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Purpose Electromagnetic transducers are widely used forimplantable hearing devices because they can be miniaturized,and their vibration intensity is suitable for middle earstimulation. There are two types of electromagnetic transducers:a floating mass transducer (FMT) and differential floatingmass transducer (DFMT). Both transducers have a permanentmagnet and a coil to generate electromagnetic force. However,FMTs have disadvantage in that unwanted vibration can begenerated in a static magnetic field, such as in MRI. Methods In this paper, a magnetic field effect analysis oftwo types of electromagnetic transducers was performed. The torque that is generated by the static magnetic field hasbeen calculated through finite element analysis (FEA). Then,the effects of the static magnetic field in both transducerswere compared through an experiment based on the simulatedresults. Results The results of FEA and the experiment show that thetorque of the DFMT are smaller than that of the FMT in astatic magnetic field. Conclusions Therefore, it is expected that the DFMT is asuitable transducer for implantable hearing devices.
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Objectives : Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in the elderly is related to cognitive dysfunction. We aimed to analyze the difference in the neurocognitive function between the elderly groups with and without EDS and examine the correlation between sleep parameters and the neurocognitive function in the elderly with EDS. Methods : Thirty seven subjects who visited Kangwon National University Hospital were recruited. We excluded those who had abnormalities in laboratory examination or chronic systemic diseases. For each subject, a neuropsychological battery in the Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD-K) Assessment Packet was applied. Noctumal polysomnographies were conducted in 16 subjects with EDS. Results : There were no significant differences in the neurocognitive function between EDS positive and EDS negativegroups. In the EDS positive grouP, the amount of stage 1 sleep negatively correlated with scores on Boston naming test, word list memory and Stroop interference, respectively (r=-0.611, -0.583, -0.611). Also, REM sleep amount positively Correlated with scores of word list recognition (r= 0.568), and limb movement index negatively correlated with scores of wordlistmemory (r=-0.523). Conclusion : The poor sleep quality was associated with impaired language, memory and executive functions. Also, increased limb movements were associated with the memory decline.
To investigate how environmental conditions influence the growth of the medicinally important Buxus koreana (Nakai ex Rehder) T.H. Chung, P.S. Toh, D.B. Lee & F.J. Lee, we established 10 × 10 m field plots at four sites within Korea and surveyed floristic composition and species abundance. Although species richness was the highest at Maepo-eup, but species composition was significantly different. This degree of richness was positively correlated with calcium content in the soil. Because we found no other significant correlations between the growth of B. koreana and environmental factors, we conclude that performance by this species is not necessarily dependent upon any specific external influences. Therefore, we believe that this plant is suitable for mass production via commercial cultivation.
'스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.
Purpose: To compare the surgical methods for the treatment of sub-V pattern intermittent exotropia. Methods: Sub-V pattern intermittent exotropia is defined as 8-15 prism diopters (PD) less horizontal deviation in downgaze than in upgaze. The present study included 65 patients who underwent a standard recession procedure of the lateral rectus muscle (group I), oblique muscle surgery (group II) or vertical transposition of the horizontal rectus muscle (group III) and who were followed up for six months after the surgery. Results: Surgical success was defined as vertical incomitance ≤5 PD; the success rate was 92% (23/25) in group I, 88.8% (16/18) in group II and 86.4% (19/22) in group III. Surgical success of the horizontal strabismus was defined as horizontal deviation ≤10 PD at primary position; the success rate was 87.9% (51/58) in the patients with vertical incomitance less than 5 PD, and 42.9% (3/7) in the patients with vertical incomitance greater than 6 PD. There was statistical significance in the success rate of horizontal strabismus according to the decrease in vertical incomitance (p=0.01). Conclusions: There was no statistical significance of the difference in success rates of horizontal strabismus surgery regardless of vertical transposition of the horizontal rectus muscle or oblique muscle surgery. There was statistical significance in the difference in success rates of horizontal strabismus according to the reduction in vertical incomitance. J Korean Ophthalmol Soc 2011;52(7):846-851
The bargaining unit is the basis of the single bargaining unit rule which requires multiple trade unions to unify the contact point and henceforth is the unit that determines the bargaining representative trade union. The reason why our Trade Union Act legally stipulates bargaining units by industry or business place with the implementation of the single bargaining unit rule was to restrict the subdivision of bargaining units and to prevent the risk of hindrance of actual equality between the employer and workers. In other words the legislators, upon considering the previous bargaining customs in which labor conditions were determined based on the company, deemed that the smallest unit that could maintain equality between employer and worker was industry and business place and they legally stipulated the same as the appropriate bargaining unit. Setting the unit of industry and business place as the minimum bargaining unit is mandatory in that it secures actual equality between the employer and worker. As such having a bargaining unit that is smaller than the minimum bargaining unit upon the agreement between the employer and worker is prohibited as it violates this mandatory provision and can only be possible upon the determination of separation rendered by the Labor Committee. That being said above-company level bargaining units may be deemed as a bargaining unit that is above the minimum bargaining unit stipulated under the Trade Union Act and could be deemed as a field that has secured actual equality. Therefore, we must interpret this to mean that determining a bargaining unit that is above the industry and business place unit may be agreed upon by the employers and workers. Where equality between the employers and workers has been secured the free-will of the employers and workers must take priority. As such implementation of the single bargaining unit rule on the determination of above-company level bargaining units and thus deemed to have secured actual equality on the grounds of securing bargaining equality is inappropriate. This is why the minimum bargaining unit is mandatory under Article 29-3 Para 1 of the Trade Union Act. This theory of interpretation is meaningful in that it solves the limits of the prior theory of interpretation of Article 29-3 Para 1 of the Trade Act as a mandatory provision, the problem of uniformly determining bargaining units that should be freely determined by and between the employers and workers, the problems that arise in which industry-wide bargaining and above-company level bargaining units is limited as a result of limiting the industry and business place bargaining unit.