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Table 2. Evaluation of stream water quality in three stands by Drinking water quality standard <원문참조> 임지이용에 따른 수질변화 및 오염정도를 구명하여 향후 비점오염원 관리를 위한 기초자료를 제공하고자 경남 진주시 정평리에 위치한 3개 임분(소나무, 밤나무Ⅰ, 반나무Ⅱ임분)에서 2000년 7월부터 9월까지 계류수의 수질변화를 분석하여 얻은 결과는 다음과 같다. 1. 세 임분의 계류수 pH는 소나무 임분(pH6.59)>밤나무 Ⅱ임분(ph 6.53)>밤나무 Ⅰ임분(pH 6.47)계류수 순으로 나타났다. 2. 전기전도도는 밤나무 Ⅰ임분>소나무 임분>밤나무 Ⅱ임분 계류수의 순으로 높게 나타났다. 3. 양이온은 세 임분의 계류수 모두 Ca^2+, Na^+, Mg^2+, K^+, NH_^+의 순으로 높게 나타났다. 4. 음이온은 소나무 임분과 밤나무 Ⅱ임분 계류수에서는 SO_4^2, Cl, NO_3의 순으로 높게 나타났고, 밤나무 Ⅰ임분 계류수에서는 NO_3, SO_4^2, Cl 의 순으로 높게 나타나 차이를 보였다. 5. 소나무, 밤나무 Ⅱ임분 계류수는 pH, NH_4+, NO_3, Cl, SO_4^2이 먹는 물 수질기준 범위내에 있었다. 그러나 밤나무 Ⅰ임분 계류수에서 5항목 중 NO_3는 먹는 물 수질기준을 넘어서는 범위에 있어 임지이용에 따른 하류수질의 오염이 우려되었다. 따라서 이러한 상류지역에서 오염원 차단을 위한 수질정화시설 등의 대책이 마련되어야 할 것으로 사료된다. This study was carried out to clarify the change characteristics of stream water quality by land-use of forest from July to September, 2000 in three stands(Pinus densiflora, Castanea crenata(Ⅰ), Castanea crenata(Ⅱ) stand) of Jeongpyeong-ri, Jinju-si, Gyeongnam. The mean pH of rainfall results in acid rain of 5.3. The pH of stream water in three stands was hugh in order of Pinus densiflora (pH 6.59), Castanea crenata(Ⅱ)(pH 6.53) and Castanea crenata(Ⅰ) stand(pH 6.47). The electrical conductivity of stream water was high in order of Castanea crenata(Ⅰ), Pinus densiflora and Castanea crenata(Ⅱ) stand. Cations of three stand in stream water high in order of Ca^2+, Na^+, Mg^2+, K^+ and NH_4^+. But anions of stream water in Pinus densiflora stand and Castanea crenata(Ⅱ) stand were high in order of SO_4^2, Cl and NO_3. In Castanea crenata(Ⅰ) stand cations of stream water were high in order of NO_3, SO_^2 and Cl. The level of pH, NH_4^+, NO_3, Cl and SO_4^2 of stream water in Pinus densiflora stand and Castanea crenata(Ⅱ) stand reached within the level of domestic use standard for drinking water But the level of NO_3 of stream water in Castanea crenata(Ⅰ) stand was higher than that of domestic use standard. Therefore, non-point sources like forest watersheds which are fertilizer application lands should be taken to the appropriate mitigation measures.
Paper records were generally degraded by some factors from atmospheric environments, like temperature, relative humidity or air pollutants. In this study, the degradation behavior of paper records by single or mixed gases of NO₂, SO₂, HCHO and TVOC was evaluated. The mechanical, optical and chemical properties of 4 kinds of paper (acid and neutral-based printing paper, traditional Hanji, and filter paper) were directly and indirectly affected by gaseous harmful materials. The brightness and L<SUP>*</SUP> value in all papers were slightly increased by accelerated aging under gaseous HCHO and TVOCs, but highly decreased by conditions under gases NO₂ and SO₂. The optical properties of paper records were most vulnerable in acid-based paper and high stable in filter paper and traditional Hanji by air pollutant degradation. The aging treatments under mixed gas pollutants including NO₂ resulted in decrease of physical, mechanical and optical properties of paper, so it was supposed that the concentration of NO₂ gas would be strictly controlled for optimum indoor air quality management in domestic storage centers for paper records.
This study was to examine the neuroticism related to psychological characteristics of each Sasang types using SCL-90-R with 107 students from College of Oriental Medicine, Daeguhaani University. We did ANOVA analysis with seven neuroticism-related sub-scales and found significant differences in somatization (F=3.701, p=0.028) and hostility (F=4.396, p=0.015). The post-hoc analysis showed that the So-Yang type (23.17±8.95) has significantly (p=0.048, p=0.012) higher score than Tae-Eum (19.25±5.97) and So-Yang(19.25±5.76) type in somatization. In hostility, the So-yang type (11.31±3.98) has significantly (p=0.011, p=0.015) higher score than Tae-Eum (8.80±2.61) and So-Eum (9.44±3.35) type. The ANOVA analysis with female subjects found significant differences in anxiety (F=3.88, p=0.03) and hostility (F=5.04, p=0.01). The post-hoc analysis showed that the So-Yang type (20.36±5.44, 12.36±3.82) has significantly (p=0.043, p=0.015) higher score compared to the So-Eum type (15.46±3.36, 8.69±2.06) in anxiety and hostility. The profile analysis using seven neuroticism-related subscalesof SCL-90-R did not revealed significant differences (Flatness with Greenhouse-Geisser (F=202.347, p=0.0001), Parallelism with Greenhouse-Geisser (F=1.428, p=0.191)). We discussed the implications of neuroticism in Sasang typology and SCL-90-R somatization, anxiety and hostility scales. This study showed opposite results compared to the previous studies that So-Eum type has higher neuroticism compared to the So-Yang and Tae-Eum type. The reason for this discrepancy between this and previous studies, and differences between male and female should be examined thoroughly with larger and balanced sample.
1.The object-and necessity of study. The New Community work of farm villages has made housing strueture better with a rapid economic growth, and excessive defend of cultural houses was keenly required and the work was propelled.We are carrying the work for improving housing stricture of 275 villages in Jeonbug (province)until 1979 and the work has been carrying in the suburbs around the cities.But each farm is indebted over loan of 2000'000 won from the work for improving housing structure and each farm has difficulty in refunding two times a year, and it is natural that we should study the plan of income increase of these villages.We present a high degree of efficiency of betterment work for agricultural management and organization.And we present the plan for the achievement. 2.The method of study The field of study is the betterment of housing structure and 275 villages are divided into a plain district and a mountain district.Youngdae, Maryeong-Myon, Jinan-Gun is selected and the Youngdae village is A type of the mountain distriet, A plain distict is Daiwhang, Gejeong-Myon, Oggu-Gun and Daiwhang village is B type which is a typical rice-crop farm district. I selected a district as the study course and peu questions to the district villagers and I analyzed the present situation of the village.There after I proposed an improving plan of management system, agricultural organization and agricultural policy aspects. 3.The result of study I selecteded Youngdae and Daewhang villaige as the betterment of housing structure in villages.On investigation about the villager's financial situation, it was found to be a farming deficit from payment owing to the labor shprtage, being paltry which is the characteristic of Korean agriculture, and the difficulty of completing mechanization by their own efforts. It is a real condition that the purehase price of rice by the government is really under production cost.And so the farming will of the farm villagers are going down by income decrease and a doubt of the future prospect.While urbanization and industrialization is the cause of the farmer's leaving their farms and the education of their children is the second couse of learning their farms.It is said that like environment is better off But the public opinion which a burden of livelihood is heavy is 70 percent.Farmers furnish their houses with much electric furniture(Televison Set, reprigarator, electric fan and the like)but they have only a few agricultural implements. The plan of income increase should be embarked on a small management scale and the rice-field which is formed the basis of agriculture can be cut down it's farming expense by consignment farming and they can profit by rice which is similer to market farming effects.The improvement of agricultural organization depends on regional feature and natural environment and the like.Yongdae, However, can increase it's rice products and it's income by strow-manafactured goods and the like.And Youngdae village has a given condition which can improve a dry-field farming including some pieces of field in the rear of the village and a feasible land which can be magnified to mulberry field. The villagers can arrange the cultivated area and convert it nito the fruit tree area, which needs a technical aid of an administrative organ and financial aid to do so.They also have a given condition which can increase their income with setting up a parking place and a restingrooim facilities.
Social capital can be approached differently according to various fields such as spatial, social, and cultural dimensions of community. This study aims to develop social capital indicators. Social capital has so many multi faceted aspects that cannot be defined or measured easily. In addition, there might be some confusion with the terminology haunted by "capital". Social capital can be differentiated from the traditional capital such as financial capital, physical capital, human capital, etc. in that it is primarily inclusive, whereas traditional capital is mainly exclusive. The main difference between social capital and traditional capital is that traditional capital can be measured by ownership, whereas social capital can be used only by the networks on trust, and cannot be measured by ownership. Therefore, it would be needed to resolve social capital into several tangible conceptual components, so that social capital can be identified or measured. But the relevant conceptual components and expressional factors of social capital can be varied according to the purpose of defining social capital and the usefulness of social capital. In this context, this study is trying to identify the purpose of defining social capital, outline the usefulness of social capital and relate that to the conceptual components and expressional factors of social capital. Those linkage processes between the usefulness and the conceptual components and expressional factors of social capital are expected to contain some tangible indicators to measure social capital. Several indicators to measure social capital can be suggested depending on the linkage processes between the usefulness and the conceptual components of social capital: trust to share commonality, citizens' participation to set up common goals or objectives, network to maintain neighborhood or community, institution building to mobilize resources or secure safety nets, and altruism to create common benefits.
By environmental rights we mean the right to the free development of human character, to the enjoyable possession of human living, to a healthy environment, and the right to controll these, to prevent and stop the destruction of the environment by the state, and the right to restore and improve the environment, all of which are demanded by basic human rights. Since 1960, our country, following the general tendency of eveloping countries, on account of a rapid industrialization policy, has attained a rapid rise of the GNP but has neglected preservation of the environment and has contaminated the whole country with the result that in the Han and Nack-Dong Rivers we can find disfigured fish, a phenomenon of ecological destuction, and if we let it go on this way, human life will be threatened. With this as a background, our country adopted a new theory of environmental right in the thirty-third article of the constitution. In a distinct sentence, this was made a basic right so we can know the importance of the environment and make certain by means of positive law to do our best resolve the environmental problems, but still is short of proper measures to establish a special law to prevent the destruction of the environment and to provide for the restoration of damage. We can not easily decide about the relative values of economic development and the environmental problem and it not easy to decide which value to stress, but I think we have to do our best to coordinate properly both the preservation of the environment and economic development that is suitable to our country and so we have to educate and enlighten about environmental preservation at a higher level and not just simply engage in the improvement of nature preservation.
1. The purpose and necessity of the study Net Profit of the farm land is only 2,030,000 won and labor productivity is only 926 won. So we have to study an agricultural growth for the form income augment and agricultural growth depends on the augment of labor productivity. Land productivity reached the limit of the law of dimishing crop by the law of it. And it needs agricultural mechanization, and What is more, the decrease of agricultural population is more unprofitable in income augment. Under the above given conditions, We analyse the present income states of different districts and the purpose of this study is to study the method of income augment for the low income farmer. 2. The method of this study In the study, the present income states are analysed with statistics and territorial conditions of Jangsu county are classified into topography, inclination, height, and grades of possibility of land use, and we studied the plan of the community development. 3. The result of this study The analysis of the present income states of different districts of Jangsu county resulted in less than 0.8ha arable land to a low income farmer, and we have come to the conclusion that we must enlarge management scale by the enlargement of arable land for the farm income augment. In consideration of topography, inclination, height and divisions of land use possibility of Jangsu county, possible development land is over 10,000ha, So it needs great cultural Synthetic development, by the government, then a house will have over 2ha in a management scale. When agricultural structure will be improved as the formation of agricultural basis and this community will be rich by agricultural mechanization, and the goal of agricultural development will be accomplished. The uses of mountainous districts are classified into mixed forest, absolute forest and prairie. Mixed forest will become place of supply of char coal, absolute forest a place of supply of wood, scenic forest a national park and prarie will be promotion of live-stock framing. In conclusion, As economic independent degree of Jangsu county is only 25%, when great agricultural synthetic development will be realized, Synthetic development of rural community will accomplished by the income augment for the inhabitants of Jangsu county and the formation of rich community.
Background Spingobium sp. PAMC 28499 is isolated from the glaciers of Uganda. Uganda is a unique region where hot areas and glaciers coexist, with a variety of living creatures surviving, but the survey on them is very poor. The genetic character and complete genome information of Sphingobium strains help with environmental studies and the development of better to enzyme industry. Objective In this study, complete genome sequence of Spingobium sp. PAMC 28499 and comparative analysis of Spingobium species strains isolated from variety of the region. Methods Genome sequencingwas performed using PacBio sequel single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing technology. The predicted gene sequences were functionally annotated and gene prediction was carried out using the program NCBI nonredundant database. And using dbCAN2 and KEGG data base were degradation pathway predicted and protein prediction about carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes). Results The genome sequence has 64.5% GC content, 4432 coding protein coding genes, 61 tRNAs, and 12 rRNA operons. Its genome encodes a simple set of metabolic pathways relevant to pectin and its predicted degradation protein an unusual distribution of CAZymes with extracellular esterases and pectate lyases. CAZyme annotation analyses revealed 165 genes related to carbohydrate active, and especially we have found GH1, GH2, GH3, GH38, GH35, GH51, GH51, GH53, GH106, GH146, CE12, PL1 and PL11 such as known pectin degradation genes from Sphingobium yanoikuiae. These results confrmed that this Sphingobium sp. strain PAMC 28499 have similar patterns to RG I pectin-degrading pathway. Conclusion In this study, isolated and sequenced the complete genome of Spingobium sp. PAMC 28499. Also, this strain has comparative genome analysis. Through the complete genome we can predict how this strain can store and produce energy in extreme environment. It can also provide bioengineered data by fnding new genes that degradation the pectin
As the device geometry shrinks to the deep submicron region, chemical mechanical polishing(CMP) planarization become a more essential technique of advanced ULSI process. Also, CMP process was required for the global planarization of inter-metal dielectric(IMD), inter-level dielectric(ILD) layers and interconnections with free-defect. Especially, the complete global planarization of IMD, ILD and interconnections can be achieved only with the CMP process. However, as the IMD and ILD layer gets thinner, several problems were found in the CMP process. It does have various problems such as dishing effect, torn oxide defects and nitride residues in oxide. So, it leads to severe circuit failure, which affects yield. In this paper, we studied the characteristics of polishing pad, which can apply STI-CMP process for global planarization of multilevel interconnection structure. Also, we investigated the effects of different sets of polishing pad, such as soft and hard pad. As an experimental result, hard pad showed center-fast type, and soft pad showed edge-fast type. Totally, the defect level has shown little difference, however, the counts of scratch was defected less than 2 on JR111 pad. Through the above result, we can select optimum polishing pad, so we can expect the improvement of throughput and device yield.