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Rodgers, Mary A.,Bowman, James W.,Fujita, Hiroaki,Orazio, Nicole,Shi, Mude,Liang, Qiming,Amatya, Rina,Kelly, Thomas J.,Iwai, Kazuhiro,Ting, Jenny,Jung, Jae U. The Rockefeller University Press 2014 The Journal of experimental medicine Vol.211 No.7
<P>Linear ubiquitination is a newly discovered posttranslational modification that is currently restricted to a small number of known protein substrates. The linear ubiquitination assembly complex (LUBAC), consisting of HOIL-1L, HOIP, and Sharpin, has been reported to activate NF-κB–mediated transcription in response to receptor signaling by ligating linear ubiquitin chains to Nemo and Rip1. Despite recent advances, the detailed roles of LUBAC in immune cells remain elusive. We demonstrate a novel HOIL-1L function as an essential regulator of the activation of the NLRP3/ASC inflammasome in primary bone marrow–derived macrophages (BMDMs) independently of NF-κB activation. Mechanistically, HOIL-1L is required for assembly of the NLRP3/ASC inflammasome and the linear ubiquitination of ASC, which we identify as a novel LUBAC substrate. Consequently, we find that HOIL-1L<SUP>−/−</SUP> mice have reduced IL-1β secretion in response to in vivo NLRP3 stimulation and survive lethal challenge with LPS. Together, these data demonstrate that linear ubiquitination is required for NLRP3 inflammasome activation, defining the molecular events of NLRP3 inflammasome activation and expanding the role of LUBAC as an innate immune regulator. Furthermore, our observation is clinically relevant because patients lacking HOIL-1L expression suffer from pyogenic bacterial immunodeficiency, providing a potential new therapeutic target for enhancing inflammation in immunodeficient patients.</P>
The electrolyte additive of LiPO2F2 was injected into 18,650 Li ion battery cells composed of LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 /graphite at 25 °C to avoid the formation of the undesirable solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer. The potential distribution on the cathode surface was studied using electric force microscopy. The average potential distribution on the surface of the cathode in the cell where the additive LiPO2F2 was injected showed ~ 100 mV higher potential than the average potential on the surface of the cathode in the cell without the additive. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy results showed that the average potential distribution characteristics were correlated with the chemical composition of the surface reactants. These results indicate that the LiPO2F2 additive controls the formation of the SEI layer on the surface of the LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 cathode during the electrochemical reaction in the cell and has the decisive eff ect of inhibiting the decomposition of LiPF6 , which is the main component of the electrolyte solution. In this study, the addition of the LiPO2F2 additive to the electrolyte improves the electrochemical performance of the Li ion battery by improving the surface potential of the cathode surface and controlling the formation of the SEI layer on the surface of the LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 cathode.
Ben Tordoff,Cheryl Hartfield,Andrew J. Holwell,Stephan Hiller,Marcus Kaestner,Stephen Kelly,Jaehan Lee,Sascha Müller,Fabian Perez-Willard,Tobias Volkenandt,Robin White,Thomas Rodgers 한국현미경학회 2020 Applied microscopy Vol.50 No.4
The development of the femtosecond laser (fs laser) with its ability to provide extremely rapid athermal ablation of materials has initiated a renaissance in materials science. Sample milling rates for the fs laser are orders of magnitude greater than that of traditional focused ion beam (FIB) sources currently used. In combination with minimal surface post-processing requirements, this technology is proving to be a game changer for materials research. The development of a femtosecond laser attached to a focused ion beam scanning electron microscope (LaserFIB) enables numerous new capabilities, including access to deeply buried structures as well as the production of extremely large trenches, cross sections, pillars and TEM H-bars, all while preserving microstructure and avoiding or reducing FIB polishing. Several high impact applications are now possible due to this technology in the fields of crystallography, electronics, mechanical engineering, battery research and materials sample preparation. This review article summarizes the current opportunities for this new technology focusing on the materials science megatrends of engineering materials, energy materials and electronics.