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      • KCI등재

        The Expression of Tumor-Associated Macrophages in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

        김승환,조선욱,민혜숙,김강민,염계정,김은영,이규언,윤여규,박도준,박영주 대한내분비학회 2013 Endocrinology and metabolism Vol.28 No.3

        Background: Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play a tumorigenic role related to advanced staging and poor prognosis in many human cancers including thyroid cancers. Yet, a functional role of TAMs in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) has not been established. The aim of this study was to investigate TAM expression in human PTC with lymph node (LN) metastasis. Methods: Thirty-six patients who underwent surgery after being diagnosed with PTC with LN metastasis were included. Primary tumor tissues were immunohistochemically stained with an anti-CD68 antibody and clinical characteristics according to TAM density were evaluated. Results: The TAM densities (CD68+ cells) varied from 5% to 70%, in all tumor areas, while few cells were stained in adjacent normal tissues. TAMs were identified as CD68+ cells with thin, elongated cytoplasmic extensions that formed a canopy structure over tumor cells. Comparing clinicopathologic characteristics between tumors with low (<25%) and high (25% to 70%) TAM densities, primary tumors were larger in the high density group than in the low density group (2.0±0.1 vs. 1.5±0.1; P=0.009). Conclusion: TAMs were identified in primary PTC tumors with LN metastasis and higher TAM densities were related to larger tumor sizes, suggesting a tumorigenic role of TAMs in human PTCs.

      • 한국어교육의 개념과 갈래

        김승환 개신어문학회 2010 개신어문연구 Vol.0 No.31

        What is the notion of the Korean Language Education and how can we classify it? There are many different terms and concepts of the Korean Language Education depending upon purpose and goal. The Korean Language Education is teaching and learning of Korean Language and Korean Literature based on the educational procedure and method. The Korean Language Education has focused on language for last 40 years. This orientation might back to the national resistance against Japanese rule during the Colonial Period(1910 -1945). Korean must have collectivity consciousness of one nation embedded in Korean Language. Language of Korean is not only language but spirit and soul of the colonial Chosun, which symbolizes and substitutes the nos-existing State of Korea. The Korean Language Education classified as Social Science, not Humanities according to the Korean Research Foundation. Reason comes from the subject as Education. In an academic hierarchy or classification, education belongs to Social Science. Automatically, the Korean Language Education classified the field of the Social Science. The Korean Language Education has two sides as Humanities and Social Science. Lots of educators of the Korean Language Education would regard it as Humanities as well as Social Science. Ideal form of the Korean Language Education will be mixed system and form of two sides.

      • 주목해야 할 패키징 디자인 ④<마지막 회> - 깐깐한 소비자를 유혹하는 퍼스널 케어 패키지 디자인

        김승환,Kim, Seung-Hwan (사)한국포장협회 2020 包裝界 Vol.331 No.-

        전 세계인의 삶을 송두리째 바꾸어 놓은 코로나19로 인해 산업 전반에도 큰 변화가 예상된다. 특히 가처분 소득 감소와 소비 심리 수축으로 꼭 필요한 것에만 지갑을 여는 구매자들이 늘어날 것으로 전망된다. 과거보다 더욱 깐깐해진 구매자의 시선을 잡기 위해 가장 중요한 것 중 하나가 패키징 디자인이다. 사람에 대한 첫 인상이 3초 안에 결정되는 것처럼 좋은 패키징 디자인으로 구매자의 시선을 한번에 사로잡을 수 있기 때문이다. 포스트코로나시대를 맞아 국내 최대 디자이너 커뮤니티이자 산업 디자인 콘테스트 플랫폼인 '라우드소싱'과 함께 패키징 제조업체들이 주목해야 할 패키지 디자인에 대한 시리즈를 총 4회에 걸쳐 진행한다.

      • KCI등재

        차세대 가속기용 공동형 빔위치 측정기 개발

        김승환,박용정,황운하,황정연,Y. Inoue,Y. Honda 한국진공학회 2006 Applied Science and Convergence Technology Vol.15 No.4

        Cavity-type beam position monitors were developed in collaboration with KEK to use for the future accelerators such as international linear collider (ILC) or x-ray free electron laser (XFEL) in PAL. BPM components such as BPM cavity, beam tubes, waveguides and feedthroughs were assembled by brazing at the same time to reduce mechanical errors during the fabrication. There are four screwed pins around outer rim of the cavity for the tuning of cavity frequency and x-y isolation. The resonance frequency of BPM is 6.422 GHz, the inner diameter of cavity is 53.822 mm, and the range of mechanical adjusting is +/- 250 ㎛. The x-y isolation was measured better than -40 dB after tuned. Test results of signal forms, x-y isolations, sensitivities are satisfied within requirements for the KEK ATF2 beam line. 국제 직선형 충돌 가속기 (ILC; International Linear Collider), 자유전자 레이저 (FEL: Free Electron Laser)와 같은 차세대 가속기에 사용 할 공동형 빔위치 측정기 (공동형 BPM : cavity-type beam position monitor)를 일본 고에너지연구소 (KEK; High Energy Accelerator Research Organization)와 공동으로 개발하였다. ILC 및 FEL의 운전을 위해서는 빔 기반 정렬 (beam-based alignment)과 되먹임 장치 (feedback system)가 필수적으로 요구되는데, 이를 위해서는 적절한 위치에 서브마이크론의 분해능을 지닌 빔위치 측정기를 설치하여야 한다 [1]. 공동형 BPM은 기계적인 정밀도에 매우 민감하므로 정밀한 제작과 미세한 기계적 조정을 통하여 성능을 달성하게 된다. 우리는 제작 오차를 줄이기 위하여 공진 공동, 빔 튜브, 도파관, 전기도입기 등 모든 부품을 조립 후 한꺼번에 진공 브레이징 하였다. 공동의 외주면에는 네 개의 튜닝 핀을 두어 공진주파수 및 x-y 격리도 (x-y isolation between coupled waveguide)를 미세 조정할 수 있도록 하였다. 현재 개발된 공동형 BPM은 공진주파수는 6.422 GHz이며, 공동 내경은 53.822 mm, 빔의 위치 측정 범위는 ±250 ㎛이다. network analyzer를 관측하면서 튜닝핀을 이용하여 x-y 격리도를 -40 dB 이하로 조정할 수 있었다. 실제 KEK ATF2에서의 전자빔을 이용한 시험에서 신호의 모양, x-y 격리도, 민감도 등에서 만족한 결과를 얻었다.

      • KCI등재
      • KCI등재

        패러글라이딩 사고에 대한 분석

        김승환,김인병,정순미,정성필,장석준 대한외상학회 1999 大韓外傷學會誌 Vol.12 No.1

        $quot;Background: Paragliding injuries are increasing recently due to the growing popularity of this sport. This topic has been discussed in numerous journals in the European countries with large mountains, such as Austria, Germany and Switzerland, Those studies gave information regarding the flight phase during which an injury ocurred, the type and site of injury, and suspected reasons for the accidents. This study was done to compare our data to those of other nations and give preventive advices to reduce injuries occurring during paragliding. Method: Nineteen paragliders documented as having injuries during paragliding at Chung-Ju, Korea from 1990 to 1997 were included in the study. Their accident reports including medical records, were analyzed retrospectively. Result: Eighteen of the injured were male with one female and their mean age was 25.6 years old. Five injuries were suffered during take-off, of which technical error was the cause in most cases. Also, 5 injuries occurred during flight due to a sudden change of thermal and wind condi- tions. The majority of injuries were suffered during the landing period, affecting 9 paragliders. They were mostly due to forced landings, unexpected obstacles, and sudden change of wind conditions. Thirty-three percent suffered spine trauma and 29% were involved in injuries of the lower extremities. Upper limb injuries occurred in 19%, and 19% also suffered cerebral concussion or contusion. Conclusion: We have found that spine and ankle injuries were commonly occur during paragliding, especially the landing phase. Proper knowledge of the procedures, adequate training and appropriate foot wear could help in reducing injuries while paragliding.$quot;

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