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          • KCI등재

            Molecular phylogeny of moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita Linnaeus collected from Yeosu waters in Korea based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences

            김숙양,조은섭,Kim,,Sook-Yang,Cho,,Eun-Seob Korean Society of Life Science 2007 생명과학회지 Vol.17 No.3

            본 연구는 여수연안해역에서 채 집 한 보름달 둥근 물해파리를 대상으로 ITS 부위와 미토콘드리아 유전자 염기서열을 이용하여 계통유연관계를 보왔다. ITS 부위를 증폭시키 기 위하여 F5와 R5 primer, 미토콘드리아 COI 유전자 증폭을 위하여 LCO1490과 HCO2198 primer를 사용했다. 증폭은 ITS에서 267 bp, COI에서 643 bp로 나타났다. 한국산 물해파리와 미국 캘리포니아에서 채집한 Aurelia sp.가 유전적 거리가 가장 짧은 0.023을 보인 반면에, 한국산과 미국산, 스웨덴산 물해파리는 동일한 종이지만 유전적 거리가 0.393에서 0.395로 매우 먼 것으로 나타났다. COI유전자의 경우 한국산과 영국산, 터어키산, 스웨덴산, 미국산 물해파리의 유전적 거리 범위는 0.201에서 0.205로 나타났다. 그러나 한국산과 미국산의 bootstrap은 100% 자매군으로 보였다. COI 유전자에 대한 한국산과 미국산 2차 RNA folding 구조를 볼 때 동일한 에너지 하에서도 상이한 2차 folding을 보였다. 따라서 ITS1과 COI 유전자는 보름달 둥근 물해파리 개체군의 생물지리학적 분포 조사를 위하여 유용한 도구로 활용될 것으로 추측된다. This study presents the molecular phylogenetic analysis of Korean Aurelia aurita Linnaeus collected from Yeosu in the southern waters of Korea using nuclear ITS1 region and mitochondrial COI gene sequences. The use of oligonucleotide primers F5 (forward) and R5 (reverse) targeted to ITS1 and LCO1490 (forward) and HCO2198 (reverse) targeted to COI amplified 267 bp and 643 bp fragments, respectively. The shortest genetic distance towards the ITS1 region is estimated at 0.023 when comparing Korean A. aurita to Aurelia sp. collected from California, USA. In particular, Korean and American/Swedish A. aurita were located far away in terms of genetic distance, ranging from 0.393 to 0.395. On the other hand, the genetic distance between Korean and English/Turkish/Swedish/American A. aurita regarding the mitochondrial DNA COI gene ranged from 0.201 to 0.205. However, a sister-ship with Korean and American A. aurita showed an extremely high bootstrap value (100%). The predicted secondary RNA structure of the mitochondrial DNA COI gene showed many different folding structures with a similar energy between Korean and American A. aurita. These results suggest that ITS1 and the mitochondrial DNA COI gene could be used as genetic markers for identification of the biogeographic populations.

          • Caspase3-like Death Protease Is Activated in CTLL2 Cells by Interleukin-2 Deprivation

            Lee,,Sang-Han,Kwon,,O-Yu Korean Society of Life Science 2000 Journal of Life Science Vol.10 No.2

            Cytokine deprivation-induced apoptosis can abrogate by the appropriate survival factors. Because the mechanism of Interleukin (IL)-2 deprived apoptotic cell death remains unclear, we here show the apoptosis in CTLL2 cells correlates with an increase of the activity of caspase3-like protease(s). Inhibition of caspase3-like protease(s) with caspase protease inhibitors (Z-VAD, Z-EVD, and Z-LPD) blocks typical apoptotic morphological abnormalities in CTLL2 cells. Interestingly, Bcl-{TEX}$X_{L}${/TEX} protein was decreased by IL-2 deprivation in the cells. These results suggest that caspase3-like protease(s), not caspase1, plays an important role in apoptosis execution of CTLL2 cell death.

          • Characterization of Carbohydrate Metabolism during Dark-Induced Senescence

            Kim,,Young-Sang,Chang,,Ji-Young,Lee,,Dong-Hee Korean Society of Life Science 2001 Journal of Life Science Vol.11 No.1

            To investigate the changes of carbohydrate metabolism in the senescing leaves of Zea mays during dark-induced senescence, the changes in the contents of reducing sugar, sucrose and starch as well as the activities of sucrose synthase, three isozymes of invertase, and ${\alpha}$-amylase were measured. In the senescing leaves, the content of reducing sugars temporarily increased at 4 d and rapidly decreased thereafter, whereas sucrose contents gradually decreased thereafter, whereas sucrose contents gradually decreased until 3 d of senscence and significantly decreased thereafter. The activities of intracellular invertases such as soluble acid and alkaline formed gradually enhanced until 4 d of leaf senescence and significantly declined thereafter. The extracellular invertase activity showed no significant changes during leaf senescence. The deactivation of sucrose synthase was observed within 3 d of leaf senscence. On the other hand, the starch contents gradually declined during 2 d of leaf senescence, and showed a temporary increase at 3 d, which is similar to the pattern of sucrose synthase activity., These results imply that sucrose in the senescing leaves. The major enzymes which correlated to the breakdown of sucrose during dark-induced senescence were soluble acid and alkaline invertases, not sucrose and ABA accelerated leaf senescence by inducing the accumulation of reducing sugar. These result, therefore, that leaf senescence may be mediated by the temporary quantitative changes of reducing sugar induced by the activation of intracellualr inveertases.

          • KCI등재

            The Genetic Variations of SQSTM1 Gene are Associated with Bone Density in the Korean Population

            진현석,엄용빈,Jin,,Hyun-Seok,Eom,,Yong-Bin Korean Society of Life Science 2010 생명과학회지 Vol.20 No.12

            골다공증은 복합적 전신 골격 질환으로, 공중 보건 분야의 전세계적인 주요한 관심 질환의 한 가지이다. 골다공증은 유전적 영향을 받는 질환으로, 낮은 골밀도와 적은 외력 의한 골다공성 골절 등의 특징을 보이며, 강한 유전성을 나타내는 질환이다. 그러나, 낮은 골밀도과 연관된 특정한 유전자의 다형성은 아직까지 많이 알려져 있지 않다. 본 연구에서는 SQSTM1 유전자의 유전적 다형성과 낮은 골밀도 사이의 상관성을 확인하기 위해, 한국인 유전체 연구(Korean Association Resource, KARE)에서 골밀도를 측정한 7,225명(남성: 3,622명, 여성: 3,603명)을 대상으로 SQSTM1 유전자 다형성과 골밀도 간의 선형 회기 분석을 하였다. BD-RT (원위 요골의 T 점수로 예측한 골밀도)에서 SQSTM1 유전자에서 3개의 SNP (rs513235, rs3734007, rs11249661)가 유의한 상관성이 있는 것으로 나타났으며, BD-TT (중위 경골의 T 점수로 예측한 골밀도)에서는 4개의 SNP (rs513235, rs3734007, rs2241349, rs11249661)가 유의한 상관성이 있는 것으로 나타났다. 특히 3개의 SNP (rs513235, rs3734007, rs11249661)는 BD-RT와 BD-TT 두 종류의 골밀도에서 공통적으로 유의한 상관성을 보였다. 이러한 결과로 미루어 골밀도와 SQSTM1 유전자의 다형성 간에 통계적으로 유의한 상관성을 가지며, SQSTM1 유전자는 골다공증의 발병과정에 관련이 있을 것으로 사료된다. Osteoporosis is a complex systemic skeletal disease and a major public health concern worldwide. It is a heritable disorder characterized mainly by low bone density and/or low trauma osteoporotic fractures, both of which have strong genetic determination. However, the specific genetic variants determining risk for low bone density are still largely unknown. Here, we performed association analysis to elucidate the possible relationship between genetic polymorphisms in the SQSTM1 gene and low bone density. By examining a total of 7225 (men: 3622, women: 3603) subjects from the Korean population in the Korean Association REsource (KARE) study, we discovered that SQSTM1 gene polymorphisms were associated with bone density. The results of the BD-RT (bone density estimated by T-score at distal radius) showed that three SNPs (rs513235, rs3734007, and rs11249661) within the SQSTM1 gene were significantly associated with bone density. The results of the BD-TT (bone density estimated by T-score at midshaft tibia) showed that four SNPs (rs513235, rs3734007, rs2241349, and rs11249661) were significantly associated with bone density. The three SNPs (rs513235, rs3734007, and rs11249661) had common significance in both BD-RT and BD-TT. In summary, we found statistically significant SNPs in the SQSTM1 gene that are associated with bone density traits. Therefore, our findings suggest SQSTM1 gene could be related to pathogenesis of osteoporosis.

          • Effect of Three Amino Acid Residues at the Carboxyl Terminus in Unacetylated ${\alpha}$-Tropomyosin on Actin Affinity

            Cho,,Young-Joon,Jung,,Sun-Ju,Seo,,Sang-Min,Suh,,Kye-Hong,Yang,,Jae-Sub Korean Society of Life Science 2001 Journal of Life Science Vol.11 No.1

            In order to determine the role of the carboxyl terminal amino acid residues of unacetylated ${\alpha}$-tropomyosin in actin affinity two mutant tropomyosins were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis. TM16 was identical to the striated tropomyosin except that three amino acids in the carboxyl terminal end were altered to $^{282}TNM^{284}$ while in TM17 $^{282}TSI^{284}$ of the striated was replaced with$^{282}NSM^{284}$. TM16 and TM17 were overproduced in Escherichia coli and analyzed for actin affinity by comparing actin affinities of the striated and TM11 $^{282}NNM^{284}$). The apparent binding constants (Kapp) of unacetylated tropomyosins to actin were $5.1{\times}10^4M^{-1}$ for the striated, $1.1{\times}10^5M^{-1}$ for TM11, $1.09{\times}10^5M^{-1}$ for TM16, and $1.03{\times}10^5M^{-1}$ for TM17, respectively. Since the actin affinities of TM11, TM16, and TM17 were very similar, this result suggested that amino acid residues 282 and 283 were insignificant for acting affinity of unacetylated $\alpha$-tropomyosin. However, they all exhibited higher actin affinities than that of the striated, suggesting that Met residue at the carboxyl terminus of unacetylated smooth tropomyosin was rather important for actin affinity, presumably due to the nucleophilic nature of sulfur atom in Met residue.

          • Effect of Culture Conditions on Microbial Cellulose Production by Acetobacter sp. A9 in Shaking Cultures

            Son,,Hong-Joo,Kim,,Han-Soo Korean Society of Life Science 2001 Journal of Life Science Vol.11 No.1

            Several culture conditions affecting cellulose production by a newly isolated Acetobacter sp. A9 were examined by cultivating cells under shaking cultures. The inoculum size in the range of 1-10% (v/v) did not influence cellulose production. Maximum cellulose production was obtained with 200 rpm of agitation speed. The cells grown in the 75 ml of medium in a 250-ml conical flask produced the highest level of cellulose. The strain was able to produce cellulose at 25-3$0^{\circ}C$ with a maximum at 3$0^{\circ}C$. Cellulose production occurred at pH 4.5-7.5 with a maximum at pH6.5.

          • Development of E. coli Expression System to Overproduce a Harmful Protein, Carboxypeptidase Taq.

            Lee,,Sang-Hyeon Korean Society of Life Science 2001 Journal of Life Science Vol.11 No.2

            The E. coli expression system to overproduce a harmful protein, carboxypeptidase Taq was developed. Since expression plasmid pCK305N containing the colicin promoter already has the initiation codon on the restriction site, the initiation codon of the CPase Taq gene was removed. Expression plasmid pCP4-col includes the entire CPase Taq gene, which is directed by the colicin promoter. E. coli cells harboring pCP-col produced a high amount of the enzyme when they were cultured in the present of mitomycin C (0.4 ${\mu}g$/ml). An amount of purified enzyme produced by pCP4-col directed by the colicin promoter was 10.5 mg. This result indicated that the novel E. coli expression system controlled by the colicin promoter could produce almost twice amounts of CPase Taq than the conventional system controlled by the tart promoter.

          • Genetic Variation and Population Structure of Crepidiastrum lanceolatum (Compositae)

            Huh,,Man-Kyu,Choi,,Joo-Soo Korean Society of Life Science 2002 Journal of Life Science Vol.12 No.1

            Crepidiastrum lanceolatum ($H_{OUTT}$) $N_{AKAI}$ (Compositae) is distributed in East Asia including Korea. Genetic diversity and population structure of six C. lanceolatum populations in Korea and two populations in Japan were determined using genetic variation at 19 allozyme loci. The percent of polymorphic loci within the enzymes was 42.1%. Genetic diversity at the species level and at the population level was low (Hes : 0.077; Hep : 0.068, respectively), where-as the extent of the population divergence was relatively low ($G_{ST}$ : 0.093). One of the most striking features of this study was the more significant difference within populations than among populations. An indirect estimate of the number of migrants per generation (Nm : 2.44) indicated that gene flow was moderate among eight populations of the species. In addition, analysis of fixation indices revealed a slight heterozygosity deficiency in some populations and at some loci. Narrow geographic ranges, short-lived perennial herbaceous, and small population sizes are mainly associated with the low level of genetic variation.n.

          • Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of maize, Zea mays, in Both Landraces and Cultivar Lines

            Huh,,Man-Kyu,Lee,,In-Sup Korean Society of Life Science 2002 Journal of Life Science Vol.12 No.1

            Enzyme electrophoresis was used to estimate genetic diversity and population structure of maize, Zea mays L. (Graminales) in Korea. In nine populations, fourteen of the 24 loci (58.3 %) showed detectable polymorphism. Genetic diversity (0.205) was higher than average values for species with similar life history traits. Although our data are relatively small and the landraces not direct ancestors of cultivar, apparently the domestication process has eroded the levels of genetic variation of maize. The recent cultivars were found to have fewer alleles per locus (1.42 vs. 1.56), fewer alleles per polymorphic locus (2.27 vs. 2.33), lower percent polymorphic locus (33.3% vs. 41.7%), and lower diversity (0.159 vs. 0.185) than landraces. These genetic diversity parameters indicated that the cultivar populations were genetically depauperate relative to landlaces. The GST value of nine populations was 0.239. Nearly 76% of the total genetic diversity in Zea mays was apportioned within populations. The indirect estimate of gene new based on mean GST was moderate (Nm=0.80).

          • Isolation and Characterization of Salt Street Signaling Components from Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

            Yun,,Dae-Jin,Lee,,Jiyoung,Shin,,Dongjin,Lee,,Boyoung Korean Society of Life Science 2001 Journal of Life Science Vol.11 No.1

            To identify novel components involved in the salt stress signaling pathway of yeast cells, we used mTn3-mediated transposon tagging library and screened mutants displaying enhanced tolerance to NaCl. Southern blot analysis indicated that more than 80% of the sre (salt resistant) mutants possessed only one insertion of the tagged transposon, suggesting that the NaCl resistant phenotype was mediated by a single gene in the majority of the mutants. To define the role of SRE genes in the salt stress signaling pathway, we introduced NaCl stress-inducible ENA1::LacZ construct into the sre mutants and examined the expression of ${\beta}$-galactosidase activity. Interestingly, we could detect high level of ${\beta}$-galactosidase activity without any NaCl treatment in the sre-3, 4, 6 and 7 mutants. These results indicate that SRE-3, 4, and 7 gene are components of salt stress signaling pathway of yeast cells.

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