.05) blood urea N (10.67 mg/dl). The present study showed that N utilization of diets supplemented with experimental supplements based on feather meal and blood meal; commercial supplement based on animal protein, ProlakⓇ; supplement based on plant protein and blood meal; and crab meal are comparable with that of soybean meal. Two metabolism trials were conducted with 24 wether lambs to investigate the effects of feeding crab meal and other protein supplements on N utilization, digestibility and Ca and P balance in sheep. The lambs (avg. BW, 25 kg) were randomly allotted to eight diets in each of two trials. The supplements were: i) none, negative control (NC); ii) soybean meal (SBM), control; iii) supplement based on industrial byproducts of both plant and animal origin (IPA); iv) experimental supplement based on byproducts of animal origin (ESA); v) hydrolyzed supplement No 4. (HESA); vi) commercial supplement based on animal protein (CS), Pro-LakⓇ ; vii) crab meal (CM); and viii) urea (U). The supplements supplied 33% of the total dietary N (CP, 9.8%; DM basis). Lambs fed the NC diet had lower (p<0.05) DM and OM digestibility. Lower (p<0.05) apparent absorption of N was recorded for the lambs fed the HESA and NC diets. Sheep fed CM had lower Ca absorption compared to SBM. Highest (p<0.05) P absorption was observed for lambs fed CS and CM and lowest for U and NC diets. Sheep fed CM had higher (p<0.05) total VFA concentration (65.7 μmol/ml), compared to those fed ESA, CS, and NC diets (47.3, 49.8, and 49.5 μmol/ml, respectively). Highest (p<0.05) ruminal NH3 N (29.6 mg/dl) was observed in lambs fed the U diet, while those fed the NC diet had the lowest (p<0.05) average value (7.66 mg/dl). Lambs fed the U diet had the highest (p<0.05) blood urea N (10.67 mg/dl). The present study showed that N utilization of diets supplemented with experimental supplements based on feather meal and blood meal; commercial supplement based on animal protein, ProlakⓇ; supplement based on plant protein and blood meal; and crab meal are comparable with that of soybean meal.

      • KCI등재후보SCOPUS

        Effects of Size and Rate of Maturing on Carcass Composition of Pasture- or Feedlot- Developed Steers

        A.,H.,Brown,,Jr.,P.,K.,Camfield,R.,T.,Baublits,F.,W.,Pohlman,Z.,B.,Johnson,C.,J.,Brown,G.,T.,Tabler,,Jr.,B.,A.,Sandelin 아세아·태평양축산학회 2006 Animal Bioscience Vol.19 No.5

        Steers (n = 335) of known genetic backgrounds from four fundamentally different growth types were subjected to two production systems to study the main effects and possible interactive effects on carcass composition. Growth types were animals with genetic potential for large mature weight (LL), intermediate mature weight-late maturing (IL), intermediate mature weight-early maturing (IE), and small mature weight-early maturing (SE). Each year, in a nine year study, calves of each growth type were weaned and five steers of each growth type were developed on pasture or feedlot and harvested at approximately 20 and 14 mo of age, respectively. Data recorded were chilled carcass weight and percentages of forequarter, foreshank, chuck, rib, plate, brisket, hindquarter, round, rump, shortloin, sirloin, flank, lean, fat, bone, and retail cuts. The growth type×production system interaction was an important source of variation in chilled carcass weight (p = 0.0395) and percentage retail cuts (p = 0.001), lean (p = 0.001), fat (p = 0.001), rump (p = 0.0454), shortloin (p = 0.0487), and flank (p = 0.001). The ranking of the growth type x production system means for percentage lean was LL-pasture>IL-pasture = IE-pasture = SE-pasture>LL-feedlot, IL-feedlot>IE-feedlot = SE-feedlot. The growth type× production system interaction was non-significant (p>0.05) for forequarter, foreshank, chuck, rib, plate, brisket, hindquarter, round and bone. Growth types of IE and SE yielded greater (p<0.05) mean forequarter than did growth types of IL and LL (51.6±0.3 and 51.5±0.3 vs. 51.1±0.3 and 50.8±0.3%). Mean bone was highest (p<0.05) for the LL growth type and lowest (p<0.05) for the SE growth type (19.5±0.5 vs. 16.8±0.5%). Mean bone was greater (p<0.05) for the pastured steers than for the feedlot steers (21.8±0.8 vs. 14.5±0.6%). These data indicate that growth type responded differently in the two production systems and that these results should be helpful in the match of genetics to production resources. Steers (n = 335) of known genetic backgrounds from four fundamentally different growth types were subjected to two production systems to study the main effects and possible interactive effects on carcass composition. Growth types were animals with genetic potential for large mature weight (LL), intermediate mature weight-late maturing (IL), intermediate mature weight-early maturing (IE), and small mature weight-early maturing (SE). Each year, in a nine year study, calves of each growth type were weaned and five steers of each growth type were developed on pasture or feedlot and harvested at approximately 20 and 14 mo of age, respectively. Data recorded were chilled carcass weight and percentages of forequarter, foreshank, chuck, rib, plate, brisket, hindquarter, round, rump, shortloin, sirloin, flank, lean, fat, bone, and retail cuts. The growth type×production system interaction was an important source of variation in chilled carcass weight (p = 0.0395) and percentage retail cuts (p = 0.001), lean (p = 0.001), fat (p = 0.001), rump (p = 0.0454), shortloin (p = 0.0487), and flank (p = 0.001). The ranking of the growth type x production system means for percentage lean was LL-pasture>IL-pasture = IE-pasture = SE-pasture>LL-feedlot, IL-feedlot>IE-feedlot = SE-feedlot. The growth type× production system interaction was non-significant (p>0.05) for forequarter, foreshank, chuck, rib, plate, brisket, hindquarter, round and bone. Growth types of IE and SE yielded greater (p<0.05) mean forequarter than did growth types of IL and LL (51.6±0.3 and 51.5±0.3 vs. 51.1±0.3 and 50.8±0.3%). Mean bone was highest (p<0.05) for the LL growth type and lowest (p<0.05) for the SE growth type (19.5±0.5 vs. 16.8±0.5%). Mean bone was greater (p<0.05) for the pastured steers than for the feedlot steers (21.8±0.8 vs. 14.5±0.6%). These data indicate that growth type responded differently in the two production systems and that these results should be helpful in the match of genetics to production resources.

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