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This study was conducted to estimate genetic parameters for litter size and sex ratio in Yorkshire and Landrace. In the study, 26,389 records of Yorkshire and 26,713 records of Landrace for reproductive performance were collected from 1998 to 2008 in S farm. The genetic parameters for reproductive traits were estimated using model 1(permanent environmental effects were considered) and model 2(permanent environmental effects were not considered) by single trait and multiple traits analysis, The results obtained this study were summarized as follow; 1. The means and standard error of the total number of born and number of born alive in 26,389 records of Yorkshire were 11.35±3.18 and 10.04±3.08, respectively. The means and standard error of the total number of born for 1^(st), 2^(nd) , 3^(rd), 4^(th) and 5^(th) parity were 10.50±2.97, 11.13±3.26, 11.73±3.17, 11.96±3.17, and 11.99±3.20, respectively. And the means and standard error of number of born alive for 1^(st), 2^(nd) , 3^(rd), 4^(th) and 5^(th) parity were 9.39±2.98, 10.13±3.12, 10.56±3.04, 10.61±3.06 and 10.41±3.07, respectively. 2. The means and standard error of the total number of born and number of born alive in 26,713 records of Landrace were 10.97±2.97 and 9.98±2.88, respectively. The means and standard error of the total number of born for 1^(st), 2^(nd) , 3^(rd), 4^(th) and 5^(th) parity were 10.29±2.74, 10.69±3.05, 11.24±2.99, 11.54±3.01 and 11.56±2.93, respectively. And the means and standard error of number of born alive for 1^(st), 2^(nd) , 3^(rd), 4^(th) and 5^(th) parity were 9.44±2.77, 9.91±2.92, 10.36±2.90, 10.51±2.89 and 10.37±2.82, respectively. Litter size tended to increase as the increasing of parities in both Yorkshire and Landrace. 3. Among all the offsprings from both breeds, the number of male higher than the female. 4. Estimated heritabilities and repeatabilities using model 1 for reproductive traits in Yorkshire were 0.087±0.012 and 0.20 for total number of born, respectively and 0.102±0.012, 0.17 for number of born alive, respectively and 0.002±0.002, 0.01 for sex ratio, respectively. 5. Estimated heritabilities and repeatabilities using model 1 for reproductive traits in Landrace were 0.095±0.012 and 0.20 for total number of born, respectively and 0.091±0.012, 0.18 for number of born alive, respectively and 0.002±0.002, 0.01 for sex ratio, respectively. 6. Estimated heritabilities and their standard error for reproductive traits using model 2 by single trait analysis for 1^(st), 2^(nd) , 3^(rd), 4^(th) and 5^(th) parity in Yorkshire were 0.068±0.018, 0.084±0.022, 0.114±0.026, 0.043±0.021 and 0.106±0.035 for total number of born, respectively and 0.064±0.018, 0.069±0.020, 0.106±0.025, 0.047±0.020 and 0.085±0.032 for number of born alive, respectively and 0.000±0.005, 0.013±0.009, 0.003±0.009, 0.010±0.013 and 0.000±0.014 for sex ratio, respectively. 7. Estimated heritabilities and their standard error for reproductive traits using model 2 by single trait analysis for 1^(st), 2^(nd) , 3^(rd), 4^(th) and 5^(th) parity in Landrace were 0.172±0.027, 0.066±0.020, 0.073±0.023, 0.082±0.026 and 0.080±0.031 for total number of born, respectively and 0.156±0.027, 0.050±0.018, 0.062±0.021, 0.050±0.021 and 0.070±0.030 for number of born alive, respectively and 0.007±0.007, 0.016±0.012, 0.006±0.010, 0.000±0.009 and 0.003±0.009 for sex ratio, respectively. 8. No significant difference was observed when the heritabilities for reproductive traits were estimated from model 2 by single trait and multiple traits analysis. 9. Estimates of genetic correlations between total number of born and number of born alive for 1^(st), 2^(nd) , 3^(rd), 4^(th) and 5^(th) parity in Yorkshire were 0.924±0.036, 0.915±0.035, 0.938±0.027, 0.793±0.112 and 0.854±0.072, respectively. And estimates of phenotypic correlations between total number of born and number of born alive for 1^(st), 2^(nd) , 3^(rd), 4^(th) and 5^(th) parity in Yorkshire were 0.857±0.004, 0.897±0.003, 0.873±0.004, 0.850±0.005 and 0.824±0.007, respectively. 10. Estimates of genetic correlations between total number of born and number of born alive for 1^(st), 2^(nd) , 3^(rd), 4^(th) and 5^(th) parity in Landrace were 0.983±0.008, 0.917±0.039, 0.970±0.022, 0.936±0.043 and 0.954±0.047, respectively. And estimates of phenotypic correlations between total number of born and number of born alive for 1^(st), 2^(nd) , 3^(rd), 4^(th) and 5^(th) parity in Landrace were 0.885±0.003, 0.905±0.003, 0.908±0.003, 0.883±0.004 and 0.849±0.006, respectively. 11. Estimates of genetic and phenotypic correlations between litter size and sex ratio were irregular tendency by parity.
The main purpose of this study is to examine the present status of housing policy based on Korean military personnel's housing conditions. As a result of the study, the following are pointed out: first, military personnel is vocationally exposed to the risky situations by handling lethal arms and explosives and taking intensive training, but their housing facilities not only are located in the remote areas of eup or myen but also are too worn out, and too small for the demand placed on them. To military men, also, there are many serious problems other than the housing-related ones, including relocation every two-years; separation from the family; service in area without relations; and early discharge when they are passed over for promotion. In order to reform poor situations of housing facilities and deteriorated institutions previously mentioned, this paper will suggest three reform measures which will be used as essential data by policy planners in the department of defense and the headquarters of the Republic of Korea army. First, the housing supply for military personnel should be continually extended. For the rapid response military men who must be ready for emergencies and who frequently move on account of shift-work and who provide services in remote areas, it is of great significance that housing supply for their sake should meet 100 percent of the demand. In order to support housing on the basis of the exact judgement on demand, the military authorities should include not only home owners but also married first lieutenants, second lieutenants and even married staff sergeants to the total amount of demand and when the housing plan is carried out, the site should be arranged not within barracks but in town in their family's interest. This site selection is desirable in helping the family to have easy access to schools, markets, and other cultural facilities, which should be guaranteed institutionally. Second, housing facilities for military men should be improved in quality. The military authorities should abandon the convention that housing for military men is restricted to 5 stories and should plan high-rise buildings and larger houses in consideration of social development. An apartment house development and welfare complex will include a market place, welfare facilities, a playground, facilities for seniors, and indoor and outdoor sports facilities. It is necessary that the loan program to support lease residence be reformed and a special allowance for housing purchase be readjusted. In case the authorities concerned cannot support the housing demand, they should permit dwelling in a private house. Third, the housing supply should be extended in the form allowing tenants to purchase their own homes. With help of the military mutual aid association, it is very desirable that the authorities should increase the quantity of supplied housing in such various ways as special distributions, leased residence, housing corporations, etc. under the current trend of diversified democratic society, but now there are many defects in the present qualification for housing distribution. This short-sighted qualification is lacking in the fact that military men are often faced with frequent shifts of working place and the instability of their children's education. So it is believed that the requirements in general laws like the house building promotion law should be revised and the house application priority should be given to military men of more than 20 years. Military men first commissioned should have an opportunity to receive a long-term loan for housing purchase at a low interest rate (1% annual rate). The aforementioned measures on housing supply will make it possible for military men to be able to enjoy comfortable lives with housing support and to purchase their own homes within 10 years, similar to non-military civilians. In consequence, military men will devote themselves to defending our country and preserving the lives and properties of the nation at the cost of their own private lives. From this point of view, it is clear that the welfare policy for military men should assure that military men have a right to live an existence of at least the same quality as non-military civilians under their protection. Military men cannot perform their duties perfectly until they are satisfied with their present lives. Finally, this new decision will help the military authorities to gain excellent human resources from the society.
본 연구는 초등학생의 여가활동 참여 유형이 사회성 발달에 미치는 영향을 규명하는데 그 목적이 있다. 연구의 목적을 달성하기 위하여, 2002년 현재 충청남도교육청 산하 15개 초등학교 5, 6학년 재학생 312명(남학생 160명, 여학생 152명)을 체계적 유층 집락 무선 표집법(systematic stratified cluster random sampling method)을 이용하여 표집하였고, 설문지를 활용하여 자료를 획득하였다. 이용된 설문지는 정범모, 이종승(1971)의 연구를 기초로 하여 박영호(1989), 황학현(1996), 김동천(1998), 이동진(2001) 등의 연구에서 검증 사용된 내용을 초등학생에게 적합한 문장으로 수정 제작한 후 타당도와 신뢰도 검사를 통해 최종적으로 확정 사용하였다. 수집된 자료의 분석을 위하여 spss/pc+windows version 8.0 통계프로그램을 이용하였고 통계분석 기법으로는 일원변량분석법(ANOVA)이 주로 활용되었다. 이상과 같은 연구방법과 절차, 자료분석을 통하여 본 연구에서 얻은 결론은 다음과 같다; 첫째, 참여하는 여가활동의 종류에 따라 초등학생들은 사회성 발달의 정도가 다른 것으로 나타났다. 구체적으로는, 스포츠를 포함한 다양한 여가활동에 적극적으로 참여하는 아동들이 여가시간에 휴식을 취하거나 컴퓨터와 함께 여가를 보내는 등 소극적인 아동들에 비해 활동성과 지배성이 발달한 것으로 나타났다. 둘째, 아동들은 여가활동 참여빈도에 따라 사회성 발달의 정도가 차이가 있는 것으로 나타났다. 구체적으로 주당 여가활동에의 참여빈도가 높은 집단일수록 지배성과 사교성이 발달한 것으로 나타났다. 셋째, 여가활동 참여기간에 따라서도 아동들의 사회성 발달 정도는 차이가 있는 것으로 나타났다. 즉, 여가활동 참여기간이 장기화될수록 활동성과 사교성이 좋아지는 것으로 나타났다. 넷째, 여가활동에 참여하는 과정에서 아동들은 동반자에 따라 사회성 발달의 정도가 다른 것으로 나타났다. 구체적으로 아동들은 또래집단인 친구들과 여가활동을 함께 할 때 사교성이 현저히 발달하는 것으로 나타났다. 다섯째, 아동들은 가족 내에서 서열이 앞설수록 그리고 여자 아동들보다는 남자 아동들이 자율성이 발달한 것으로 나타났고 모친의 연령이 젊을수록 사교성이 발달한 것으로 나타났다. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of leisure activity participation type on children's sociability development. The subjects for the study was sampled from Chungnam area using systematic stratified cluster random sampling method. They were 312 5th-6th grade students(Male, 160; female 152). The questionnaire used for collecting data was slightly modified from Park, young-ho(1989)'s, Whang, hack-hyun(1996)'s, Kim, dong-cheon(1998)'s and Lee, dong-jin(2001)'s based on Jung, beom-mo and Lee, Jong-seung(1971)'s research and tested its validity and reliability. Each questionnaire was filled out by the subject himself/herself using self-administration method. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS/PC+ 8.0 program using reliability test, descriptive analysis, and ANOVA statistical methods . The conclusions were as follows; 1. The participation type of each student in leisure activities influenced to the children's sociability development. Especially, the vigorous participants in leisure activities including sports showed better vitality and dominance than the passive participants. 2. The participation level(frequency and duration) in leisure activities also influenced to the children's sociability development. The higher and longer participants showed the better sociability(especially at dominance and vitality) than the lower and shorter participants. 3. The significant companions such as friends had positive influences to the children's sociability development in leisure activity participating process. 4. The level of sociability development was also influenced by the rank in a family and gender factors. The boys and the higher rank students were showed better development at sociability and self-control than the girls and the lower rankers.
1.1 General Consideration Galvannealed steel sheets(coated steels) exhibit excellent performance, such as paintabiltiy, corrosion resistance and weldability . These steel sheets can be produced at relatively low cost among several types of coated steel sheets. Accordingly, it has been used in large quantities, especially in the production of automobiles. On the other hands, surface friction is one of the most important characteristics, which influences on the formability of coated steels. Generally, the frictional properties of the coated layer is influenced by the following conditions; (1) The contact conditions; which include geometry, temperature, environment, etc. (2) The contacting materials; which include parameters such as the physical and chemical properties of coated layer, substrate and the counterface. (3) The materials; which include parameters such as grain size, density and porosity. (4) The composite coated layer/substrate system; which include parameters such as the coating thickness, coated layer and substrate hardness, elastic modulus, surface roughness as well as thermal and chemical compatibility, including adhesion of the coated layer and the substrate . And the die design of coated steels is performed with the conditions of uncoated steels. But coated steels have the different material and frictional properties between coated and uncoated steels. Therefore the study on coated steels is demanded. 1.2 A trend of the study Most of the components for car body have generally been manufactured by press process including stamping. To achieve good formability, most of studies focused on developing materials with good formability but there is a limitation in developing materials. There have been many studies for production efficiency and high quality of high strength, aluminum alloy and magnesium alloy steel sheets nowadays in sheet metal forming. It was predicted that the formability on side of the metal forming technology by simulation. According to tool design, the technology of a reduction of lead time, high precision of CAD/CAM and high speed are applied side of the sheet metal forming . The studies such as the formability with composition of compound and frictional properties with composition of coated layer are performed. But these studies are localized to developing material, and are difficult to apply on manufacture. Therefore the understanding of difference between uncoated and coated steel sheets is needed. 1.3 Objection of this study With the population of precision manufacturing in the automotive industry, the control of forming defects is gradually becoming strict. There is difference in mechanical and frictional parameters between uncoated and coated steel sheets because of coated layer. Based on a deep comprehension of the forming characteristics of an auto-panel, the understanding of the difference between uncoated and coated steel sheets is most important in the quality control of a complicate auto-panel. Thus the manufacturing cost of auto-panels can be reduced, and the production efficiency can be improved significantly. The aim of this study is to understand the difference in the mechanical and frictional properties between uncoated and coated steel sheets and to suggest the method that is able to improve the formability of coated steel sheets. In this study, a follow study is performed. (1) In order to understand the difference in mechanical properties between uncoated and coated steel sheets, tensile test and Forming Limit Diagram test are performed. And nano-indentation test is used to estimate the mechanical properties of coated layer. (2) In order to understand the difference in frictional parameters between uncoated and coated steel sheets, flat friction test and drawbead friction test are performed. And Scanning electron micrograph is used for analysis of frictional characteristics. (3) In order to estimate formability of uncoated and coated steel sheets, LDR and cup drawing test are performed on drawing deformation mode, Erichsen and bulging test are used for stretching deformation mode, and bore expanding test is used for bore expanding deformation mode. (4) Base on these results, the methods which are able to improve the formability of coated steel sheets are suggested.