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      • O/W · W/O Emulsion의 Tribology 특성 연구

        이봉구,임웅빈,오성모 원광대학교 생산 및 자동화기술연구소 1995 생산.자동화기술연구소논문집 : 원광대 Vol.- No.2

        We have been so much interested in the lubrication of emulsion property recently. In particular, O/W and W/O type emulsion have a good property to be used in the Lubricative situation of several services. Therefore, in this section we have studied about the lubricational characteristics in Neat Oil, O/W and W/O type emulsion using the Falex, wear test machine. The result is as follows. 1. In the case of O/W and W/O type emulsion, the beginning friction coefficient than Neat Oil, but it becomes more excellent as the time passes. especially, the W/O type becomes the more excellent. 2. As the load increase, a change in temperature shows to us be nearly similar and all of them, the O/W type is the most excellent in the temperature characteristic. 3. In the beginning, the anti-wear characteristic of emulsion lowers, but after the some load has stability, O/W and W/O type is excellent in order of anti-wear characteristic. 4. In the regular hours, a change in the emulsion becomes settled, so the character of temperature is superior. specially, O/W type is predominant. Therefore, the emulsion in case of the O/W and W/O type are more excellent than Neat oil in the thermal stability and can improve the characteristics of tribology.

      • Ni - W 합금전착층중의 W 함량과 열처리에 따른 결정구조 및 기계적 성질 변화에 관한 연구

        황운석,유황룡,이수갑,장시성 한국부식학회 2001 Corrosion Science and Technology Vol.30 No.3

        Effects of W content and heat-treatment on crystal structure and mechanical property of Ni-W alloy deposit were investigated. Ni-W alloy deposits containing 17wt.% to 41wt.% W were obtained by electrodeposition method from a citric acid-ammonia deposition solution. From results of XRD and SEM analyses, the Ni-W alloy deposit preferentially grew (111) orientation and Ni-20wt.% W deposit as a solid solution had higher lattice parameter than pure Ni. Its crystal structure was transformed from Ni-W solid solution to the mixture of fine grain and amorphous structure with increasing W content. Therefore the flatness of Ni-W alloy deposit was increased. The microhardness of Ni-W alloy deposit was slightly increased from 550VHN to 625VHN with increasing W content due to solid solution hardening and grain refinement effects. The hardness was increased with an elevation of heat-treatment temperature and showed the highest value of 1360VHN at 600℃. The hardness of Ni-W alloy deposit which was heattreated in low vacuum degree (60 Torr) was higher than that in high vacuum degree (1.2×10^(-5) Torr). It was considered that WO₃ was precipitated in the low vacuum degree.

      • 터키種 잎담배 生産에 關한 硏究

        盧載榮,鄭元采,安長憲,卞珠燮,姜信寓 충북대학교 엽연초연구소 1974 煙草硏究 Vol.2 No.-

        I.Influence of deficient or excessive supply of soil moisture. The variety used in this study were Turkish varieties (Smyrna, Samsun, Zichna and Xanthi). Soil moisture content were 30%, 45% and 60% to maximum water-holding capacity for whole growth period. This experiment was carried out to study on the influence of soil moisture to growth and physiology of Turkish varieties. The results are summarized as follow ; a. Dry weight of Samsun and Zichna were-increased at 45% soil moisture content, but Smyrna and Xanthi at 60%. In every soil moisture treatmennt, there were significant difference between D plot and M, W plot but there were no significant difference between M plot and W plot. b. Percentage of dry matter of Smyrna was higher then those of the other varieties in the D plot and W plot. c. Leaf area was increased ill the Samsun of which process was slightly late. In every soil moisture treatment, M plot and W plot were higher than D plot. d. Dry weight per unit leaf area of Smyrna and Zichna were higher than that of Xanthi and Samsun. e. Percentage of dried up leaves was the W plot, and lower at the D and M plot. Smyrna was lower at M plot, Zichna at D and M plot, Xanthi at D plot, but Samsun was no difference among plots. f. In the number of harvested leaves, Smyrna was increased in order W>M>D. In the number of harvested leaves, Smyrna showed difference according to the soil moisture in order W>M>D plot, but Samsun and Zichna showed no difference among each treatments, Xanthi was higher in M plot than D and W plot. From those results, Smyrna showed the highest dry weight on account of the weight of leaf area and percentage of dry weight increased, it was decreased in order Zichna>Samsun Xanthi in the each soil moisture contents. Number of harvested leaves, dried up leaves, leaf area and number of harvested leaves but decreased, percentage of dry matter W treatment increased the number of total leaves, number of dried up leaves, leaf area, percentage of dried up leaves and percentage of dry matter. Yields were the lowest at D treated, there were no difference between M and W treatment. II.Influence of deficient or excessive supply of soil moisture at different growing stages. This experiment was carried out to study on the influence to the growth and physiology according to the soil moisture content during each growth stage on Turkish varieties culture. The varieties used in this study were Samsun, Zichna and Xanthi. The results are summarized as follow; a. Dry leaf weight was decreased in order Zichna>Samsun>Xanthi, there were remakable difference among every variety. In each soil moisture content, weight of dry matter was increased by M and W treated at late stage after MW and MM treated at early and middle stage of growth DWM and MDM plot. Dry leaf weight was decreased at D plot more than M and W plot late stage after early stage was treated by MW and MM. Dry leaf weight was the highest at WWM treate, dthere were high significant difference between varieties and soil moisture contents. b. Percentage of dry matter was decreased in order Zichna=Xanthi>Samsun. In soil moisture treated, it was increased in D treated at the latter stage after MM, MW and WM treated at early and middle stage, but it was decreased by DDM, DWD, MDM, WWD, WMM, and WWM treated. There were high significant interaction between varieties and soil moisture contents. c. Leaf area showed in order Samsun=Zichna>Xanthi. In soil moisture treated, leaf area was increased by WM, MM and MW treated at the middle and latter stage after D treated at early stage, but it was decreased at WWD, WMD, WWM, MWD and MMD treated. d. Dry weight per unit leaf area were no difference among varieties, in soil moisture treated, it was increased by the MMW, MWD, MMD, WMD and DMW treated, weight of per unit leaf area showed significant difference interaction between varieties and soil moisture contents. d. Percentage of dried up leaves showed as follow, Samsun>Xanthi, Samsun=Zichna, Zihna=Xanthi. In soil moisture treated, it was increased by M and W treated at early stage than D treated. f. Number of harvested leaves was decreased in order Xanthi>Samsun>Zichna, there were no difference among soil moisture contents, but appeard high significant difference at the interaction between varieties and soil moisture contents. As the results of this experiment, especially, this experiment will be continue on the influence of soil moisture condition in order to development of home production system.

      • KCI등재

        전착조건에 따른 Ni - W 합금전착에 관한 연구

        황운석,유황룡,이수갑,문재열,장시성 한국부식학회 2001 Corrosion Science and Technology Vol.30 No.3

        Effects of various electrodeposition conditions and ion concentration contained in solution on Ni-W alloy deposit were investigated. Electrodeposition was performed with various conditions : current density, temperature, pH, and W, Na^+ and SO₄^(2-) concentrations in citrate-containing solution. In the both solutions containing W concentrations of 0.144M and 0.212M, as the current density was increased, current efficiency was decreased but W content in the Ni-W alloy deposit was increased and reached the highest value of 41wt.% in the W concentration of 0.212M. When the pH was increased, the current efficiency was increased because the H₂ evolution reaction was decreased on the cathode surface. As the temperature was increased, the current efficiency was increased and the W content was increased up to 41wt.%. From the above results, the highest W content in the deposit was 41wt.% and the optimal conditions for the Ni-41wt.%W alloy deposit were current density of l0A/dm², temperature of 70℃, pH 6 and W concentration of 0.212M. In addition, as the Na+ ion concentration was increased, the current efficiency was decreased but nearly constant with an addition of NH₄OH. Cathodic voltage was decreased with adding NH₄OH. It was considered that NH90H played a role as a ligand for metallic complexes in the solution. SO₄^(2-) ion may have not affected the electrodeposition behavior.

      • KCI우수등재

        중부 평야지에서 사일리지용 옥수수 품종 선발에 관한 연구 : 파종시기가 사일리지용 옥수수의 생육특성 및 수량에 미치는 영향 Effect of planting time on the growth and yield of silage corn

        김준식,김원호,김원영,김영진,한학석,김맹중 한국축산학회 1998 한국축산학회지 Vol.40 No.1

        This experiment was conducted at theForage Research Farm of the Beef and Dairy Cattle Division, National Livestock Research Institute, Songhwan in 1992 and 1995 to investigate the effects of planting time (April 15, May 11, June 5) on the growth and yield of silage com(Zea mat's L.). In the plant height, P3144W and DK729 were taller than the others, as 301.6, and 296.3cm, respectively, and P3282 was the shortest as 247.7㎝ at the first planting time. P3144W and DK729 were taller than the others, as 303.6㎝, 281.7㎝, respectively, and P3282 was the shortest as 249.6㎝ at the second planting time. P3144W was the tallest as 276.9㎝. DK689 was the shortest as 246.1㎝ at the third planting time. The ear heights of P3144W and P3282 were 137.3 and 132.7㎝, respectively, and Suweon 19 was the shortest as 116.4㎝ at the first planting time. Those of P3144W and P3282 were as 135.9, 134.4㎝, respectively, and Suwoen 19 was the shortest as 112.1㎝ at the second planting time. P3144W was the tallest as 111.0㎝ and Suweon 19 was the shortest as 94.2㎝ at the third planting time. In the dry matter yield per ha, P3352, DK729 and P3144W were higher than the others as 18,957, 18,840, 18,743㎏, respectively, and P3282 was the lowest as 13,863㎏ at the first planting time. 64743 and P3352 were 18,183 and 17,874㎏, respectively, and Suwoen 19 was the lowest as 15,007㎏ at the second planting time. P3144W was the highest as 19,112㎏ and Suwnen 19 was the lowest as 14,793㎏ at the third planting time. The TDN yield per ha, of P3352, P3144W and DK729 were 13,552, 13,281 and 13,252㎏, respectively, and P3282 was the lowest as 9,793㎏ at the first planting time. 64743 and P3352 were higher than the others as 13,149 and 13,009kg, respectively, and Suwoen 19 was the lowest as 10,872㎏ at the second planting time. P3144W was the highest as 13,521㎏ and Suwven 19 was the lowest as 10,392㎏ at the third planting time.

      • KCI우수등재

        계단형 텅스텐 결정면의 질소 흡착에 관한 연구 : Ⅱ. W(210) 및 W(310)면

        최대선(D. S. Choi), 한종훈(J. H. Han), 백선목(S. M. Paik), 박노길(N. G. Park), 김욕욱(Y. W. Kim), 황정남(C. N. Whang) 한국진공학회(ASCT) 1996 Applied Science and Convergence Technology Vol.5 No.4

        장전자 방출법으로 텡스텐 (210)면 및 (310)면(100)면의 질소 흡착에 의한 일함수의 변화에 heat of desorption을 측정하였으며 Thermal Desortion Spectra(TDS) 결과로부터 adsorption site를 예측하였다. 텅스텐 (210)면 및 (310)면에 에 질소가 흡착될 때 흡착율에 따라 일함수는 증가하다가 각 면에 대하여 흡착율 5 Langmuir일때 최대 변화량 0.29 eV및 0.20 eV에서 포화되었다. TDS 결과는 이 면들은 낮은 dose의 영역에서 각각 3개의 흡착 site가 있음을 보였으며 이 흡착 site들 중 α₁state의 spectrum의 강도는 (210)면에서 보다 (310)면에서 상대적으로 강해짐을 보였다. 또한 (210)와 (310)면의 α₁ 과 β₂ state의 흡착 site에 흡착된 질소의 dipole moment의 방향은 이 흡착 site들에 대응되는 (100)면의 α₁ 과 β₂state의 흡착 site에 흡착된 질소의 dipole moment의 방향과 반대 방향으로 측정되었으며 이 현상으로부터 질소의 상대적인 흡착 위치를 예측하였다. The heat of desorption and the work function change induced by nitrogen adsorption on the stepped tungstein surface planes, W(210) and W(310), are measured using the Field Electron Emission Microscope(FEM). The adsoption sites are predicted from the Thermal Desortion Spectra(TDS). The work function change of both W(210) and W(310) planes increase as increasing the nitrogen dose and saturates at the nitrogen dose about 5 Langmuir to 0.29 eV and 0.20 ev respectively. We find three adsorption site on each plane for the low dose range. The TDS result shows that the intensity of α₁, state on W(310) is much stronger than that of α₁ state on W(210), and the direction of nitrogen dipole moment adsorbed on the sites correspond to α₁, and β₂ states on W(210) and W(310) planes are in the opposite direction to that of the equivalent states on W(100) plane. From this observation we can predict the relative atomic position in the zdirection (perpendicular direction to the surface) of nitrogen molecules/atoms adsorbed on these sites.

      • KCI우수등재

        산란계 개량에 관한 연구;1. 순계의 생산능력 비교시험

        한성욱,김동곤,상병찬,강만석 한국축산학회 1980 한국축산학회지 Vol.22 No.5

        This experiment was carried out to test performance of the domentic purebred fowl. The purpose of this experiment was to compare the productive performance of the purebred fowl to obtained basic materials for laying performance improvement by means of cross breeding. In this study, 1, 200 chickens was used-that is 6 purebred strains White Leghorns(720 chickens), 1 purebred strain Rhode Island Reds (120 chickens), 1 purebred strain New Hampshires (120 chickens). The results obtained in this study are as follows; 1. The average Viability of brooding, rearing and laying period was best for Rhode Island Reds and E. Strain among White Leghorns. 2. The average body weight at 8 weeks, first egg production days, 500days of age in W. L. was 546.86g. 1431.37g, 1738.34g, respectively, but there was no significant difference among. purebred strains of W. L. 3. The average Sexual maturity of 50% egg production was 170.58 days in W. L., but R. I. R. and S. N. H. were 189.94 days, 182.42days, respectively. There was significant difference at 1 % level among Strains. 4. The average hen-housed egg production was 214.16 eggs in W. L., but R. I. R. and S. N. H. were 214.22 eggs, 196.74 eggs, respectively. There was significant difference at 1% level among Strains, but the highest hen-housed egg production (231.84 eggs) was E. Strain among strains. 5. The average egg weight was 54. 48g in W. L, but R. I. R. and .S. N. H. were 56.12g, 54.90g, respectively, The highest egg weight (57.69g) was Coronial Strain of W. L. among strains. There was significant difference at 1 % Level among strains. 6. The average feed requirement was 3.01 in W. L. but R. I. R. and S. N. H. were 3.23, 3.52, respectively the highest feed requirement (2.79) was Coronial Strain of W. L. among strains. There was significant difference at 1 % level among strains. 7. On the basis of the results of this study, the productive performance was best for C. D. E. strains among W. L. and R. I. R.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        Estimation of Genetic Parameters for Direct, Maternal and Grandmatemal Genetic Effects for Birth, Weaning and Six Month Weights of Hanwoo (Korean Cattle)

        Choi,,S.B.,Lee,,J.W.,Kim,,N.S.,Na,,S.H.,Keown,,J.F.,Van,Vleck,,L.D. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2000 Animal Bioscience Vol.13 No.2

        The objectives of this study of Hanwoo (Korean Cattle) were 1) to estimate genetic parameters for direct and maternal genetic effects for birth weight, weaning weight, and six months weight which can be used for genetic evaluations and 2) to compare models with and without grandmatemal effects. Data were obtained from the National Livestock Research Institute in Rural Development Administration (RDA) of Korea and were used to estimate genetic parameters for birth weight (BW, n=10,889), weaning weight at 120-d (WW, n=8,637), and six month weight (W6, n=8,478) in Hanwoo. Total number of animals in pedigrees was 14,949. A single-trait animal model was initially used to obtain starting values for multiple-trait animal models. Estimates of genetic parameters were obtained with MTDFREML using animal models and derivative-free REML (Boldman et al., 1995). Estimates of direct heritability for BW, WW, and W6 analyzed as single-traits were 0.09, 0.03, and 0.02 from Model 3 which included direct and maternal genetic, maternal permanental environmental effects, and effects due to sire ${\times}$ region ${\times}$ year-season interaction, respectively. Ignoring sire ${\times}$ region ${\times}$ year-season interaction effect in the model (Model 2) resulted in larger estimates for direct heritability than for Model 3. Estimates of maternal heritability for BW, WW and W6 were 0.04, 0.05, and 0.07 from Model 3, respectively. The estimates of direct-maternal genetic correlation were positive for BW, WW, and W6 with Model 3 but were negative with Model 2 for WW and W6. Estimates of direct genetic correlations between BW and WW, BW and W6, and WW and W6 were large: 0.52, 0.45, and 0.90, respectively. Genetic correlations were also large and positive for maternal effects for BW with maternal effects for WW and W6 (0.69 and 0.74), and even larger for WW with W6 (0.97). The log likelihood values were the same for models including grandmatemal effects as for models including maternal effects for all traits. These results indicate that grandmatemal effects are not important for these traits for Hanwoo or that the data structure was not adequate for estimating parameters for a grandmatemal model.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        Original Article : Responses to Enteric Motor Neurons in the Gastric Fundus of Mice With Reduced Intramuscular Interstitial Cells of Cajal

        ( Kenton M Sanders ), ( Anna K Salte ), ( Grant W Hennig ), ( Sang Don Koh ), ( Brian A Perrino ), ( Sean M Ward ), ( Salah A Baker ) 대한소화기기능성질환·운동학회(구 대한소화관운동학회) 2014 Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility (JNM Vol.20 No.2

        Background/Aims Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) play important functions in motor activity of the gastrointestinal tract. The role of ICC as pacemakers is well established, however their participation in neurotransmission is controversial. Studies using mutant animals that lack ICC have yielded variable conclusions on their importance in enteric motor responses. The purpose of this study was to: (1) clarify the role of intramuscular ICC (ICC-IM) in gastric motor-neurotransmission and (2) evaluate remodeling of enteric motor responses in W/WV mice. Methods Kit immunohistochemistry and post-junctional contractile responses were performed on fundus muscles from wild type and W/WV mice and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to evaluate differences in muscarinic and neurokinin receptor expression. Results Although ICC-IM were greatly reduced in comparison with wild-type mice, we found that ICC-IM persisted in the fundus of many W/WV animals. ICC-IM were not observed in W/WV group 1 (46%) but were observed in W/WV group 2 (40%). Evoked neural responses consisted of excitatory and inhibitory components. The inhibitory component (nitrergic) was absent in W/WV group 1 and reduced in W/WV group 2. Enhanced excitatory responses (cholinergic) were observed in both W/WV groups and qPCR revealed that muscarinic-M3 receptor expression was significantly augmented in the W/WV fundus compared to wild type controls. Conclusions This study demonstrates that ICC-IM mediate nitrergic inhibitory neurotransmission in the fundus and provides evidence of plasticity changes in neuronal responses that may explain discrepancies in previous functional studies which utilized mutant animals to examine the role of ICC-IM in gastric enteric motor responses. (J Neurogastroenterol Motil 2014;20:171-184)

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