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Scaphocephaly secondary to sagittal synostosis presents three major morphological characteristics : anterior compensation with frontal bossing, posterior compensation with occipital bulging, and the indentation in the temporal region. The operative techniques vary from a limited linear strip craniectomy, bilateral parasagittal strip craniectomy, total vertex craniectomy, to total craniectomy with or without subsequent cranial vault reshaping. And recently Dr. Posnick(1993) suggested a standardize surgical approach involving release of the stenosed sagittal suture with simultaneous removal of most of the dysmorphic cranial vault, including the squamous portion of the temporal bones. The authors present 4 cases of the scaphocephaly, aged from 7 to 52 months, corrected by the technique of wide linear sagittal craniectomy(5 to 6 cm in width), and cranial vault reshaping with translocation of the one frontal and two temporoparietal bone flaps. Rotation of the frontal bone flap corrects the frontal bossing, Translocaton of two parietal bone flaps corrects the temporal indentation and occipital bulging. The defects in the vertex are repaired with bone graft of the sagittal craniectomy segment in patients of more than 1 year of age. It is simple in its design and effective in correction of the characteristic deformities in scaphocephaly. All patients obtained immediate and significant correction of the deformities with minimal deformities, minimal morbidity and no mortality. Based on our experiences with these patients, we offer these personal techniques for managing scaphocephaly patients.
북한문학의 역사는 1960년대 중반을 기점으로 크게 변화한다. 이전에는 마르크스-레닌주의에 의거한 사회주의리얼리즘문학이 중심을 이루었으나, 이후에는 주체사상에 의거한 주체문학으로 변모했다. 그런데 주체문학에서 문학적으로 형상화할 것이 요구되는 첫 번째 대상은 바로 ``수령형상창조``이다. 왜냐하면 북한문학은 인민대중을 교화하고 선전·선동하는 사상적 무기로 기능하는데, 북한의 체제원리인 주체사상에서 제1원칙은 ``수령에 대한 충실성``이기 때문이다. 사회정치적인 변화와 요구를 적극적으로 반영하는 북한문학에서는 ``수령형상창조``라는 동일한 주제를 다루더라도 당 문예정책의 변화에 따라서 각각의 시기에 시인들이 형상화하는 중심 내용은 바뀌게 된다. 첫째, ``수령의 위상 세우기``(1966∼1972) 시기에는 김일성의 숭고한 풍모와 혁명적 가정을 통하여 ``김일성의 위대성``을 형상화하였다. 둘째, ``혁명적 수령관 공고화하기``(1972∼1989) 가운데 (1) ``혁명의 주체 이원화하기``(1972∼1978) 시기에는 ``수령의 위상``과 ``당 중앙의 영도``를 형상화하였다. 또한 ``김일성의 혁명적 가정``으로서 특히 ``김정숙``을 형상화하였다. (2) ``혁명의 대(代) 형성하기``(1978∼1985)시기에는 ``수령의 혁명역사``와 ``김정일의 현명한 영도``를 형상화하였다. 또한 ``김일성의 혁명적 가정``으로서 특히 ``김정일``을 형상화하였다. (3) ``혁명의 후계자 세우기``(1985∼1989) 시기에는 ``후계자를 통한 혁명전통의 계승``과 ``김정일의 위대한 업적과 인간 풍모``를 형상화하였다. 셋째, ``혁명적 대가정(大家庭) 완성하기``(1989∼1994) 시기에는 ``김정일의 위대성을 절대화``하여 형상화하고 ``3위 1체의 원칙에 맞는 수령의 모습``을 형상화하였다. 북한 ``수령형상문학``의 역사적인 변모양상을 추적한 결과 필자는 다음과 같은 결론과 의의를 발견하였다. 첫째, 북한의 조선노동당이 당파성과 당성 간의 변증법적 발전과정을 통하여 사회주의·공산주의 건설과제에 매진하지 못하고 권력승계 문제에 집중하게 된 근본적인 이유는 남북한이 서로 다른 체제를 지향하면서 상호대치하고 있는 상황 속에서 무엇보다 시급한 과제는 ``체제유지``라고 여겼기 때문이다. 둘째, 주체문학 시기의 북한 시에서 ``시적 대상``이 주로 ``자연물화``하고 ``시적 형상화의 방식``이 극도로 ``단순화``하는 이유는 문학적 상상력이 소실되었기 때문이다. 셋째, 주체문학 시기의 북한문학사에서 당파성을 드러낸 시가 존재하지 않거나 유통되지 않는다는 사실은 당성의 ``폐쇄성``과 ``교조성``을 반증하는 것이다. The history of North Korean literature greatly changes from the mid-1960s. Although socialistic realism literature based on Marxism-Leninism was at the center, soon the center was changed to Juche literature based on Juche ideology. Yet, the first subject to be embodied in literature from Juche literature is “Chief-shape literature” because North Korean literature functions as an ideological weapon that edifies and agitates North Korean people, and because the first principle of Juche ideology, the principal system of North Korea, is “loyalty toward the Chief”. In North Korean literature that actively reflects social, political transition and demand, although the same topic of “Chief-shape creation” is treated, the core contents embodied by poets are changed in each period depending on the transition of the policy of literature and arts of the party. First, during the period of “establishing prestige of the chief” (1966∼1972), they embodied “greatness of Kim Il Sung” through noble royalty and revolutionary family of Kim Il Sung. Second, within the overall period of “publicizing revolutionary aspect of the chief”(1972∼1989) (1) during the period of “dualizing revolutionary Juche”(1972∼1978), “prestige of the chief” and the “central leader of the party” were embodied. Especially, “Kim Jong Suk” was used to embody the “revolutionary family of Kim Il Sung”. (2) During the period of “forming the line of revolution”(1978∼1985), “revolutionary history of the chief” and the “wise leadership of Kim Jong Il” were embodied. Especially, “Kim Jong Il” was used to embody the “revolutionary family of Kim Il Sung”. (3) During the period of “raising a successor of revolution”(1985∼1989), “succession of Kim Il Sung`s revolutionary tradition through a successor” and the “great achievement and human presence of Kim Jong Il” were embodied. Third, during the period of “completing the great revolutionary family”(1989∼1994), the “greatness of Kim Jong Il was absolutized” and embodied, and the “feature of the chief fit for the principle of trinity” was embodied as well. As a result of tracing historical transition of “the Chief-shape literature” of North Korea, the author discovered the following conclusion and meaning. First, the fundamental reason for Korean Workers` Party in North Korea to concentrate on the problem of power succession while they could not establish further socialism and communism through the step of dialectical development between partisanship and loyalty to the party was because they considered that the “maintenance of the system” was the prime task within the confrontation between the South and the North with different systems. Second, the “poetic object” was mainly “naturalized” and the “method of poetic embodiment” was extremely “simplified” in North Korean poems within the period of Juche literature because literary imaginations disappeared. Third, the fact that there is no poem reflecting partisanship within the history of North Korean literature in the period of Juche literature is a counter evidence of isolation and dogmatism of the loyalty to the party.
This paper is aimed at examining the characteristics as a modern drama which Kim Youngileui sa (Kim Youngil`s Death) by Cho Myunghee has and finding out which position it can occupy in the history of Korean modern drama. Kim Youngileui sa (Kim Youngil`s Death) performed in 1921 has characteristics as a modern drama fully ; in this work the awareness of colonial modernity subject is obviously revealed and it also ensures reality. Cho Myunghee tried to come up with the direction towards which colonial modernity subjects go in the premodern situation of colony through Kim Youngil`s tragic death. He insisted that ideal society should be constructed through religious love, which shows that he was influenced by Tolstoy`s thought. The reality appeared in Kim Youngileui sa (Kim Youngil`s Death) could be acquired by creative method of naturalistic drama. Cho Myunghee took author`s viewpoint who was observing Kim Youngil`s life led in the conflict of pre modern society. He succeeded in consolidating the reality of drama by showing coherently the process of Kim Youngil death. Kim Youngileui sa (Kim Youngil`s Death) had a great influence on forming Korean modern drama and its performance played an important role in settling down the naturalistic drama in colonized Chos?n. The people watching the performance on tour of Kukyesulhyuphoe, the association of drama art took Kim Youngil, the protagonist`s death as the symbol of national death. The experience that only reproducing the situation of colonized Chos?n realistically on the stage could make the audience much impressed could caused the dramatists later to recognize the value of naturalistic drama certainly. The audience`s explosive reaction created by connecting Kim Youngil`s death with their sentimental emotion worked as the opportunity to expand the social drama, It is another effect to look upon a protagonist as a suffering one who went through agony in the conflict of colony. Considering this, it can be estimated that Korean modern drama made an actual start from Kim Youngileui sa (Kim Youngil`s Death).
( Myung Jin Lee ), ( Kye Hyung Kim ), ( Jong Youn Yi ), ( Su Jin Choi ), ( Chung Jong Kim ), ( Nak Hyun Kim ), ( Kyoung Ho Song ), ( Pyoeng Gyun Choi ), ( Ji Hwan Bang ), ( Wan Beom Park ), ( Eu Suk Kim ), ( San) 대한내과학회 2014 대한내과학회 추계학술대회 Vol.2014 No.1
In Vitro Antiviral Activity of Ribavirin Against Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus Myung Jin LEE1, Kye-Hyung KIM1, Jongyoun YI2, SuJin CHOI1, Chung-Jong KIM1, Nak- Hyun KIM1, Kyoung-Ho SONG1, Pyoeng Gyun CHOI1, Ji-Hwan BANG1, Wan Beom PARK1, Eu Suk KIM1, Sang-Won PARK1, Hong Bin KIM1, Nam Joong KIM1, Myoung- Don OH1 Seoul National University College of Medicine, Korea1, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Korea2 Background: Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease caused by a novel Bunyavirus, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV). No effective antiviral therapy is proven yet, but clinical use of ribavirin (RBV) has been tried. We investigated the antiviral effect of RBV against SFTSV in vitro. Methods: To test for cytotoxicity of RBV, Vero cells were treated with different concentrations of RBV (3.90 to 500 μg/mL, two-fold dilution) and analyzed by cell viability MTS assay 48h post-infection. To determine antiviral activity of RBV against SFTSV, Vero cells were infected with SFTSV strain Gangwon/Korea/2012 at 100 TCID50 (50% tissue culture infective dose) per well in a 96-well plate, and RBV was added at the concentrations showing no or minimal cytotoxicity. Viral RNAs were extracted from the culture supernatants and quantifi ed using one-step real-time reverse transcription- PCR to amplify the partial large segment of SFTSV. Statistical analysis was done by one-way ANOVA with Tukey`s post hoc test. Results: Cytotoxicity due to RBV was not observed at RBV concentration =31.3 μg/ mL. Viral RNAs at 24h post-RBV treatment were reduced with increasing RBV concentrations (1-32 μg/mL), compared with those of mock-treated cells (P <0.01, Figure). Half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of RBV was 3.69 μg/mL at 24h post-RBV treatment. Conclusions: Our study shows that RBV has antiviral effect against SFTSV in a dose-dependent manner. Further studies are required to evaluate the effi cacy of RBV in SFTS.
Glycoproteins isolated from fruit bodies and mycelial cultures of mushrooms exhibit anti-carcinogenic actions in human cancer cells and animal tumor cells by induction of apoptosis. Here, we report that isoflavone-conjugated glycoproteins (designate Gluvone), exhibit strong anti-carcinogenic effects on human breast cancer MCF-7 cells by induction of apoptosis. Gluvone with 9.4 kDa of molecular weight was isolated from submerged-liquid culture of Agaricus blazei mycelia (ABM) in soy flake-containing liquid medium. MCF-7 cells were incubated with various amounts of Gluvone (0~250 μM) for a period of 6 days. Gluvone exhibited anti-proliferative actions in a dose-dependent manner and 62% growth inhibition at 200 μM for 4 days relative to control. Hoechst 33258 staining analysis revealed that Gluvone induced formation of apoptotic bodies. Gluvone was associated with down-regulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein expression as well as up-regulation of pro-apoptotic Bax protein expression. Gluvone treatment induced proteolytic activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 through cytochrome c release from mitochondria to cytosol as well as concomitant degradation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). In addition, Gluvone induced activation of caspase-8. Taken all together, these results indicate that the anti-proliferative effect of Gluvone is associated with induction of apoptotic cell death through the mitochondrial dysfunction pathway mediated by enhancement of Bax protein expression and suppression of Bcl-2 protein expression.
The purpose of this study was to examine the degree of knowledge of care workers working at long term care hospitals and nursing homes on pressure ulcer. A total of 81 care workers including 34 at long term care hospitals and 47 at nursing homes were surveyed. 24 questions were used to evaluate their degree of knowledge on pressure ulcer. Their knowledge on pressure ulcer scored 12.84 out of the total score of 24 points(SD=3.40), which was equal to 53.50 (SD=24.23) out of 100 points. Their knowledge on the prevention of pressure ulcer was highest among the subareas of evaluation. Their knowledge on pressure ulcer statistically significantly differed according to education on pressure ulcer(P<.05). A pressure ulcer is a skin disorder that may be prevented and cured. At this point when long term care facilities are rapidly increasing, care workers highlevel knowledge on and good management of pressure ulcer is very important. Practically educating them on pressure ulcer including the provision of recent, updated relevant knowledge will be necessary.
The aim of this paper is to analyze the value which Kim Woo-jung`s plays of expressionism have in the history of theater. His works of expressionism are Nanpa (ship reck) and Sandoeji (wild boar). He said that an artist should analyze every problem in reality throughly and then decide the direction of his own creation. With this perception, he began to explore the theories on the plays of expressionism and naturalism and tried to experiment on their possibilities with these two works. Nanpa and Sandoeji are the plays on the quester. The poet in Nanpa and the Cheo Won-bong in Sandoeji are suffering by the contradictions given to them. With the help of assistant, they clear grasp the fundamental causes and at last come to find out the new way they will go. Through these two works, Kim Woo-jin emphasized that human is the mortal being who doesn`t yield to the contradictory environment given to himself but have to overcome them. Kim woo-jin`s plays of expressionism have the value, in that they gave the individuality to the Korean plays of those days which were subordinated to Japan. He also obtained good results since he made the plays of future in colonized Korea be in accord with the currents of world play history through the plays of expressionism. But he failed to ascertain the fact that the plays of expressionism were the suitable for people in colonized Korea. It`s because that the contradictory environment which the poet in Nanpa and the Cheo Won-bong in Sandoeji faced were different that of the colonized Korea. It was also the limitation which Kim Woo-jin could not help having when he created the works of expressionism under the Japanese censor system. Because he knew this limitation, it seemed that he created the plays of naturalism at the same time.
본고는 매월당 김시습(梅月堂金時習, 1435-1493)의 다시(茶詩)에 나타난 다수(茶水)에 관해 밝히는 것이 목적이다. 조선 전기를 산 그는 세조의 왕위찬탈이라는 정치적 어려움을 겪으며 사대부의 길을 접고 출가하여 승려가 된 인물이다. 승속을 자유롭게 넘나든 그는 유교ㆍ불교ㆍ도교에 박통하며, 문학 각 장르에도 타의 추종을 불허하는 업적을 남겼다. 조선전기는 고려시대에 성행했던 차를 마시는 풍속이 잘 전해지고 있었는데, 그는 그 시대를 대표하는 다인이었다.『매월당시집』에 수록된 그의 다시는 67편 73수에 이르는데, 이들 가운데 찻물을 논한 바를 정리하였다. 첫째, 매월당은 차를 기르는 일에서부터 차와 관련된 모든 부분을 섭렵하고 있다는 점이다. 그의 차에 대한 글은 특히 시가 중심이 되는데, 이에는 제다(製茶)ㆍ다구(茶具)ㆍ다석(茶席)ㆍ다우(茶友), 그리고 다수(茶水)에 이르기까지 다양하게 나타난다. 둘째, 매월당의 다시는 특히 『사유록(四遊錄)』에 두드러지게 수록되어 있다는 점이다. 셋째, 그의 찻물에 대한 인식은 산수(山水)ㆍ강수(江水)ㆍ정수(井水)ㆍ설수(雪水)로 구별된다는 점이다. 이는 육우『다경』과 같은 흐름이므로, 찻물에 대해 충분히 인식하고 있었으며, 설수는 매월당이 임기응변으로 사용한 것으로 보인다. This paper examines the Tea Water shown repeatedly in Maewoldang Kim Si-seup``s Tea Poems. In his poems, Kim articulates the characteristics of suffering from preserving his nobility, while facing the usurpation of King Sejo``s throne and so as its consequences entering the Buddhist priesthood during the early Joseon dynasty. Kim was erudite on Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism and also achieved literary eminence, regardless of its genres. Drinking tea was very popular during the Koryo dynasty and dasu was common among the public. In Maewoldang poetry, consisting of sixty-seven volumes and seventy-three numbers, Kim describes Tea Water as follows: Firstly, Maewoldang emphasizes the fostering tea along with the related entire processes of tea farming. Most of his poetry writings are focused on tea and explicates metaphors such as Tea Places, Tea Utensils, Tea Water, Tea Friend and the Processing of Tea. Secondly, Maewoldang``s Tea Poems are particularly compiled in the Sayurok and were conspicuous. These poems were compiled in his early twenties when he started his monastic life and travelled in the four regions - Gwnaseo, Gwandong, Honam and Youngnam. However, it reflected a very strong narrative since he experienced indigenous tea culture. Thirdly, his understanding about tea water and tea preparation is based on differentiations of mountain water, river water, well water, and snow water. He appeared to have perceived snow water through the use of vernacular objects because it appropriately perceived the similar views of Lyuu's Chajing.
본 연구는 대통령에 대한 심리학적 연구의 이론적 기반을 구축하기 위해 「융(C. J. Jung)의 심리학적 유형론」을 토대로 분석모형을 만들고, 이를 이용하여 박정희·김영삼 두 전직 대통령의 성격과 리더십 스타일간의 상관관계를 분석하였다. 분석모형을 적용한 결과 박정희 대통령은 융의 심리학적 유형론에서 `내향적 사고형`에 속하며, 제 2기능인 직관이 발달한 `내향적 사고직관형`으로 분류된다. 박대통령 리더십 스타일에는 내향적 사고형의 장점이 잘 반영되어 국가발전에 긍정적으로 작용하였다. 반면에 단점도 리더십 스타일에 반영되어 부정적 영향을 미쳤다. 그러나 이러한 분석모형으로는 설명할 수 없는 점도 있었다. 과정의 합리성을 무시하고 목표를 위해서 수단과 방법을 가리지 않았고, 한 맺힌 가난에서 벗어나기 위하여 경제개발을 최고의 정책목표로 삼았다는 것이다. 김영삼 대통령은 `외향적 감정형`에 속하며 제 2기능인 감각이 발달한 `외향적 감정감각형`으로 볼 수 있다. 김 대통령은 외향적 감각형의 장점인 `뛰어난 정치적 감각과 순발력`을 발휘하여, 취임 직후 군내부 파벌 해체 등을 통한 군 개혁에 성공하였다. 그렇지만 외향적 감정감각형의 또 다른 장점들은 제대로 보여주지 못했다. 그러나 단점으로 나타날 수 있는 정책의 일관성 결여는 두드러져서 대북정책이나 재벌정책, 외교정책 등에서 지속적으로 반복되었다. 김대통령의 리더십에서도 이러한 분석모형으로 설명할 수 없는 점들이 있었다. 김 대통령은 `항상 남의 관심을 끌려고 하며 과시적이고 변덕스럽고 즉흥적인 태도`를 보여 주었는데, 이러한 양상은 히스테리성 인격의 행동과 아주 비슷한 것이었다. This study made an analytical model based on Jung`s psychological types to establish a theoretical frame for the psychological study of the president, and analyzed President Park Chung Hee and President Kim Young Sam. President Park Chung Hee belonged to the introverted thinking-intuition type. The strength of the introverted thinking-intuition type was well reflected in President Park`s leadership style and worked positively for national development. He had an ardent wish to reform reality to meet his ideal and was eager to drive policy to realize it. He called on talented men and put the right man in the right place. On the other hand, the weakness of theintroverted thinking-intuition type was also reflected in President Park`s leadership style and had a negative result. His self-conceit made him keep Korea under his despotic rule, and his personality of revealing hislikes and dislikes was the basis for unbalanced economic development among regions and classes. Regionalism became more severe as a result. President Kim Young Sam belonged to the extroverted feeling-sensation type. He successfully and flexibly carried out the reform of the military with an excellent political sense. He also established the real-name financial system and made public officials disclose their assets. However, other strengths of the extroverted feeling-sensation type were not reflected in President Kim`s leadership style. He was recognized as friendly and broad-minded before becoming president, but he did not show such traits after becoming president. On the other hand, the weakness of the extroverted feeling-sensation type was highly reflected in President Kim`s leadership style and had a negative impact. The lack of economic and diplomatic policy consistency was repeated during President Kim`s term of office. President Kim`s fickle and improvisational behavior reflected more of a histrionic personality.