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        Antiobesity Effect of Kochujang (Korean Fermented Red Pepper Paste) Extract in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

        안인숙,도명술,Su-Ok Kim,정헌순,Young-In Kim,Hye-Jung Kim,박건영 한국식품영양과학회 2006 Journal of medicinal food Vol.9 No.1

        Kochujang (Korean fermented red pepper paste) is a mixture of fermented soybeans, wheat, and red pepperpowder. Kochujanghas been reported to reduce body fat gain and lipid levels of adipose tissues and serum in rats. We stud-ied the inhibitory effect of Kochujang on lipid accumulation and investigated the molecular mechanism of the action in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by measuring the expression levels of adipocyte-specific genes by real-time reverse transcription-polymerasechain reaction. When 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with Kochujangextract (KE), the sizes of adipocytes and leptin secre-tion were decreased. Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) was transcriptionally up-regulated at 4 hours, and glycerol secretion wasincreased at both 4 hours and 24 hours. Moreover, mRNA expression levels of both sterol regulatory element-binding protein1-c (SREBP-1c) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-. (PPAR-.), which are critical transcription factors for adi-pogenesis, were markedly down-regulated. Tumor necrosis factor-. (TNF-.) is reported to impair pre-adipocyte differentia-tion and induce lipolysis and apoptosis. KE treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes decreased TNF-. mRNA levels, but had no ap-parent affect on apoptosis. Taken together, our study shows that Kochujangdecreased lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytesby inhibiting adipogenesis through down-regulation of SREBP-1c and PPAR-. and by stimulation of lipolysis due to increasedHSL activity. TNF-. might not be involved in the reduction of lipid accumulation by KE.

      • B16F10 Mouse Melanoma 세포에서의 L-cysteine에 의한 멜라닌 생성 억제

        안인숙,김지혜,유희숙,장뢰,강상모,최태부,권태종,안성관,김기연 대한피부미용학회 2007 대한피부미용학회지 Vol.5 No.2

        Pigmented skin disorders, including melasma, freckles and post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, are one of the commonest reasons for peoples and patients seeking various skin care shops and dermatology consultation. Melanocytic cells can produce two types of pigment, pheomelanin and eumelanin, in their specialized intracellular organelles termed melanosomes. Steps of melanin biosynthesis catalyzed by tyrosinease, a key enzyme of melanogenesis, are common to eumelanogenesis and pheomelanogenesis. In addition to tyrosinase, two more enzymes,tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TYRP1) and dopachrome tautomerase (DCT), are known to be involved in eumelanogenesis and/or pheomelanogenesis. It has been reported that thiol compounds, such as cysteine and glutathione, result in decreasing pigmentation by favoring to the pheomelanogenesis and bringing down synthesis of eumelanin. However its mechanisms are poorly understood. In the present study, the effect of L-cysteine on melanogenesis and expression of tyrosinase and its related proteins was examined in a B16F10 mouse melanoma cell line model system. Cytotoxicity of L-cysteine when co-treated with α-MSH and arbutin in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells were tested. Within a concentration range of L-cysteine showing no cytotoxicity effects, it decreased the amount of melanin and activity of tyrosinase in cells treated with α-MSH in a dose dependent manner. In addition, L-cysteine decreased levels of protein expression of tyrosinase, but not either of TYRP1 or DCT in these cells. Treatment of L-cysteine resulted in diminishing dendrite of B16F10 mouse melanoma cells. Collectively these data show that L-cysteine has a inhibitory effect on melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity by down-regulation of tyrosinase protein in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells. It implies that L-cysteine may be a good ingredient candidate for developing whiting effect cosmetic products or drugs for hyperpigmentary disorders.

      • KCI등재

        체세포배발생을 통한 오일팜나무(Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) 클론의 기내증식 및 RAPD를 이용한 체세포변이의 검정

        안인숙,박혜림,손성호 한국식물생명공학회 2012 식물생명공학회지 Vol.39 No.3

        본 실험은 오일팜나무에서 somatic embryo mass(SEM)를유도한 후 이로부터 식물체 분화를 통한 클론묘 대량증식 시스템을 확립하고, 기내 배양에 의하여 야기된 체세포변이의 확인 방법을 확립하기 위하여 수행되었다. 오일팜 조직배양묘의 정단 부분을 NaH2PO4・2H2O와 카제인이 첨가된 1/2MS 수정 배지에 배양하여 체세포배성 캘러스를 유도하였다. 유도된 체세포배성 캘러스는 몇 번의계대배양을 통하여 SEM으로 발달하였다. SEM 조직은단단하며, 강하게 붙어있어서 개개의 체세포배를 따로분리하는 것이 매우 어려웠다. SEM 조직을 NH4NO3, 카제인, L-ascorbic acid가 첨가된 MS 수정 배지에 배양하였을 때 신초가 성공적으로 분화하였다. 기내 오일팜나무를 야외로 순화하여 완전한 오일팜나무 클론묘를 획득할수 있었다. 기내 배양묘 중 건강하고 생장이 양호한 신초를 무작위로 95 개체를 선발하여 RAPD 분석을 실시하였다. 총 19개의 random primer를 사용하여 95 개체에 대한RAPD를 수행한 결과, 대부분의 primer에서는 동일한 밴드 형태를 보여 어떠한 변이도 감지할 수 없었다. 그러나, MspI으로 절단된 genomic DNA를 BNR36 primer로PCR을 수행하였을 때, 개체 간 차이를 보이는 밴드 형태를 나타내어 체세포변이를 감지할 수 있었다. 95 개체 중#22, #28, #35, #77 의 4 개체에서 약 1kb 부근의 밴드 하나가 없었으며, 그 중 #28, #35, #77의 밴드 강도는 정상 밴드보다 월등히 강한 것을 확인하였다. NCBI 분석 결과,이 변이 밴드는 오일팜나무의 엽록체 게놈과 관련이 있는 This study was carried out to develop reliable systems for somatic embryogenesis in oil palm tree (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.), and to verify the somaclonal variants by RAPD analysis. Embryogenic callus was induced successfully on modified half-strength MS medium containing NaH2PO4・2H2O and casein. Embryogenic callus was further developed to somatic embryo mass (SEM), which is very hard and bonded tightly each other. Plantlets were proliferated when SEM was cultured on modified MS medium containing half strength NH4NO3, casein and L-ascorbic acid. Plantlets were transplanted into pots containing artificial soils. When RAPD analysis was conducted using randomly selected 95 in vitro plantlets and 19 random primers, somaclonal variation was detected using BNR35 primer. There was missing band around 1 kb in #22, #28, #35, and #77 plantlets. In addition, bands obtained from #28, #35, and #77 was much stronger than other normal bands. The blast results at NCBI revealed that somaclonal variation observed in this study was related to chloroplast genome of oil palm. The results also revealed that oil palm reproduction system through somatic embryogenesis is quite reliable and early detection of somaclonal variants seem to be possible at in vitro stage by RAPD analysis.

      • KCI등재

        직업 및 여가가치관이 유연근무제인식과 행동의도에 미치는 영향

        안인숙,이걸재 한국외식산업학회 2022 한국외식산업학회지 Vol.18 No.1

        This study was conducted to help establish the flexible work system by grasping the relationship between the job values and leisure values of office workers on the perception of the flexible work system. In particular, the purpose of this study is to determine whether occupational value and leisure value have a moderating effect between the perception of the flexible work system and behavioral intention. In order to achieve the research purpose, an empirical analysis was conducted with a sample of 229 office workers. As a result, this empirical analysis, it was found that job values and leisure values influence the perception and behavioral intention of the flexible work system, and in particular, among job values and leisure values, values related to self-development are thought of as opportunities to realize self-development through the flexible work system. .

      • KCI등재

        예수의 대인 화법 연구

        안인숙 한국화법학회 2003 화법연구 Vol.6 No.-

        이 연구의 목적은 성경에 나타난 예수의 언어 연구를 통해 말을 통해 사람을 변화시키고 역사를 바꾸었던 예수의 대인 화법의 전개 과정과 그 유형을 고찰하는 데 있다. 이 논문에서는 특히 수만 명의 군중과의 커뮤니케이션보다는 십여 명의 제자들과의 관계와 군중 가운데 주목한 한두 사람과의 대화를 통한 대인커뮤니케이션을 중심으로 예수 화법의 일정한 전개 방식과 변화를 일으키는 화법의 기본 구조를 밝혀보고자 한다. 성경에서의 말은 의사 소통의 수단을 넘어서 세상을 존재하게 하는 것이며, 사람을 변화시키는 가장 근본적인 통로이며, 진리가 선포되고 병자를 치료하는 도구이다. 또한 성경에서의 예수는 ‘말씀’이라고 표현되어 있다. 태초부터 존재하여 세상을 창조했던 말이라고 표현되어 있다. 그러므로 말은 성경에서 가장 상위에 위치한 의인화된 존재이다. 예수는 대화를 할 때 자신이 누구인지 알고 대화의 주체로서 임한다. 그리고 대화의 핵심을 잘 파악하고 있다. 자신의 대화에 대해 전문적인 지식을 가지고 있다. 그리고 상대가 무슨 의도를 가지고 대화에 임하는지를 알고 있다. 수많은 군중이 따랐지만 자신이 가장 공들이는 부분은 제자들의 전문화였다. 그래서 가르침 후에는 제자들과 지속적 피드백을 하고 이해가 부족한 부분은 재차 설명을 해 주었다. 예수의 생애는 가르치고, 선포하고, 치료하는 사역으로 크게 나눌 수 있는데 이 논문에서는 대화를 통해 심리치료와 육체의 질병을 치료를 하는 대화법에 대해 그 규칙성을 제시한다. 예수는 수많은 군중 속에서도 대화를 할 때는 대화상대에 완전히 집중하였다. 상대와 대화하는 순간만큼은 그 사람이 이 세상에서 가장 소중한 존재로 인정하였다. 이는 사람을 천하보다 귀하게 여기는 예수의 사상과 관련되어 있다. 그리고 심리적이고 내적인 요소와 육체적이고 삶의 고통의 문제를 동시에 주목하는 대인 커뮤니케이션 양식을 띄고 있다. 예수의 대화는 대화자체를 넘어서 서로 함께 공존하고 살아가는 삶의 영역을 다루며 그 당시 시대상황에서 민중들이 가장 고민하고 아파하던 문제들을 대화를 통해 해결하는 공생의 매개물이다. 본 연구는 예수의 대안 화법의 전개 과정과 유형 분석의 고찰을 통해 전반적인 ‘대인 화법 연구’에 도움을 주고자 한다. The purpose of this study is to investigate the type and progress of the interpersonal communication of jesus who changed the history of human being by word through the study of language of jesus in bible. In this study, I endeavored to clear the basic structure of communication which changed the human and the deployment of interpersonal communication focused on 2~3 person among the public and the disciple of jesus. The word in bible is the means of heal the weakness and declare the truth, the core passage to change the people and being maintenance the world beyond the device of thought flow. Jesus in bible is expressed as word which created the world from the eternity. then the word in bible is the humanized being situated at top class in the world of bible. Jesus stand as the chief in conversation knowing himself, and he knew the core meaning of interview and had the special knowledge of theme, and he knew the attitude of partner. Though a lot of people had followed jesus, his essential work is the specialization of the disciples. so he got the continually feedback and explain again, whenever they were sort of comprehense. The life of jesus is the course of the preach the gospel, teach the truth, and the clear the weakness. In this article, I introduce the regulation of the way of conversation in soul, mind and therapy of body. Jesus concentrated the one person who talk to among the public. At the pont of the time jesus talk to a person, he take him as the most important man in the world. It is concerned with the his thought; One person is the most important one than the whole world, and It is a interpersonal communication based on both mental and internal factor and physical and pain of life. The conversation of jesus with people who suffering from mental anguish at that time is the agency of the part of real life and the solution of the most painful problem in their community. This study will be helpful to 'the general work of personal communication' through the consideration of the interpersonal communication of jesus.

      • KCI등재

        체중조절 기전과 항비만 기능성물질

        안인숙,박건영,도명술,Ahn, In-Sook,Park, Kun-Young,Do, Myoung-Sool 한국식품영양과학회 2007 한국식품영양과학회지 Vol.36 No.4

        The obese population has been increasing worldwide and obesity has become one of the socioeconomic problems. Obesity raises more concerns as more studies regarding its direct and indirect relativity to several diseases such as type II diabetes, hypertension, etc. are published. Since leptin, an important signal in the chronic control of food intake and energy expenditure, was discovered in 1994, there has been a great accumulation of knowledge on fighting obesity by facilitating pharmacological and nutritional strategies on the molecular level of the body weight control system. In particular, evidences are accumulating that particular food components affect our physiological function and gene expressions which are associated with body weight control. In this study, we review the four mechanisms for weight control and antiobesity functional agents such as HCA, L-carnitine, CLA, chitosan, calcium supplements capsaicin contained in red pepper, and oriental herbal mixture. We also describe about the efficacy and working mechanism of these functional agents on the basis of antiobesity mechanisms.

      • KCI등재

        초월자기 척도(the Transcendental Self Scale)의 개발과 타당화 연구

        안인숙,김용태 한국기독교상담심리학회 2019 한국기독교상담학회지 Vol.30 No.1

        This study aimed to develop and validate the Transcendental Self Scale(TSS) to assess the level of transcendence for Christians, based on Kim’s Transcendental Counseling Theory. The exploratory factor analysis yielded 6 factors with 28 items: ‘intrapsychic transcendence,’ ‘need–regulation in interpersonal relationships,’ ‘tolerance through cognitive expansion,’ ‘transcendence through the relationship with the absolute being,’ ‘transcendence through the relationship with the transcendental being,’ and ‘internalized spirituality.’ The confirmatory factor analysis confirmed that the six factor structure was appropriate. The criteria–related validity was tested by analyzing the correlations with self–directedness, cooperativeness, spiritual wellbeing, and positive and negative affect. TSS was related positively with all of them except negative affect and negatively with negative affect. Internal consistency and test– retest reliability showed that TSS had a stable reliability. The implications, limitations, and suggestions of this study were discussed for a further study. 본 연구는 기독교 상담적 관점에서 초월상담을 연구하고 있는 김용태(2004, 2014, 2018)의 연구를 중심으로 기독교인들을 대상으로 하는 초월자기 척도를 개발하고 타당화하는 것을 목적으로 하였다. 이를 위하여 초월상담 이론에 기초하여 문항을 개발하고, 개발한 척도의 구성타당도, 준거 관련 타당도, 신뢰도를 검증하였다. 그 결과, 심리내적 초월, 대인관계에서 욕구조절, 인식 확장을 통한 포용, 절대자와의 관계에서 초월, 내면화된 영성, 초월자와의 관계에서 초월의 여섯 가지 하위요인이 추출되었고, 최종 28문항이 확정되었다. 확인적 요인분석 결과 적합도가 적절하게 도출되었다. 내적 일치도와 검사–재검사 신뢰도를 통해서 초월자기 척도가 신뢰할 수 있음이 검증되었다. 초월자기 척도의 준거 관련 타당화를 위해 자율성, 연대감, 영적안녕감, 한국판 정적 정서 및 부적 정서와 상관관계를 분석했을 때, 유의미한 상관관계가 도출되었다. 본 연구의 의의, 한계, 추후 연구를 위한 제안을 토의하였다.

      • KCI등재

        Kohut의 자기심리학과 Hoekema의 인간 이해

        안인숙,이지영,유희주,최은영 한국기독교상담심리학회 2012 한국기독교상담학회지 Vol.23 No.1

        The purpose of this study is to try a dialogue between Kohut’s self psychology as a personality theory and Hoekema’s Christian human understanding, to examine similarity and difference between them, to find out self’s psychology’s contribution and limitation to a Christian view, and to present an integration approach for a Christian counseling setting. Self psychology is based on the human context from a perspective of a psycho–social being but Christian human understanding is based on the human–divine context for a perspective of a spiritual being. Kohut gives a more concrete explanation about how healthy self–love is formed through the relationship with parents but neglects an aspect of object–love. Hoekema provides wider perspectives about threefold relationship with God, other people and about creation–corruption–redemption and emphasizes Jesus’self–sacrificial love. When self psychology is applied to a Christian counseling setting, Christian counselors should get well aware of the contribution and limitation of self psychology based on the similarity and difference between them. Therefore, the role of Christian counselors is considered important.

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