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      • SP.7-3 : Microbiological Quality of Alternative Water Sources in the Urban Environment

        ( J. P. S. Sidhu ), ( W. Ahmed ), ( L. Hodgers ), ( K. Smith ), ( S. Toze ) 한국물환경학회(구 한국수질보전학회) 2017 한국물환경학회·대한상하수도학회 공동 춘계학술발표회 Vol.2017 No.-

        In Australia, decreasing rainfall, frequent drought and population growth in urban environments, along with an overall desire to achieve greater water sustainability, has increased the demand for alternative water sources such as stormwater, roof-harvested rainwater, and treated wastewater effluent. The potential public health risks associated with alternative water sources predominantly originate from the presence of enteric viruses, pathogenic bacteria, and protozoan parasites. Empirical data on the presence of pathogens is a prerequisite to accurately determine human health risks and the extent of treatment required prior to use for potable and nonpotable purposes. We have carried out a number of targeted studies on the microbiological quality of the roof-harvested rainwater, stormwater, and treated wastewater effluent in the Southeast Queensland (Australia). The main of aim these studies was to collect quantitative data on the presence of pathogens and make an assessment of the potential health risk associated with water reuse. A dedicated survey of the roof-harvested rainwater tanks in Brisbane has shown the presence of Campylobacter spp. (21%), Salmonella spp., (4%), and Giardia lamblia (13%). In addition, opportunistic pathogens Legionella spp. (99%) and Mycobacterium intracellulare (78%) were also detected\. The numbers of bacteria ranged up to 3.1 x 10<sup>6</sup> PCR detectable units (pdu) L<sup>-1</sup> for Legionella spp., 9.6 X 10<sup>5</sup> pdu L<sup>-1</sup> for P. aeruginosa, 6.8 X 10<sup>5</sup> pdu L<sup>-1</sup> for M. intracellulare, 6.6 x 10<sup>5</sup> pdu L<sup>-1</sup> for Acanthamoeba spp., 1.1 x 10<sup>5</sup> pdu L<sup>-1</sup> for M. avium, and 9.8 X 10<sup>3</sup> pdu L<sup>-1</sup> for L. pneumophila. The presence of potential opportunistic pathogens in tank water may present health risks if un-treated water is for potable and non-potable use in the house. Stormwater runoff from two urban catchments with different drainage area, impervious area, and land use, a potential source of pollution and population density was collected and analyzed for the presence of pathogens and fecal indicator bacteria. The mean FIB numbers in water samples collected after the storm event ranged from 10 <sup>3</sup> to 10<sup>4</sup> L<sup>-1</sup> for E. coli and 10 <sup>4</sup> to 10<sup>5</sup> L<sup>-1</sup> for Enterococcus spp. Salmonella enterica numbers varied between 10 to 2400 MPN L<sup>-1</sup>. Human adenovirus (HAdV) numbers in the stormwater varied between 10 to 10<sup>3</sup> pdu L<sup>-1</sup>, human polyomavirus (HPyV) numbers varied between 1 to 10<sup>3</sup> pdu L<sup>-1</sup>. Torque teno virus (HTtV) numbers varied between 10 to 7.45 x 10<sup>3</sup> pdu L<sup>-1</sup>. Somatic coliphages (Microviridae) was also widely prevalent with numbers varying between 10 to 10<sup>3</sup> pdu L<sup>-1</sup>. The results of this study suggest that enteric virus and bacterial pathogens frequently occur in the stormwater runoff in significant numbers which could lead to increased human health risks. A quantitative survey HAdV, HPyV, HTtV and somatic coliphage (Microviridae) numbers in influent and effluent samples was carried out from three wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) employing an activated sludge process to produce secondary treated effluent in Brisbane. HPyV, HAdV, HTtV and Microviridae were consistently detected in the primary influent in high numbers (10<sup>5</sup> to 10<sup>6</sup> pdu L<sup>-1</sup>) and secondary treated effluent (10<sup>2</sup> to 10<sup>3</sup> pdu L<sup>-1</sup>) across all three treatment plants. Under appropriate conditions, WWTPs with activated sludge process could be an effective treatment barrier with > 3 log10 removal of enteric. The results confirm the occurrence of enteric viruses in significant numbers in secondary treated effluent, tertiary treatment may be required prior to effluent reuse or discharged into the environmental to prevent exposure of people to health hazards.

      • FC 2-12 : Dose-dependent effects of visible light irradiance on human skin are dependent on constitutive skin color

        ( Hyojin Kim ), ( Sewon Kang ), ( Anna L. Chien ) 대한피부과학회 2020 대한피부과학회 학술발표대회집 Vol.72 No.2

        Backgrounds: Visible light (VL) induces differential effects across light and dark skin types. We previously showed that these variations are influenced by irradiance. Objectives: This study aimed to assess the clinical response to different irradiance of VL in light and dark skin types. Methods: Subjects (n=29) were classified into two groups based on L value (L< 55 [=darker] vs L >55 [=lighter]) measured on photoprotected skin. Two photoprotected sites were irradiated with VL (95.3% VL, 1.5% UVA, 3.2% infrared) at 480J/cm<sup>2</sup> daily over 4 consecutive days. In L< 55 group, 150mW, 175mW, 200mW were used while 150mW, 175mW, 200mW, 225mW, 250mW, 275mW were used in L >55 group. Colorimetry assessments were conducted before and after treatment. Results: A total of 54 sites were irradiated (L< 55=20, L >55=34 sites). Blister developed in 9 sites in L< 55, 1 in L >55. Average change in L and a* from baseline of non-blistered sites (n=44) at day 5 showed significant difference between L< 55 and L >55 regardless of the irradiance (L< 55: L=-5.30, a*=-0.17; L >55: L=-2.12, a*=1.55, p<0.05). In the L<55 group, L value decreased immediately after treatment in a dose-dependent manner (p< 0.05). In L >55 group, a* value increased in a dose-dependent manner (NS; p>0.05). Conclusions: Human skin response to VL is dose-dependent, but is also influenced by the constitutive skin color. These variables are important to consider in devising strategies to lessen the deleterious consequences of VL on human skin.

      • PS 1-2 : Oral L-Carnitine on Quality of Life and Cognition in Covert Hepatic Encephalopathy: A Randomized, Double- Blind, Placebo-Controlled (HELIOS) Study

        ( Eileen L. Yoon ), ( Dae Won Jun ), ( Sang Bong Ahn ), ( Yong Kyun Cho ), ( Do Seon Song ), ( Jae Yoon Jeong ), ( Hee Yeon Kim ), ( Young Kul Jung ), ( Myeong Jun Song ), ( Sung Eun Kim ), ( Hyoung Su Kim ), ( ) 대한간학회 2020 춘·추계 학술대회 (KASL) Vol.2020 No.1

        Aims: To evaluate the impact of L-carnitine on the improvement of quality of life (QOL) and cognitive function in liver cirrhosis patients with covert hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Methods: We conducted a multi-center, double-blind, randomized, phase III clinical trial in patients with covert HE. A total of 150 covert HE patients were randomized 1:1 to L-carnitine (1 g) or placebo for 24 weeks. Changes in QOL and cognitive function were assessed at 6 months. West Haven criteria, 36- Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), psychometric hepatic encephalopathy score (PHES), and the Stroop Test were evaluated in all patients. Results: The L-carnitine supplement improved QOL compared to baseline. PHES scores were improved and normalization rates of minimal HE were increased in the L-carnitine group compared to baseline; however, median PHES scores and normalization rates were not different between the L-carnitine group and the placebo group at Week 24. Assessment of cognitive inhibition via the Stroop test showed significant improvement following 24 weeks of treatment in the L-carnitine group. Model for end stage liver disease scores were increased in the placebo group and significantly decreased in the L-carnitine group. Changes in total carnitine level positively correlated with rate correct scores of the Stroop test in the L-carnitine group. The incidence of adverse events was not different between the treatment groups. Conclusions: L-carnitine supplement was safe and effective for the improvement of QOL and cognitive dysfunction in covert HE patients with liver cirrhosis. (Clinical trial No. KCT0002029)

      • KCI등재

        유도초음파를 이용한 열 교환기 튜브 결함 탐상

        신현재,Rose,,Joseph,L.,송성진 한국비파괴검사학회 2000 한국비파괴검사학회지 Vol.20 No.1

        본 연구에서는 유도초음파를 이용하여 열 교환기와 증기발생기 튜브의 결함을 비파괴적으로 탐상하고 그 크기를 산정하였다. 이론적인 해석을 위해 인코넬(Inconel) 튜브에 대한 위상 및 군속도 분산선도를 Longitudinal 모드와 Flexural 모드에 대해 구하였다. 튜브의 원주방향 레이저노치와 튜브 지지대 하단의 방전가공결함(EDM wear)을 각각 비대칭 및 대칭 탐촉자 세트를 사용하여 탐상하였다. 실험결과 방전가공결함은 L(0, 2), L(0, 3), L(0, 4) 모드로 탐상되었으며, 그 중 L(0, 4) 모드가 결함으로부터 가장 잘 반사되었다. 레이저노치의 경우에는 L(0, 1) 모드 주변의 Flexural 모드가 결함을 탐상하고 크기를 산정하는데 사용될 수 있음을 보였다. This study shows the defect detection and sizing capability of ultrasonic guided waves in the nondestructive inspection of heat exchanger and steam generator tubing. Phase and group velocity dispersion curves for the longitudinal and flexural modes of a sample Inconel tube were presented for the theoretical analysis. EDM(Electric Discharge Machining wears in tubing under a tube support plate and circumferential laser notches in tubing were detected by an axisymmetric and a non-axisymmetric transducer set up, respectively. EDM wears were detected with L (0, 2), L(0, 3) and L(0, 4) modes and among them L(0, 4) mode was found to be the most sensitive. It was also found that the flexural modes around L(0, 1) mode could be sued for the detection and sizing of laser notches in the tubing.

      • Infrared and Radio observations of a small group of protostellar objects in the molecular core, L1251-C

        Kim,,Jungha,Lee,,Jeong-Eun,Choi,,Minho,Bourke,,Tyler,L.,Evans,II,,Neal,J.,Di,Francesco,,James,Cieza,,Lucas,A.,Dunham,,Michael,M. 한국천문학회 2015 天文學會報 Vol.40 No.1

        We present a multi-wavelength observational study of a low-mass star-forming region, L1251-C, with observational results at wavelengths from the near-infrared to the millimeter. Spitzer Space Telescope observations confirmed that IRAS 22343+7501 is a small group of protostellar objects. The extended emission to east-west direction with its intensity peak at the center of L1251A has been detected at 350 and 850 mm with the CSO and JCMT telescopes, tracing dense envelope materials around L1251A. The single-dish data from the KVN and TRAO telescopes show inconsistencies between the intensity peaks of several molecular line emission and that of the continuum emission, suggesting complex distributions of molecular abundances around L1251A. The SMA interferometer data, however, show intensity peaks of CO 2-1 and $^{13}CO$ 2-1 located at the position of IRS 1, which is both the brightest source in IRAC image and the weakest source in the 1.3 mm dust continuum map. IRS 1 is the strongest candidate for being the driving source of a newly detected the compact CO 2-1 outflow. Over the whole region ($14^{\prime}{\times}14^{\prime}$) of L125l-C, 3 Class I and 16 Class II sources have been detected, including three YSOs in L1251A. A comparison with the average projected distance among 19 YSOs in L1251-C and that among 3 YSOs in L1251A suggests L1251-C is an example of low-mass cluster formation, where protostellar objects are forming in a small group.

      • KCI등재

        Identification of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Compounds of Lippia Species by Bioautography

        Rodrigo,Luiz,Fabri,Mauro,Silva,Nogueira,Jussara,dos,Reis,Moreira,Maria,Lúcia,Morcef,Bouzada,Elita,Scio 한국식품영양과학회 2011 Journal of medicinal food Vol.14 No.7

        The methanolic extracts of the leaves of Lippia species (L. pseudo-thea, L. hermannioides, L. alba, L. rubella, and L. sidoides) were tested for their antibacterial, antifungal, and antioxidant activity. Cytotoxicity was determined by using brine shrimp lethality bioassay. Phytochemical screening was also performed. The extracts showed a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranging from 78 to 5000 μg/mL for antibacterial activity against at least 2 species of bacteria, although none was active against Escherichia coli. Antifungal activity was found only for L. pseudo-thea (MIC, 625 μg/mL for Candida albicans) and L. sidoides (MIC, 625 μg/mL for both C. albicans and C. neoformans). The bioautography showed that flavonoids and coumarins are responsible for the antioxidant activity of the extracts and that the antimicrobial properties are due to flavonoids and terpenoids. The cytotoxic activity was stronger for L rubella extract. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the biological and chemical constituents of L. pseudo-thea, L. hermannioides, and L. rubella.

      • KCI등재SCOPUS

        Characteristics of complicated AISI316L automobile components manufactured by powder/metallurgy

        L.,Zhong,Liang,L.,Jin,Hui,S.,Yu,Sheng,Y.,Chun,Ze 대한기계학회 2009 JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Vol.23 No.7

        Indirect Selective Laser Sintering/ Isostatic Pressing (SLS/IP), with Cold Isostatic Pressing (CIPing) and Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIPing) IPs, is adopted for the manufacture of complicated automobile components. The preparation of PA12-coated AISI316L powder and airproof plastic canning during CIPing are also investigated. The influence of technology parameters on the performances of AISI316L specimens during SLS/IP is likewise analyzed. Results show that PA12-coated AISI316L powders are successfully prepared through the dissolution and precipitation process, and that it is better to fabricate airproof canning for complicated components with natural latex. After sintering AISI316L specimens from 1300℃ to 1340℃ (CIPed at more than 300 MPa ahead), their relative densities increased, approaching 92%. Subsequently, their relative densities are improved by HIPing, whose optimal pressure and temperature parameters are between 90 MPa and 20 MPa, and 1150℃ and 1250℃, respectively. The optimal tensile performances are close to those of annealed AISI316L compact materials.

      • 脫脂乳의 褐變化 抑制物質이 乳酸菌增殖과 酸生成에 미치는 影響 : 1. Inhibitors의 褐變化 抑制效果와 細菌數의 變化 1. Estimations of Bacterial population and Inhibition of Browning in skim milk

        이을희,강군중,오석두 진주산업대학교 1987 論文集 Vol.25 No.-

        抑制物質의 非酸素的 갈變化反應抑制效과와 L-cysteine의 添加가 세균 증식에 미치는 영향을 조사하여 다음과 같은 결론을 얻었다. 1. L-cysteine과 H_20_2는 첨가 수준이 높을수록 갈변화 억제효과가 크게 나타났다. 2. Glutamic acid는 억제효과가 거의 없었다. 3. 250˚F(15min)살균의 경우는 L-cysteine이, 240˚F(30min) 및 230˚F(60min)에서는 H_20_2가 억제효과가 큰것으로 나타났다. 4. L-cysteine(0.04%, w/v)첨가시 Str. feacalis의 증식속도는 무첨가구에 비해 다소 빠른 것으로 나타났고 L. acidophilus의 경우는 13시간 까지 뚜렷한효과가 없었다. Effect of inhibitors on nonenzymatic browning reaction and L-cysteine added in the autoclaved skim milk on the growth of lactic acid bacteria were studied, and the results were as follows: 1. Glutamic acid failed to inhibit browning of milk, whereas L-cysteine and H_2O_2(Hydrogen peroxide) were inhibitory to browning as the concentrations of them increase. 2. The inhibitory effect of L-cysteine was increased in the autoclaved in the condition of 250˚F for 15 minutes, whereas that of H_2O_2 was increased in the condition of 240˚F for minutes and 230˚F for 60 minutes. 3. The growth rate of Str. feacalis in the medium added L-cysteine(0.04%, w/v) was found to be a little more faster than that in the blank. In the case of L. acidophilus, there was not clear effect until 13 hours' fermentation.

      • KCI등재SCOPUS

        Effect of γ-aminobutyric acid producing bacteria on in vitro rumen fermentation, growth performance, and meat quality of Hanwoo steers

        Mamuad,Lovelia,L.,김선호,Ku,Min,Jung,이상석 아세아·태평양축산학회 2020 Animal Bioscience Vol.33 No.7

        Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing bacteria (GPB) on in vitro rumen fermentation and on the growth performance and meat quality of Hanwoo steers. Methods: The effects of GPB (Lactobacillus brevis YM 3-30)-produced and commercially available GABA were investigated using in vitro rumen fermentation. Using soybean meal as a substrate, either GPB-produced or commercially available GABA were added to the in vitro rumen fermentation bottles, as follows: control, no additive; T1, 2 g/L GPB; T2, 5 g/L GPB; T3, 2 g/L autoclaved GPB; T4, 5 g/L autoclaved GPB; T5, 2 g/L GABA; and T6, 5 g/L GABA. In addition, 27 Hanwoo steers (602.06±10.13 kg) were subjected to a 129-day feeding trial, during which they were fed daily with a commercially available total mixed ration that was supplemented with different amounts of GPB-produced GABA (control, no additive; T1, 2 g/L GPB; T2, 5 g/L GPB). The degree of marbling was assessed using the nine-point beef marbling standard while endotoxin was analyzed using a Chromo-Limulus amebocyte lysate test. Results: In regard to in vitro rumen fermentation, the addition of GPB-produced GABA failed to significantly affect pH or total gas production but did increase the ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) concentration (p<0.05) and reduce total biogenic amines (p<0.05). Animals fed the GPB-produced GABA diet exhibited significantly lower levels of blood endotoxins than control animals and yielded comparable average daily gain, feed conversion ratio, and beef marbling scores. Conclusion: The addition of GPB improved in vitro fermentation by reducing biogenic amine production and by increasing both antioxidant activity and NH3-N production. Moreover, it also reduced the blood endotoxin levels of Hanwoo steers.

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