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      • KCI등재

        Na₂S 하부층을 이용한 Cu(In,Ga)Se₂ 광흡수층의 저온증착 및 Cu(In,Ga)Se₂ 박막태양전지에의 응용

        신해나라(Hae Na Ra Shin),신영민(Young Min Shin),김지혜(Ji Hye Kim),윤재호(Jae Ho Yun),박병국(Byung Kook Park),안병태(Byung Tae Ahn) 한국태양광발전학회 2014 Current Photovoltaic Research Vol.2 No.1

        High-efficiency in Cu(In,Ga)Se₂ (CIGS) solar cells were usually achieved on soda-lime glass substrates due to Na incorporation that reduces deep-level defects. However, this supply of sodium from sodalime glass to CIGS through Mo back electrode could be limited at low deposition temperature. Na content could be more precisely controlled by supplying Na from known amount of an outside source. For the purpose, an Na₂S layer was deposited on Mo electrode prior to CIGS film deposition and supplied to CIGS during CIGS film. With the Na₂S underlayer a more uniform component distribution was possible at 350°C and efficiency was improved compared to the cell without Na₂S layer. With more precise control of bulk and surface component profile, CIGS film can be deposited at low temperature and could be useful for flexible CIGS solar cells.

      • KCI등재

        Na<sub>2</sub>S 하부층을 이용한 Cu(In,Ga)Se<sub>2</sub> 광흡수층의 저온증착 및 Cu(In,Ga)Se<sub>2</sub> 박막태양전지에의 응용

        신해나라,신영민,김지혜,윤재호,박병국,안병태,Shin, Hae Na Ra,Shin, Young Min,Kim, Ji Hye,Yun, Jae Ho,Park, Byung Kook,Ahn, Byung Tae 한국태양광발전학회 2014 Current Photovoltaic Research Vol.2 No.1

        High-efficiency in $Cu(In,Ga)Se_2$ (CIGS) solar cells were usually achieved on soda-lime glass substrates due to Na incorporation that reduces deep-level defects. However, this supply of sodium from sodalime glass to CIGS through Mo back electrode could be limited at low deposition temperature. Na content could be more precisely controlled by supplying Na from known amount of an outside source. For the purpose, an $Na_2S$ layer was deposited on Mo electrode prior to CIGS film deposition and supplied to CIGS during CIGS film. With the $Na_2S$ underlayer a more uniform component distribution was possible at $350^{\circ}C$ and efficiency was improved compared to the cell without $Na_2S$ layer. With more precise control of bulk and surface component profile, CIGS film can be deposited at low temperature and could be useful for flexible CIGS solar cells.

      • Effects of Sunghyangchungisan(SHCS) on Cellular Ion Contents and Metabolism in Cat Brain Cortical Slices under Hypoxic Insult

        Kim, Na-Ri,Kim, Young-Kyun 동의대학교 한의학연구소 2001 동의ㆍ경산 한의학 학술대회 Vol.5 No.-

        星香正氣散은 腦卒中을 가진 患者에 대해 有益한 處方이라고 알려져 있다. 이번 硏究에서 는 고양이 大腦 皮質 切片을 사용하여 低酸素 發作을 誘發한 뒤, 星香正氣散이 細胞의 이온環境과 代謝의 變化와 關聯하여 效果가 있는지 硏究하였다. 고양이의 大腦 皮質 切片이 低酸素症에 露出되었을 때, 細胞內에 Na+는 增加하고 K+는 減少한다. 星香正氣散은 低酸素症으로 誘發된 細胞內의 K+와 Na+의 含量의 變化를 현저하게 遲延시켰다. 星香正氣散의 效果는 0.3-2 mg/ml의 濃度에서 投與量에 依存的이었다. 星香正氣散은 低酸素 期間의 前이나 그동안에 適用했을 때만 效果가 있었고, 이미 低酸素 發作으로 인해 損傷된 組織에 適用했을 때는 이온 障害를 바꾸는 어떤 效果도 나타나지 않았다. 星香正氣散은 Na-K-ATPase의 抑制劑인 와바인 또는 代謝 抑制劑인 2,4-DNP로 誘發된 細胞內 K+ 含量의 變化에 어떤 效果도 보이지 않았다. 또한, 正常 狀態의 切片뿐만 아니라 低酸素 狀態의 切片에서 分離된 顆粒體의 分屑에 있어서 Na-K-ATPase의 活動度에 影響을 미치지 않았다. 星香正氣散은 低酸素 發作下에서 酸素 消費量과 細胞의 ATP含量이 떨어지는 것을 현저하게 막았다. 또한 ATP를 生産하는 機能을 保護하는 低酸素 組織의 絲粒體를 돕는데 效果的이었다. 結論的으로 星香正氣散은 大腦 組織의 低酸素 發作下에서 細胞의 이온 環境과 代謝를 保護하는 有益한 效果가 있다는 것을 알 수 있다.

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        Immobilization of the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Thermococcus onnurineus Using Amine-coated Silica Material for H<sub>2</sub> Production

        배승섭,나정걸,이성목,강성균,이현숙,이정현,김태완,Bae, Seung Seob,Na, Jeong Geol,Lee, Sung-Mok,Kang, Sung Gyun,Lee, Hyun Sook,Lee, Jung-Hyun,Kim, Tae Wan The Korean Society for Microbiology and Biotechnol 2015 한국미생물·생명공학회지 Vol.43 No.3

        초고온성 고세균 Thermococcus onnurineus NA1은 개미산, 일산화탄소, 또는 전분 등을 이용해서 수소를 생산하는 것으로 알려져 있다. 본 연구에서는 T. onnurineus NA1의 고정화 세포를 이용한 수소생산을 고찰하였다. 고정화 실험결과, T. onnurineus NA1은 표면에 아민기가 코팅된 규조토 담체에 정전기적 인력에 의해 효과적으로 고정화되었고, 1 g의 담체에 고정화 될 수 있는 최대 세포의 양은 71.7 mg-dcw로 확인되었다. 고정화 세포를 이용한 세 번의 반복회분식 배양을 통해 개미산으로부터 수소생산 특성을 고찰하였고, 그 결과 배양이 반복됨에 따라 고정화 세포 농도의 증가에 기인하여 초기수소생산속도가 2.3 에서 4.0 mmol l<sup>−1</sup> h<sup>−1</sup>로 상당량 증가됨이 관찰되었다. 따라서, T. onnurineus NA1의 고정화세포 시스템은 수소생산을 위한 좋은 대안이 될 수 있을 것으로 사료된다. 본 연구는 초고온성 고세균의 고정화세포를 수소생산에 적용한 첫 번째 사례이다. Previously we reported that the hyperthermophilic archaeon, Thermococcus onnurineus NA1 is capable of producing hydrogen (H<sub>2</sub>) from formate, CO or starch. In this study, we describe the immobilization of T. onnurineus NA1 as an alternative means of H<sub>2</sub> production. Amine-coated silica particles were effective in immobilizing T. onnurineus NA1 by electrostatic interaction, showing a maximum cell adsorption capacity of 71.7 mg-dried cells per g of particle. In three cycles of repeated-batch cultivation using sodium formate as the sole energy source, immobilized cells showed reproducible H<sub>2</sub> production with a considerable increase in the initial production rate from 2.3 to 4.0 mmol l<sup>−1</sup> h<sup>−1</sup>, mainly due to the increase in the immobilized cell concentration as the batch culture was repeated. Thus, the immobilized-cell system of T. onnurineus NA1 was demonstrated to be feasible for H<sub>2</sub> production. This study is the first example of immobilized cells of hyperthermophilic archaea being used for the production of H<sub>2</sub>.

      • KCI등재

        섬진강 주변 지하수의 수질 및 오염특성: 오염원 및 유해성 평가

        나춘기(Choon-Ki Na),손창인(Chang-In Son) 대한자원환경지질학회 2005 자원환경지질 Vol.38 No.3

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        섬진강 유역 지하수는 주로 높은 EC의 Na-Cl형과 낮은 EC의 Na-HCO 3 - 형으로 분리되며, K + , Mg 2+ , NO 3 - 및 SO 4 2- 성분이 부화된 특성을 보인다. 일반적으로 지하수의 EC가 증가할수록 TDS에서 차지하는 Na + +Cl - 의 당량분율은 증가한다. 용존이온들간 상관유형으로부터 Na + 와 Cl - 은 주로 침투된 해수에서 유래되며, K + , Mg 2+ 및 SO 4 2- 은화학비료와 같은 인위오염원에서 주로 유래됨을 알 수 있다. 농업용수 수질기준과 비교하여 그 기준을 초과하는 지하 수는 해수침입을 반영하는 Cl - 의 경우 조사대상 관정의 23%인 반면 인위적 오염원을 대표하는 NO 3 - 의 경우 전체의 50%에 달한다. EC-SAR관계를 바탕으로 한 지하수의 유해성 평가에서 조사대상 지하수의 40%만이 농업용수로서 소다질화와 염류화를 초래할 가능성이 없는 적정한 수질을 나타낸다. 결론적으로 섬진강 유역 지하수의 수질저하를 초래한 오염원은 화학비료의 사용과 해수침입이다. 또한 모든 결과들은 화학비료의 사용이 연구지역의 지하수 오염에 가장 폭넓게 영향을 미치며, 일부 특정지역에서는 강쪽으로의 해수역류 확대라는 일차적 요인과 지하수의 과다양수라는 이차적 요인에 의해 섬진강으로부터 해수가 대수층으로 침투되어 더욱 지하수질이 악화되고 있음을 시사한다. The groundwaters in the basin of Seomjin River are classified mainly into Na-Cl type with high EC and NaHCO 3 type with low EC, and are characterized by enriched K + , Mg 2+ , NO 3 - , and SO 4 2- contents. The epm fraction of Na + +Cl - in TDS increases in general with increasing EC of groundwater. The correlation patterns among dissolved ions indicate that Na + and Cl - are derived mainly from intruded seawater, and K + , Mg 2+ , and SO 4 2- from anthropogenic source such as a chemical fertilizer. The groundwaters that exceed the recommended limits for agricultural irrigation water contains 23% of Cl - reflecting sea-water intrusion, but 50% of NO 3 - as an anthropogenic pollution, among the wells investigated. In risk assessment of groundwaters by the EC-SAR relationship, only 40% of the groundwaters shows the suitable quality for agricultural irrigation water without any sodium and salinity hazards. Consequently, the pollution sources that cause degradation of groundwater quality in the basin of Seomjin River are the usage of chemical fertilizers and the intrusion of seawater, resulted primarily from the extension of riverward backflow of seawater and secondarily from the overpumping of groundwater.

      • SCISCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        Role of the oxidizing agent in the etching of 4H-SiC substrates with molten KOH

        Na, M.,Kang, I. H.,Moon, J. H.,Bahng, W. 한국물리학회 2016 THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN PHYSICAL SOCIETY Vol. No.

        <P>A novel etching solution using molten potassium hydroxide (KOH) for the identification of dislocation types in a silicon-carbide (SiC) epilayer is identified. Threading screw dislocations (TSDs) and threading edge dislocations (TEDs) are rarely useful for size-based differentiation of etch pits in highly nitrogen (N)-doped SiC through conventional KOH etching. In this study, we report the role of sodium peroxide (Na2O2) and potassium dioxide (KO2) as oxidizing agent additives to the etchant for identifying the dislocation types in highly N-doped 4H-SiC. A Na2O2-KOH phase diagram was calculated to predict the chemical composition of the etchant. Solid-phase Na2O2 remained in the system when added to the etchant at concentrations greater than 13-wt% Na2O2, and it provided excess oxygen to the etchant. We experimentally confirmed that etch pit shapes became more hexagonal and that the etch pit sizes of TSDs and TEDs differed more greatly when more than 20-wt% Na2O2 was added to the etchant. We also found that the size distribution of TEDs was much smaller than that of TSDs after etching using Na2O2-KOH. Dissolved oxygen played an essential role in enhancing the anisotropic etching of highly N-doped SiC and allowed the dislocation types to be identified.</P>

      • KCI등재

        간호대학생의 정신간호학 실습이 요중 Na^(+), Cl^(-), K^(+), Ca^(++)에 미치는 영향

        나현주,한유정 대한기초간호자연과학회 2001 Journal of korean biological nursing science Vol.3 No.2

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        This study was done to investigate the effect of the first experience of the clinical experience for psychiatric nursing on urinary Na^(+), Cl^(-), K^(+), Ca^(++) of the nursing students. We analyzed the urine of 36 students on curriculum who were students of D college in K city. The data were analyzed with SAS Statistical analysis was performed by using paired t-test, GLM. The second day group increased 18.56 at 8AM, 31.90 at 4PM in a case of Na^(+)(p=0.004). The second day group increased 27.61 at 8AM, 43.53 at 4PM in a case of Cl^(-)(p=0.009). The first day group increased 2.62 at 8AM, 7.09 at 4PM in a case of K^(+)(p=0.018). The second day group increased 3.69 at 8AM, 5.19 at 4PM in a case of K+(p=0.013). The second day group increased 20.65 at 8AM, 14.07 at 4PM in a case of Ca^(++)(p=0.033). There was a significant difference in Na^(+) according to group at 8AM(F=4.17, p=0.024) and 4PM(F=3.58, p=0.040). There was a significant difference in Cl^(-) according to group at 8AM(F=4.38, p=0.020) and 4PM(F=6.29, p=0.003). There was a significant difference in K^(+) according to group at 8AM(F=5.03, p=0.012). In conclusion, Na^(+), Cl^(-), K^(+), Ca^(++) may be used as a indicator of the amount of stress to improve the educational environment for the students.

      • KCI등재

        Role of the Oxidizing Agent in the Etching of 4H-SiC Substrates with Molten KOH

        Moonkyong Na,In-Ho Kang,Jeong Hyun Moon,Wook Bahng 한국물리학회 2016 THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN PHYSICAL SOCIETY Vol.69 No.11

        A novel etching solution using molten potassium hydroxide (KOH) for the identification of dislocation types in a silicon-carbide (SiC) epilayer is identified. Threading screw dislocations (TSDs) and threading edge dislocations (TEDs) are rarely useful for size-based differentiation of etch pits in highly nitrogen (N)-doped SiC through conventional KOH etching. In this study, we report the role of sodium peroxide (Na2O2) and potassium dioxide (KO2) as oxidizing agent additives to the etchant for identifying the dislocation types in highly N-doped 4H-SiC. A Na2O2-KOH phase diagram was calculated to predict the chemical composition of the etchant. Solid-phase Na2O2 remained in the system when added to the etchant at concentrations greater than 13-wt% Na2O2, and it provided excess oxygen to the etchant. We experimentally confirmed that etch pit shapes became more hexagonal and that the etch pit sizes of TSDs and TEDs differed more greatly when more than 20-wt% Na2O2 was added to the etchant. We also found that the size distribution of TEDs was much smaller than that of TSDs after etching using Na2O2-KOH. Dissolved oxygen played an essential role in enhancing the anisotropic etching of highly N-doped SiC and allowed the dislocation types to be identified.

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