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Hydroxyapatite (HA), a bioceramic, is a widely utilized material for bone tissue repair and regeneration because of its excellent properties such as biocompatibility, exceptional mechanical strength, and osteoconductivity. HA can be obtained by both synthetic and natural means. Animal bones are often considered a promising natural resource for the preparation of pure HA for biological and biomedical applications. Cuttlefish bone, also called as cuttlebone, mainly consists of calcium carbonate, and pure HA can be produced by adding phosphoric acid or ammonium hydrogen phosphate to it. Recently, cuttlefish bone-derived HA has shown promising results in terms of bone tissue repair and regeneration. The synthesized cuttlefish bone-derived has shown excellent biocompatibility, cell proliferation, increased alkaline phosphate activity, and efficient biomineralization ability with mesenchymal stem cells and osteoblastic cells. To further improve the biological properties of cuttlefish bone-derived HA, bioglass, polycaprolactone, and polyvinyl alcohol were added to it, which gave better results in terms of cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. Cuttlefish bone-derived HA with polymeric substances provides excellent bone formation under in vivo conditions. The studies indicate that cuttlefish bone-derived HA, along with polymeric and, protein materials, will be promising biomaterials in the field of bone tissue regeneration.
<P>Tissue engineering seeks to exploit functional biomaterials and engineer them to serve as artificial templates that promote the regeneration of tissues and damaged organs. Engineered scaffold materials recapitulate the extracellular matrix and provide cells with information essential for tissue development. Nanotechnologies make use of the material at the nanoscale for targeted interactions at molecular levels and deliver biochemical cues for cell growth required for tissue formation. In bone tissue engineering, nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA), which is a calcium phosphate-based material, is extensively used as a bone defect substitute to mimic the natural bioceramic portion of bone. nHA can be functionalized in the form of composite scaffolds along with other polymers, ceramic, and growth factors to enable bone tissue regeneration. In addition, the material directs stem cell differentiation into specific lineages. This stem cell-based therapy is a prominent approach in organ development and tissue regeneration. Here, we examine nHA interactions with stem cells in the form of designed scaffolds and offer important considerations about the fundamental challenges and prospects for its application in bone tissue engineering.</P>
Utilization of bone graft substitutes have increased due to the rising number of accidents, trauma, and aging population. Autograft is still considered as a gold standard for treating bone defects. However, limitations such as insufficient donor sites and secondary surgery, leads to the development of alternative grafts. Hydroxyapatite (HA) from natural resources gained much attention in recent years as a bone graft substitute due to its biocompatibility, excellent osteointegration, osteoconductive, and osteoinductive properties. In the current review, we have presented the isolation procedures of HA from marine fishbone and cuttlefish bone. Further, composite preparation using marine derived HA with other polymeric and ceramic materials were discussed, and cell-materials interaction were reviewed in detail towards bone tissue construction. Composite biomaterials with HA showed better cell proliferation, cell adhesion, increased gene expression (collagen, osteocalcin, osteopontin, bone sialoprotein, BMP- 2 etc.), and in vivo studies demonstrated significant bone formation with HA composite materials. Hence, composite biomaterials with hydroxyapatite will be potential candidates for artificial synthetic bone graft substitute.