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        • KCI등재

          Real-space charge distribution of the cobalt ion and its relation with charge and spin states

          김봉재 한국물리학회 2021 THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN PHYSICAL SOCIETY Vol.78 No.4

          The charge state of an ion provides a simplified electronic picture of the bonding in compounds, and heuristically explains the basic electronic structure of a system. Despite its usefulness, the physical and chemical definition of a charge state is not a trivial one, and the essential idea of electron transfer is found to be not a realistic explanation. Here, we study the realspace charge distribution of a cobalt ion in its various charge and spin states, and examine the relation between the formal charge/spin states and the static charge distribution. Taking the prototypical cobalt oxides, La/SrCoO3 , and bulk Co metal, we confirm that no prominent static charge transfer exists for different charge states. However, we show that small variations exist in the integrated charges for different charge states, and these are compared to the various spin state cases.

        • KCI등재

          『질마재 신화』에 나타난 탈근대적 특성- 70년대 미당의 유년기 자서전과 상호텍스트성을 중심으로 -

          김봉재 동국대학교 한국문학연구소 2016 한국문학연구 Vol.0 No.52

          In the period of 1970s, The Myth of Jilmajae(1975) has been regarded as a ‘peak’ of Seo Jeong-ju's poetry in both the modernist position and the realistic position. However, if only the actual performance is used as the criterion of evaluation while overlooking the frame of modernity, the ‘anti-modernity’ of Mi-Dang is hard to secure new interpretation. If we can not dispel the ‘virtual’ intervention by ‘not-seeing-something’ in the process of measuring the realistic performance of anti-modernity, the place transcending it will eventually be located in the world of fiction. In the world where the value of the original is nullified, instead of a profound plan of the subject's intention and the aesthetic modernity, the world that is given value by the recipient who enjoys the replicas is inherent in the old language that we have called 'post-modernity'. This article examines the intertextuality of The Myth of Jilmajae, The story of the village where Dokkaebi was born(1977), later Autobiography of the childhood and My eternity is Water Lilac(1977). Although presented in the form of poems and autobiographies respectively, by describing different autobiographical contents in poetry texts as well as in autobiographical texts, the experience of childhood(original) that is adapted in literature shows the shape of the variation and proliferation. This process of creation, in which the authority of the writer and the original text are diluted and the character of the text is defined by the audience, can refer to the similarity and the aesthetic planning of post-modern art. In the point of recognizing the recipients(workers) directly exposed to the ‘deficient modernity’ beyond the frame of ‘modernity’ formed in the process of literary controversy in the 1970s, the ‘eternity’ of Mi-Dang comes out not through a sense of reality but through a product of reality. 70년대 문학 논쟁 시기에 『질마재 신화』(1975)는 모더니즘적 입장이나 리얼리즘적 입장 모두에서 서정주 문학의 ‘정점’으로 평가받아 왔다. 그러나 근대성의 ‘프레임’을 간과한 채, 현실적 수행성(遂行性)만을 평가의 기준으로 삼을 경우, 미당의 ‘반근대성’은 새로운 해석의 여지를 확보하기 어렵다. 반근대성의 현실적 수행성을 가늠하는 과정에서 ‘무언가를 안-봄’으로써의 ‘가상’의 개입을 배재할 수 없다면, 그것을 초월한 자리는 결국 ‘완전한 허구’의 세계에 위치하게 된다. 원본의 가치가 무화되는 세계, 주체의 의도나 미적 근대성의 심오한 기획 대신, 복제품을 향유하는 수용자에 의해 가치가 부여되는 세계는 우리가 ‘탈근대’라고 지칭하던 낡은 언어 속에 내재한 것이다. 본고는 『질마재 신화』와 이후 발간된 유년기 자서전 『도깨비 난 마을 이야기』(1977), 『내 영원은 물빛 라일락』(1977)에 나타난 상호텍스트성을 살피는 글이다. 각각 시집과 자서전의 형태로 제출되었음에도, 시 텍스트는 물론 자서전 텍스트 간에도 상이한 자전적 내용이 기술됨으로써, 미당의 유년기 경험(원전)은 문학적으로 각색되어 변주․증식되는 양상을 보인다. 작가와 원본 텍스트의 권위를 희석시키고, 수용자에 의해 텍스트의 성격이 규정되는 이러한 창작 과정은, 포스트모던 예술의 미적 기획과 유사성을 언급할 수 있다. 70년대 문학논쟁 과정에서 형성된 ‘근대성’의 프레임을 넘어, 당대의 ‘결핍된 근대’에 직접적으로 노출된 수용자들(노동자)을 의식했다는 점에서, 미당의 ‘영원성’은 현실 감각이 아니라 현실 감각의 생산물을 통해 드러난다.

        • KCI등재

          Ultrasound Findings of Lymphoid Hyperplasia of the Appendix in Children: Differentiation from Acute Appendicitis

          김봉재,서정욱,이병훈 대한초음파의학회 2009 ULTRASONOGRAPHY Vol.28 No.4

          Purpose: To evaluate the ultrasound (US) findings that can help differentiate lymphoid hyperplasia in the appendix from acute appendicitis. Materials and Methods: A total of 1230 patients (below 20 years old) suspected of having appendicitis received an appendectomy between November, 1999, and March, 2008, with US findings in 27 patients with pathologically proven lymphoid hyperplasia of the appendix. Of 167 patients that received an appendectomy from January, 2007, to December, 2007, 52 patients with acute appendicitis were retrospectively reviewed as a control group. Retrospective review of US images was performed by two radiologists who were blinded to the pathologic results. The review was based on 12 ultrasonographic criteria derived from reports on the diagnostic findings of the appendicitis. Results: Compared with acute appendicitis, lymphoid hyperplasia in appendix had a smaller diameter (7.14±1.22 mm vs 9.37±1.80 mm, p < 0.001) and less wall thickening (1.38±0.36 mm vs 1.74 ± 0.56 mm, p =0.001). Periappendicular inflammation (p < 0.001), intraluminal air (p = 0.006), round shape in transverse scan (p = 0.002), increased blood flow on color Doppler US (p = 0.03) were also different. Conclusions: US is a useful modality to differentiate lymphoid hyperplasia in the appendix from acute appendicitis. Purpose: To evaluate the ultrasound (US) findings that can help differentiate lymphoid hyperplasia in the appendix from acute appendicitis. Materials and Methods: A total of 1230 patients (below 20 years old) suspected of having appendicitis received an appendectomy between November, 1999, and March, 2008, with US findings in 27 patients with pathologically proven lymphoid hyperplasia of the appendix. Of 167 patients that received an appendectomy from January, 2007, to December, 2007, 52 patients with acute appendicitis were retrospectively reviewed as a control group. Retrospective review of US images was performed by two radiologists who were blinded to the pathologic results. The review was based on 12 ultrasonographic criteria derived from reports on the diagnostic findings of the appendicitis. Results: Compared with acute appendicitis, lymphoid hyperplasia in appendix had a smaller diameter (7.14±1.22 mm vs 9.37±1.80 mm, p < 0.001) and less wall thickening (1.38±0.36 mm vs 1.74 ± 0.56 mm, p =0.001). Periappendicular inflammation (p < 0.001), intraluminal air (p = 0.006), round shape in transverse scan (p = 0.002), increased blood flow on color Doppler US (p = 0.03) were also different. Conclusions: US is a useful modality to differentiate lymphoid hyperplasia in the appendix from acute appendicitis.

        • KCI등재

          신뢰성기반 최적설계에서 수치적 안정성과 효율성의 개선을 위해 수정된 Single Loop Single Vector 방법

          김봉재,이재옥,양영순,Kim, Bong-Jae,Lee, Jae-Ohk,Yang, Young-Soon 한국전산구조공학회 2005 한국전산구조공학회논문집 Vol.18 No.1

          SLSV(single loop single vector)방법은 신뢰성기반 최적설계(reliability-based design optimization, RBDO)에서 중첩된 반복과정을 제거함으로써 최적설계의 과도한 계산비용 문제에 대한 해결책을 제시하고 있지만, 종종 수렴하지 못하거나 잘못된 해가 얻어지는 등의 불안정성, 부정확성 문제를 가지고 있어 그 활용이 제한적이다. 본 논문에서는 수정된 HMV(hybrid mean value)방법, Inactive Design, Active MPP(most probable point) Design의 적용을 통해 SLSV방법에 있어서 안정성과 효율성을 효과적으로 개선시킬 수 있는 수정된 SLSV방법을 제안하였고 또한 다양한 예제를 통해 수정된 SLSV방법의 유용성을 검증하였다. SLSV (single loop single vector) method is to solve the excessive computational cost problem in RBDO (reliability-based design optimization) by decoupling the nested iteration loops. However, the practical use of SLSV method to RBDO case is limited by the instability or inaccuracy of the method since it often diverges or converges to a wrong solution. Thus, in this paper, a new modified SLSV method is proposed. This method improves its convergence capability effectively by utilizing Inactive Design and Active MPP Design together with modified HMV (hybrid mean value) method. The usefulness of the proposed method is also verified through numerical examples.

        • KCI등재

          공업용수 공급시스템의 효율적인 운영을 위한 시스템다이내믹스 모형의 개발

          김봉재,박수완,김태영,전대훈 대한상하수도학회 2012 상하수도학회지 Vol.26 No.3

          In this study, a System Dynamics (SD) simulation model for the efficient operations of an industrial water supply system was developed by investigating the feedback loop mechanisms involved in the operations of the system. The system was modeled so that as demand is determined the water supply quantity of intake pumping stations and dams are allocated. The main feedback loop showed that many variables such as the combinations of pump operation, unit electric power(kWh/㎥), unit electric power costs(won/㎥), water level of water way tunnel, suction pressure and discharge of pumping station, and tank and service reservoir water level had causal effects and produced results depending on their causal relationship. The configurations of the model included an intake pumping station model, water way tunnel model, pumping station model (including the tank and service reservoir water level control model), and unit electric power model. The model was verified using the data from the case study industrial water supply system that consisted of a water treatment plant, two pumping stations and four dams with an annual energy costs of 5 billion won. It was shown that the electric power costs could have been saved 7~26% during the past six years if the operations had been based on the findings of this study.

        • 플래시 메모리 기반 파일 시스템을 위한 버퍼 관리 기법 조사

          김봉재(Bongjae Kim),정진만(Jinman Jung),민홍(Hong Min),조유근(Yookun Cho),홍지만(Jiman Hong) 한국정보과학회 2011 한국정보과학회 학술발표논문집 Vol.38 No.1B

          플래시 메모리는 기존의 하드디스크를 대체하는 저장 장치의 저장 매체로 각광받고 있으며 소규모의 임베디드 시스템에서부터 대형 서버 시스템, 데이터 센터까지 널리 사용 되고 있다. 하지만 플래시 메모리는 기존의 하드디스크와 비교하였을 때, I/O 성능이나 에너지 소모 측면에서 서로 다른 특성을 갖는다. 따라서 기존의 하드디스크 기반의 버퍼 관리 기법이 아닌 플래시 메모리 기반의 파일 시스템을 위한 버퍼 관리 기법이 필요하다. 본 논문에서는 기존에 연구된 플래시 메모리 기반의 파일 시스템을 위한 버퍼 관리 기법에 대하여 소개하고 각각의 특징에 대해서 서술한다.

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