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Purpose: This paper examined the design of a standard test method for certifying the performance of automatic detection equipment using artificial intelligence (AI). Methods: First, indicators for measuring the detection performance were determined and the terms were redefined. Then, the number of iterations required to give a criterion value at a given confidence level for data following the binomial distribution was calculated. As a case study, an aviation security x-ray scanner was tested. Results: If failures occur before the number of allowable times during the trial, the minimum probability of occurrence of true positive (TP) can be demonstrated. This means that F2-Score is satisfied, and the performance can be certified. Conclusion: This method can be used in industries that operate automatic detectors based on AI technology. The method should contribute to the development of a national certification system and improve product quality control.
We report our experimental nding showing that there exists an asymmetric magnetization reversal behavior along the direction normal to the easy axis in Fe/Cr/Fe thin lms. Interestingly enough, the magnetoresistance and the Kerr hysteresis loops are found to be quite asymmetric between the decreasing- and the increasing-eld branches of the loop in the applied-eld direction normal to the easy axis whereas they are found to be symmetric in the direction parallel to the easy axis. To clarify the microscopic details of the asymmetric magnetization reversal, we use a magneto-optical microscope magnetometer to carry out a direct time-resolved observation of the domain evolution patterns at each switching eld. The magnetization reversal is revealed to take place with a fast, abrupt, simple 180-degree domain-wall conguration at the switching eld in the increasing-eld branch while it is found to take place with an irregular and complex conguration at the switching eld in the decreasing-eld branch.
Objective: The aim of this study is to analyze an excess trend for domestic permissible exposure limit of trichloroethylene based on previous literature review. Materials and Methods: The research object is a trichloroethylene among 13 chemical substances regulated with PEL(Permissible Exposure Limit) in Occupational Safety and Health Act. The information utilized from this study is the work environment measurement data from 2004 to 2013. The highest level among concentration data measured at various workplaces was selected as a representative value through data process. N.D. (Not Detected) data was considered as 1/2 of LOD(Limit Of Detection). Results: Among work environment measurement data between 2004 and 2013, the highest number of excess workplace and excess rate(24 sites & 1.15%) was observed in 2008's data when applying the PEL(50 ppm) of trichloroethylene. When they are compared with the ACGIH's TLV-TWA(10 ppm), 2008's data showed the highest number of excess workplace and excess rate(175 sites & 8.37%). The number of excess workplace and excess rate related to PEL of trichloroethylene showed increase trend in 2005 but tended to decrease after 2008. Conclusions: Based on the results obtained from this study, the exposure level of trichloroethylene in case of domestic workers is not considered as a safe phase regardless of the year of work environment measurement year. Thus, a strictly preventive management in workplace should be provided for reducing exposure level of trichloroethylene.
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The purpose of this study is to investigate concentration and emission coefficients of 22 odorous com pounds, which are regulated by the domestic act, emitted from pig buildings by on-site survey. The odorous compounds which were detected in at least one pig building were ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, trimethyl amine, stylene, toluene, xylene and methyl ethyl ketone whereas other 12 odorous compounds were not detected in pig buildings. In general, indoor concentrations of odorous compounds in pig buildings were higher in scraper type than slurry type based on pig manure collection system and higher in enclosed type than winch-curtain type based on ventilation mode, respectively. In monthly distribution of odorous compounds, their concentrations in September and October when ventilation rate in pig building decreased relatively were generally higher than those in July and August when ventilation rate in pig building is relatively high‘ On the contrary, the emission coefficients of odorous compounds in pig building were generally higher in July and August than September and October. The levels of emission co efficients of odorous compounds obtained from this study were similar or slightly higher compared to those reported previously from foreign countries.
The objective of this study is to quantify the levels of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide in mechanically ventilated slurry-pit swine house according to pig's growth stage and seasonal condition. Mean concentrations of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide in the housing room of gestation/farrowing pigs were 5.60 (±2.48) ppm and 178.4 (±204.8) ppb in spring, 2.51 (±3.08) ppm and 86.6 (±112.5) ppb in summer, 4.96 (±2.84) ppm and 182.3 (±242.6) ppb in autumn, and 6.82 (±3.42) ppm and 206.3 (±356.8) ppb in winter, respectively. Mean concentrations of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide in the housing room of nursery pigs were 7.18 (±3.26) ppm and 486.0 (±190.2) ppb in spring, 4.23 (±2.95) ppm and 206.4 (±186.9) ppb in summer, 7.02 (±2.65) ppm and 465.4 (±156.8) ppb in autumn, and 9.25 (±3.68) ppm and 618.4 (±298.3) ppb in winter, respectively. Mean concentrations of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide in the housing room of growing/fattening pigs were 9.26 (±3.02) ppm and 604.4 (±186.8) ppb in spring, 6.78 (±3.88) ppm and 312.5 (±215.4) ppb in summer, 9.34 (±2.14) ppm and 578.2 (±248.1) ppb in autumn, and 14.65 (±3.15) ppm and 825.3 (±316.9) ppb in winter, respectively. As a result, mean concentrations of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide in terms of pig's growth stage were highest in growing/fattening housing room followed by nursery housing room and gestation/farrowing housing room (p<0.05). The swine house showed the highest levels of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide in winter followed by spring, autumn and summer. However, there was no significant difference of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide among seasons (p>0.05). 본 연구의 목적은 강제환기가 적용되는 슬러리 돈사를 대상으로 돼지 생육 단계별 돈방 유형 측면과 계절적 조건에 따른 암모니아와 황화수소의 실내 농도를 측정 분석하여 정량화하는 데 있다. 임신/분만 돈방의 경우 봄철은 5.60(±2.48) ppm과 178.4(±204.8) ppb, 여름철은 2.51(±3.08) ppm과 86.6 (±112.5) ppb, 가을철은 4.96(±2.84) ppm과 182.3(±242.6) ppb, 겨울철은 6.82(±3.42) ppm과 206.3(±356.8) ppb로, 자돈방의 경우 봄철은 7.18(±3.26) ppm과 486.0(±190.2) ppb, 여름철은 4.23(±2.95) ppm과 206.4(±186.9) ppb, 가을철은 7.02(±2.65) ppm과 465.4(±156.8) ppb, 겨울철은 9.25(±3.68) ppm과 618.4(±298.3) ppb로, 육성/비육 돈방의 경우 봄철은 9.26(±3.02) ppm과 604.4(±186.8) ppb, 여름철은 6.78(±3.88) ppm과 312.5(±215.4) ppb, 가을철은 9.34(±2.14) ppm과 578.2(±248.1) ppb, 겨울철은 14.65(±3.15) ppm과 825.3(±316.9) ppb로 분석되었다. 측정 결과 암모니아와 황화수소 모두 돼지 생육 단계별 돈사 유형 측면에서는 육성/비육 돈사>자돈사>임신/분만 돈사의 순서로 나타났고(p<0.05), 계절적 측면에서는 겨울>봄>가을>여름 순서로 조사되었으나 봄철과 가을철 데이터 간의 차이는 통계적으로 입증되지 않았다(p>0.05).
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is one of the most economically serious veterinary pathogens due to its negative effects on livestock's condition and its highly infectious nature via variety of exposure paths through the oral and inhalation routes. Measures to enhance outbreak management can be designed according to analytical results predicted by mathematical models for wind-borne dispersion, an important path of virus transmission. Accurate atmospheric dispersion models are useful tools for properly determining risk management plan while inaccurate models may conversely lead to accidental loss in 2 possible ways. Over strict measure, for example, slaughter for too wide area can cause severe economic difficulties such as irreversible loss of ability to operate business for a number of farms. On the contrary, inestimable loss possibly caused by lax control is a persistent epidemic. In this paper, available modelling procedures with different advantages and limitations for forecasting the spread of FMDV that have been undertaken since the 1970s are reviewed for the purpose that it can be suitably applied with various conditions in any further emergency cases. 구제역 바이러스는 소나 돼지 등의 우제류 가축에 경구 또는 흡입 노출 등의 다양한 노출 경로를 통해 심각한 감염성을 유발하는 생물학적 유해인자로 국내 축산업 운영에 있어 막대한 경제적 손실을 초래하는 병원균들 중 하나다. 구제역 발병에 대한 사전적 예방 관리를 도모할 수 있는 조치 방안 중 하나는 공기를 통해 전파되는 구제역 바이러스 확산에 대해 수학적 모델 적용을 통해 예측된 분석 결과에 따라 설정될 수 있다. 대기 확산 모델들은 일반적으로 구제역 바이러스의 주요 전파 경로인 경구 및 접촉 감염의 노출 시나리오를 예측할 수는 없으나, 상대적으로 예측도가 높은 대기 확산 모델의 경우 공기 전파에 대한 구제역 바이러스의 위해성 관리 방안을 결정하는 데 주요 역할을 담당할 수 있는 유용 가능한 수단으로 여러 나라에서 활용되어 왔다. 구제역 바이러스 전파를 억제하기 위한 엄격한 관리 방안 중 다량의 가축 살처분 방법은 축산 농가들에게 심각한 경제적 손실을 초래하여 심각한 경우 새로운 자립의 여건마저도 상실시킬 수도 있다. 반면 낮은 수준의 대응 방안은 향후 구제역 발생에 따른 추가적 피해를 근원적으로 억제할 수 없는 역학적 한계에 봉착할 수 있다. 본 연구는 구제역 바이러스의 기본 특성 및 발생 모델 적용에 따른 공기 중 전파의 감염 위험성 평가 관련 선행 문헌들을 고찰하였다. 또한 1970년대 이후 구제역 바이러스의 공기 전파 경로를 예측하기 위해 여러 나라에서 실제 활용된 다양한 대기 확산 모델들의 적용 사례 및 장/단점을 비교 분석하였다.