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In Korea, a serious amphibian disease caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has been reported from historical samples collected in the 1900s. In this study, we continue to evaluate the current prevalence of chytridiomycosis in the Korean Peninsula and we include imported frogs from America to our analysis. Non-invasive skin swabs were taken from 275 apparently healthy frogs, and Bd was detected in five free living frogs by the nested PCR protocol consisting of two species: Bombina orientalis and Rana catesbeiana, from Gyeongnam and Cheonbuk provinces. These frogs comprised about 2% of the total number of free living samples. This study might be useful for understanding amphibian chytridiomycosis in Korea.
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The Veterinary Epidemiology Division of The Animal, Plant, and Fisheries Quarantine and Inspection Agency (QIA) was established in 2002. It is the first governmental organization in the Republic of Korea to be charged with the epidemiological task of managing veterinary public health. In commemorating the previous efforts of this organization, this paper describes the brief history, concept, tools, and approaches of veterinary epidemiology. The mission of veterinary epidemiology, as a leader of ``One Health``, to improve the public health status of human and animal is also discussed.
Nitrite and nitrates are usually used in the production of meat products as food additives even though they pose a secondary risk. In this study, the residues of nitrite and nitrate ions in 366 processed meat products distributed in Seoul were analyzed using ion chromatographs and UV spectrophotometers. In all tested products, the residues of nitrite were below 70 mg/kg, which met the processing standard and component specification for livestock products. Evaluation of nitrite ions, revealed a mean concentration of 7.1 - 11.9 mg/kg in hams, sausages, and bacons, while higher ratios of nitrite were found in other types of products. Among the studied processed meat products, at least 60% of hams and sausages had indications of nitrite, as did 90% of bacons and dry meats. No spiced meat and less than 10% of crushed meat had indications of nitrite. However, all dried meats showed below 1 mg/kg, regardless of whether they had indications of nitrite. Up to 9.7 mg/kg of nitrite was detected in the products with no indication of nitrite, and 14.6% of all products had at least 1 mg/kg of nitrite. This can be attributed to the reduction of residual nitrate ions in the products into nitrite ions. A review of the concentrations of nitrate ions in processed meat products by type suggests that the mean concentration was 22.3 (maximum 110.2) mg/kg in hams, 31.8 (maximum 89.5) mg/kg in sausages, 16.4 (maximum 28.2) mg/kg in bacons, 16.8 (maximum 61.1) mg/kg in spiced meats, 20.2 (maximum 99.4) mg/kg in crushed meats, and 121.0 (maximum 216.5) mg/kg in dried meats. Therefore, dried meats showed much higher nitrate ion concentrations than other types of meat products; however, the residue of nitrite ions in actual dried meats was found to be lower than 1 mg/kg, suggesting that the concentrations of nitrate ions do not affect those of nitrite ions. However, a certain concentration of nitrate ions was observed even when nitrate ions were not used in the products, as nitrite ions were transformed into nitrate ions and nitrite ions were detected even the products with no indication of nitrite ions. Therefore, continuous monitoring and preparation of relevant standards of the use of nitrate in processed meat products are necessary.
The seroprevalence of major infectious abortion agents was investigated in native Korean goats from Jeonnam province using ELISA. A total of 98 blood samples were collected from goats. Overall, 48 (49.0%), 11 (11.2%), and 1 (1.0%) serum samples tested positive for C. burnetii, T. gondii, and C. abortus, respectively, while none of the samples were positive for B. abortus or N. caninum. Moreover, a PCR assay conducted to detect C. burnetii antigens in goats with a history of abortion revealed 18 (38.3%) of 47 goats were C. burnetii positive by both the ELISA and PCR assay.
Eight individual and blended chemical disinfectants were screened for preliminary evaluation of efficacy against duct organisms. Viable counts of surviving bacteria were determined after 30 min contact with each disinfectant. The single and blended disinfectants with high microcidal activity included glutaraldehyde/formaldehyde-based, glutaraldehyde/formaldehyde-based, cresol-based, organic acid-based and potassium peroxymonosulphate-based products. Iodophors of disinfectants showed an inconsistent and low anti-microbial effect.