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          • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

            Neuroprotective Effects of Korean Red Pine (Pinus densiflora) Bark Extract and Its Phenolics

            Kim,,Ji-Won,Im,,Sungbin,Jeong,,Ha-Ram,Jung,,Young,Sung,Lee,,Inil,Kim,,Kwan,Joong,Park,,Seung,Kook,Kim,,Dae-Ok The Korean Society for Microbiology and Biotechnol 2018 Journal of microbiology and biotechnology Vol.28 No.5

            Korean red pine (Pinus densiflora) is one of the major Pinus species in Korea. Red pine bark is removed prior to the chipping process in the wood industry and discarded as waste. However, red pine bark contains a considerable amount of naturally occurring phenolics, including flavonoids, and therefore may have a variety of biological effects. In this study, we investigated if Korean red pine bark extract (KRPBE) could protect neuronal PC-12 cells from oxidative stress and inhibit cholinesterase activity. Analysis of reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography results revealed four phenolics in KRPBE: vanillin, protocatechuic acid, catechin, and taxifolin. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents of KRPBE were 397.9 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight (DW) and 248.7 mg catechin equivalents/g DW, respectively. The antioxidant capacities of KRPBE measured using ABTS, DPPH, and ORAC assays were 697.3, 521.8, and 2,627.7 mg vitamin C equivalents/g DW, respectively. KRPBE and its identified phenolics protected against $H_2O_2$-induced oxidative cell death in a dose-dependent manner. Acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase, which degrade the neurotransmitter acetylcholine to terminate neurotransmission in synaptic clefts, were inhibited by treatment with KRPBE and its identified phenolics. Taken together, these results suggest that KRPBE and its constituent antioxidative phenolics are potent neuroprotective agents that can maintain cell viability under oxidative stress and inhibit cholinesterase activity.

          • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

            Generation of Full-Length Infectious cDNA Clones of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

            Lee,,Jeong,Yoon,Bae,,Sojung,Myoung,,Jinjong The Korean Society for Microbiology and Biotechnol 2019 Journal of microbiology and biotechnology Vol.29 No.6

            Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was first identified in Saudi Arabia in 2012 and related infection cases have been reported in over 20 countries. Roughly 10,000 human cases have so far been reported in total with fatality rates at up to 40%. The majority of cases have occurred in Saudi Arabia with mostly sporadic outbreaks outside the country except for the one in South Korea in 2015. The Korean MERS-CoV strain was isolated from the second Korean patient and its genome was fully sequenced and deposited. To develop virus-specific protective and therapeutic agents against the Korean isolate and to investigate molecular determinants of virus-host interactions, it is of paramount importance to generate its full-length cDNA. Here we report that two full-length cDNAs from a Korean patient-isolated MERS-CoV strain were generated by a combination of conventional cloning techniques and efficient Gibson assembly reactions. The full-length cDNAs were validated by restriction analysis and their sequence was verified by Sanger method. The resulting cDNA was efficiently transcribed in vitro and the T7 promoter-driven expression was robust. The resulting reverse genetic system will add to the published list of MERS-CoV cDNAs and facilitate the development of Korean isolate-specific antiviral measures.

          • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

            Biotransformation of Protopanaxadiol-Type Ginsenosides in Korean Ginseng Extract into Food-Available Compound K by an Extracellular Enzyme from Aspergillus niger

            Jeong,,Eun-Bi,Kim,,Se-A,Shin,,Kyung-Chul,Oh,,Deok-Kun The Korean Society for Microbiology and Biotechnol 2020 Journal of microbiology and biotechnology Vol.30 No.10

            Compound K (C-K) is one of the most pharmaceutically effective ginsenosides, but it is absent in natural ginseng. However, C-K can be obtained through the hydrolysis of protopanaxadiol-type ginsenosides (PPDGs) in natural ginseng. The aim of this study was to obtain the high concentration of food-available C-K using PPDGs in Korean ginseng extract by an extracellular enzyme from Aspergillus niger KACC 46495. A. niger was cultivated in the culture medium containing the inducer carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) for 6 days. The extracellular enzyme extracted from A. niger was prepared from the culture broth by filtration, ammonium sulfate, and dialysis. The extracellular enzyme was used for C-K production using PPDGs. The glycoside-hydrolyzing pathways for converting PPDGs into C-K by the extracellular enzyme were Rb1 → Rd → F2 → C-K, Rb2 → Rd or compound O → F2 or compound Y → C-K, and Rc → Rd or compound Mc1 → F2 or compound Mc → C-K. The extracellular enzyme from A. niger at 8.0 mg/ml, which was obtained by the induction of CMC during the cultivation, converted 6.0 mg/ml (5.6 mM) PPDGs in Korean ginseng extract into 2.8 mg/ml (4.5 mM) food-available C-K in 9 h, with a productivity of 313 mg/l/h and a molar conversion of 80%. To the best of our knowledge, the productivity and concentration of C-K of the extracellular enzyme are the highest among those by crude enzymes from wild-type microorganisms.

          • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

            Restoration of Traditional Korean Nuruk and Analysis of the Brewing Characteristics

            Lee,,Jang-Eun,Lee,,Ae,Ran,Kim,,HyeRyun,Lee,,Eunjung,Kim,,Tae,Wan,Shin,,Woo,Chang,Kim,,Jae,Ho The Korean Society for Microbiology and Biotechnol 2017 Journal of microbiology and biotechnology Vol.27 No.5

            In this study, a total of 58 different kinds of nuruk (a traditional Korean fermentation starter) were prepared, including 46 kinds of restored nuruk from ancient documents. Each nuruk was evaluated by analysis of its saccharification power, and the enzyme activities of glucoamylase, ${\alpha}$-amylase, ${\beta}$-amylase, protease, and ${\beta}$-glucanase. The range of saccharification power (sp) of the restored nuruk ranged between 85 and 565 sp. The diastatic enzymes, ${\alpha}$-amylase, ${\beta}$-amylase, and glucoamylase, were significantly correlated to the saccharification power value; conversely, ${\beta}$-glucanase and protease did not have a correlative relationship with saccarification power. In addition, their brewing properties on chemical and organoleptic aspects of traditional alcoholic beverage production were compared. Each raw and supplementary material contained in nuruk showed its own unique characteristics on Korean alcoholic beverage brewing. For the first time, in this study, the traditional Korean nuruk types mentioned in ancient documents were restored using modernized production methods, and also characterized based on their brewing properties. Our results could be utilized as a basis for further study of traditional alcoholic beverages and their valuable microorganisms.

          • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

            Potential Antioxidant Peptides in Rice Wine

            Rhee,,Sook-Jong,Lee,,Chung-Yung,J.,Kim,,Mi-Ryung,Lee,,Cherl-Ho The Korean Society for Microbiology and Biotechnol 2004 Journal of microbiology and biotechnology Vol.14 No.4

            Many food protein hydrolysates have been shown to have antioxidant activities, and recent research focuses on low molecular peptides produced during hydrolysis of food protein. Korean rice wine contains about 60-70% of protein at dry base and originates from raw materials. It has been suggested that the protein is transformed into low molecular weight peptides, and have antioxidant activity during fermentation. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the pre-purified and purified peptides found in Korean rice wine and to identify the responsible peptides. The wine extract of Samhaeju, a traditional Korean rice wine made by low temperature fermentation, was evaporated at $35^{\circ}C$. The two methods employed in the evaluation of antioxidant activity were the DPPH radical scavenging method and the beta-carotene bleaching test. The pre-purified samples showed 808 AAC (Antioxidant Activity Coefficient) and 56.5% AOA (Antioxidant Activity), which were higher than $\alpha$-tocopherol (572 AAC and 78% AOA). The rice wine extract was separated by reversed-phase HPLC. The protective effect of the four most antioxidant active fractions were tested for t-butyl hydroperoxide induced oxidation of healthy human erythrocytes and the byproduct was determined by malondialdehyde formation. Fraction No.5 showed 35% lower MDA concentration as compared to the control. The peptides were further purified using consecutive chromatographic methods and 4 antioxidant peptides were isolated. The amino acid sequences of the peptides were identified as Ile-His-His, Val- Val-His(Asn), Leu-Val-Pro, and Leu(Val)-Lys-Arg-Pro. The AAC value of the synthetic form of the identified peptides was the highest for Ile-His-His.

          • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

            Characterization of Aspergillus sojae Isolated from Meju, Korean Traditional Fermented Soybean Brick

            Kim,,Kyung,Min,Lim,,Jaeho,Lee,,Jae,Jung,Hurh,,Byung-Serk,Lee,,Inhyung The Korean Society for Microbiology and Biotechnol 2017 Journal of microbiology and biotechnology Vol.27 No.2

            Initially, we screened 18 Aspergillus sojae-like strains from Aspergillus spp. isolated from meju (Korean traditional fermented soybean brick) according to their morphological characteristics. Because members of Aspergillus section Flavi are often incorrectly identified because of their phylogenetic similarity, we re-identified these strains at the morphological and molecular genetic levels. Fourteen strains were finally identified as A. sojae. The isolates produced protease and ${\alpha}-amylase$ with ranges of 2.66-10.64 and 21.53-106.73 unit/g-initial dry substrate (U/g-IDS), respectively, which were equivalent to those of the koji (starter mold) strains employed to produce Japanese soy sauce. Among the isolates and Japanese koji strains, strains SMF 127 and SMF 131 had the highest leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) activities at 6.00 and 6.06 U/g-IDS, respectively. LAP plays an important role in flavor development because of the production of low-molecular-weight peptides that affect the taste and decrease bitterness. SMF 127 and SMF 131 appeared to be non-aflatoxigenic because of a termination point mutation in aflR and the lack of the polyketide synthase gene found in other A. sojae strains. In addition, SMF 127 and SMF 131 were not cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) producers because of the deletion of maoA, dmaT, and pks/nrps, which are involved in CPA biosynthesis. Therefore, A. sojae strains such as SMF 127 and SMF 131, which have high protease and LAP activities and are free of safety issues, can be considered good starters for soybean fermentations, such as in the production of the Korean fermented soybean products meju, doenjang, and ganjang.

          • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

            Characteristics of Potential Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid-Producing Bacteria Isolated from Korean and Vietnamese Fermented Fish Products

            Vo,,Thi,Thu-Thao,Park,,Jong-Hyun The Korean Society for Microbiology and Biotechnol 2019 Journal of microbiology and biotechnology Vol.29 No.2

            Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a neurotransmitter that exerts several physiological functions and positive effects on human health. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize the strains that had GABA-producing abilities from various fermented fish products. A total of 91 acid-producing strains were isolated from 41 samples of fermented fish products, and 27 strains showing GABA-producing abilities were identified by the 16S rDNA sequences. Among the strains, 31% strains tolerated at high-salt environment of 10-20% throughout the fermentation of fish sauces. The 27 isolates that produced GABA at various concentrations did so in the range of 5 to 454 mM. These GABA-producing isolates were identified as lactic acid bacteria of 14 strains, which included twelve Lactococcus lactis, one Enterococcus faecium, and one Lactococcus pentosus; eight Bacillus cereus group, which included seven B. thuringiensis and one B. cereus; and five Staphylococcus spp. Interestingly, with Vietnamese fish sauces, we mostly identified species of B. thuringiensis and Staphylococcus spp., while with Korean fermented fish products, the majority of the strains identified belonged to L. lactis. Among the strains, B. thuringiensis LH2134 produced the highest levels of GABA at 366 mM among the strains identified from Vietnamese fish sauces, whereas L. lactis LA43, a new strain isolated from Korean jeotgal (salted shrimp paste), produced the highest amount of GABA at 454 mM and the glutamate concentration in the medium was essential for GABA accumulation. Therefore, such the isolates might serve as good starters for development of more GABA-reinforced foods among fermented fish products.

          • SCOPUSKCI등재

            Distinct Genetic Variation of Helicobacter pylori cagA, vacA, oipA, and sabA Genes in Thai and Korean Dyspeptic Patients

            Boonyanugomol,,Wongwarut,Kongkasame,,Worrarat,Palittapongarnpim,,Prasit,Jung,,Myunghwan,Shin,,Min-Kyoung,Kang,,Hyung-Lyun,Baik,,Seung-Chul,Lee,,Woo-Kon,Cho,,Myung-Je The Korean Society for Microbiology and Biotechnol 2018 한국미생물·생명공학회지 Vol.46 No.3

            Differences in host ethnicities and geographical distributions may influence the genetic variation and pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori strains, particularly with respect to those with a high risk of gastric cancer and in Asian Enigma regions. We simultaneously identified H. pylori virulence-associated genes involved in inflammation and cell damage in Thai and Korean dyspeptic patients. The virulence-associated gene cagA, cagA genotypes (East Asian and Western type cagA), vacA genotypes (s- and m-), oipA, and sabA were detected in Thai and Korean dyspeptic patients by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), real-time PCR, and DNA sequence analysis. Comparisons between the two regions showed that cagA, East Asian type cagA, and vacA s1/m1 in Korean dyspeptic patients occurred at rates of 100%, 86.67%, and 88.89%, respectively (p < 0.05). The oipA- and sabA-positive samples were significantly more predominant in the Korean population (95.56%, 91.11%) than in the Thai population (32%, 34%). DNA sequence analysis revealed differences in the patterns of cytosine-thymine dinucleotide repeats of oipA and sabA among the two populations of dyspeptic patients. Our results indicate that the H. pylori strains detected in the two regions were divergent, and strains colonizing the Korean dyspeptic patients may be more virulent than those in the Thai population. Our data may help explain H. pylori pathogenesis in Asian Enigma areas with a low gastric cancer incidence. However, other factors involving H. pylori infection in these two regions should be further analyzed.

          • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

            Inhibition of Bacillus cereus Growth and Toxin Production by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens RD7-7 in Fermented Soybean Products

            Eom,,Jeong,Seon,Choi,,Hye,Sun The Korean Society for Microbiology and Biotechnol 2016 Journal of microbiology and biotechnology Vol.26 No.1

            Bacillus cereus is a gram-positive, rod-shaped, spore-forming bacterium that has been isolated from contaminated fermented soybean food products and from the environment. B. cereus produces diarrheal and emetic toxins and has caused many outbreaks of foodborne diseases. In this study, we investigated whether B. amyloliquefaciens RD7-7, isolated from rice doenjang (Korean fermented soybean paste), a traditional Korean fermented soybean food, shows antimicrobial activity against B. cereus and regulates its toxin gene expression. B. amyloliquefaciens RD7-7 exhibited strong antibacterial activity against B. cereus and inhibited the expression of B. cereus toxin-related genes (groEL, nheA, nheC, and entFM). We also found that addition of water extracts of soybean and buckwheat soksungjang (Korean fermented soybean paste made in a short time) fermented with B. amyloliquefaciens RD7-7 significantly reduced the growth and toxin expression of B. cereus. These results indicate that B. amyloliquefaciens RD7-7 could be used to control B. cereus growth and toxin production in the fermented soybean food industry. Our findings also provide a basis for the development of candidate biological control agents against B. cereus to improve the safety of fermented soybean food products.

          • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

            Ginsenoside-Rb2 and 20(S)-Ginsenoside-Rg3 from Korean Red Ginseng Prevent Rotavirus Infection in Newborn Mice

            Yang,,Hui,Oh,,Kwang-Hoon,Kim,,Hyun,Jin,Cho,,Young,Ho,Yoo,,Yung,Choon The Korean Society for Microbiology and Biotechnol 2018 Journal of microbiology and biotechnology Vol.28 No.3

            It is well known that Korean red ginseng has various biological activities. However, there is little knowledge about the antiviral activity of Korean red ginseng and its ginsenosides. In this study, we addressed whether oral administration of ginsenoside-Rb2 and -Rg3 is able to protect against rotavirus (RV) infection. The protective effect of ginsenosides against RV infection was examined using an in vivo experiment model in which newborn mice (10-day-old) were inoculated perorally (p.o.) with $1.5{\times}10^6$ plaque-forming units/mouse of RV strain SA11. When various dosages of ginsenoside-Rb2 (25-250 mg/kg) were administered 3days, 2 days, or 1 day before virus challenge, treatment with this ginsenoside at the dosage of 75 mg/kg 3days before virus infection most effectively reduced RV-induced diarrhea. In addition, consecutive administration of ginsenoside-Rb2 (75 mg/kg) at 3 days, 2 days, and 1 day before virus infection was more effective than single administration on day -3. The consecutive administration of ginsenoside-Rb2 also reduced virus titers in the bowels of RV-infected mice. In an experiment to compare the protective activity between ginsenoside-Rb2 and its two hydrolytic products (20(S)- and 20(R)-ginsenoside-Rg3), 20(S)-ginsenoside-Rg3, but not 20(R)-ginsenoside-Rg3, prevented RV infection. These results suggest that ginsenoside-Rb2 and its hydrolytic product, 20(S)-ginsenoside-Rg3, are promising candidates as an antiviral agent to protect against RV infection.

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