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Hasegawa, Sunao,Miyasaka, Seidai,Tokimasa, Noritaka,Sogame, Akito,Ibrahimov, Mansur A.,Yoshida, Fumi,Ozaki, Shinobu,Abe, Masanao,Ishiguro, Masateru,Kuroda, Daisuke Oxford University Press 2014 Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan Vol.66 No.5
<P><B>Abstract</B></P> <P>We study non-thermal gravitino production in the minimal supergravity inflation. In this minimal model utilizing orthogonal nilpotent superfields, the particle spectrum includes only graviton, gravitino, inflaton, and goldstino. We find that a substantial fraction of the cosmic energy density can be transferred to the longitudinal gravitino due to non-trivial change of its sound speed. This implies either a breakdown of the effective theory after inflation or a serious gravitino problem.</P>
<P>We assessed the impacts of climate change and agricultural autonomous adaptation measures (changes in crop variety and planting dates) on food consumption and risk of hunger considering uncertainties in socioeconomic and climate conditions by using a new scenario framework. We combined a global computable general equilibrium model and a crop model (M-GAEZ), and estimated the impacts through 2050 based on future assumptions of socioeconomic and climate conditions. We used three Shared Socioeconomic Pathways as future population and gross domestic products, four Representative Concentration Pathways as a greenhouse gas emissions constraint, and eight General Circulation Models to estimate climate conditions. We found that (i) the adaptation measures are expected to significantly lower the risk of hunger resulting from climate change under various socioeconomic and climate conditions. (ii) population and economic development had a greater impact than climate conditions for risk of hunger at least throughout 2050, but climate change was projected to have notable impacts, even in the strong emission mitigation scenarios. (iii) The impact on hunger risk varied across regions because levels of calorie intake, climate change impacts and land scarcity varied by region.</P><P><B>Graphic Abstract</B> <IMG SRC='http://pubs.acs.org/appl/literatum/publisher/achs/journals/content/esthag/2014/esthag.2014.48.issue-1/es4034149/production/images/medium/es-2013-034149_0007.gif'></P><P><A href='http://pubs.acs.org/doi/suppl/10.1021/es4034149'>ACS Electronic Supporting Info</A></P>
Hasegawa, Takuya,Kim, Sun Woog,Ueda, Tadaharu,Ishigaki, Tadashi,Uematsu, Kazuyoshi,Takaba, Hiromitsu,Toda, Kenji,Sato, Mineo The Royal Society of Chemistry 2017 Journal of Materials Chemistry C Vol.5 No.36
<▼1><P>A novel red emitting, Ce<SUP>3+</SUP>-activated Sr3Sc4O9 phosphor were discovered, and its luminescent properties were investigated.</P></▼1><▼2><P>Most conventional white light emitting diodes (white-LEDs) that are widely used as a new lighting system in next generation lights with Y3Al5O12:Ce<SUP>3+</SUP> (YAG:Ce<SUP>3+</SUP>)-based phosphors have a low colour rendering index (CRI) because the YAG:Ce<SUP>3+</SUP> phosphor shows a weak emission intensity in the red spectral region. Therefore, discovering a red-emitting phosphor with a high-efficiency is quite important to enhance the CRI of white-LEDs. In this study, we successfully discovered a novel, red-emitting Ce<SUP>3+</SUP>-activated Sr3Sc4O9 phosphor that can be excited by blue-light irradiation at 425 nm. A crystal structure of the host material was first determined by Rietveld refinement, which indicated that it should be isostructural with Ba3Ln4O9 (Ln = Sc, Y and Dy-Lu). As the Ce<SUP>3+</SUP> content increased, the X-ray diffraction patterns shifted to a lower angle, which suggested that the Ce<SUP>3+</SUP> ion could substitute Sc in the Sr3Sc4O9 host. Under UV and blue-light excitation, the Ce<SUP>3+</SUP>-activated Sr3Sc4O9 phosphor exhibited a broad emission band with a maximum peak at 620 nm, and its full width half maximum (FWHM) was 180 nm (4530 cm<SUP>−1</SUP>). The highest emission intensity was obtained for Sr3(Sc0.997Ce0.003)4O9, and the internal quantum efficiency of this phosphor under excitation at 425 nm was 53%. To the best of our knowledge, the emission band of the Ce<SUP>3+</SUP>-activated Sr3Sc4O9 phosphor is the longest wavelength for a reported Ce<SUP>3+</SUP>-activated oxide phosphor.</P></▼2>
<P>Glasses based on the system of Y2O3-BaO-Nb2O5-B2O3, corresponding to the pseudo-binary 64Ba(1 - x)Y(2x/3)Nb(2)O(6)-B2O3 with x = 0.1-0.5, were prepared, and their thermal properties, electronic polarizabilities, optical basicities, and crystallization behavior were clarified. The glasses showed the glass transition temperature of 602-610 degrees C, crystallization peak temperature of 686-676 degrees C, and refractive index of 1.967-2.007. All the glasses showed the bulk crystallization behavior, providing Ba1 - xY2x/3Nb2O6 nanocrystals with a tetragonal tungsten bronze structure. It was found from high resolution transmission electron microscope observations that the morphology of Ba1 - xY2x/3Nb2O6 nanocrystals is ellipsoidal and their average particle size is in the range of 20-40 nm. The glass-ceramics with Ba1 - xY2x/3Nb2O6 nanocrystals showed high dielectric constants (frequency: 1 kHz) of similar to 90 at room temperature and a ferroelectric nature. Highly oriented Ba1 - xY2x/3Nb2O6 crystal lines were patterned by laser (continuous wave Yb:YVO4 fiber laser with a wavelength of 1080 nm) irradiation with the condition of a laser power of 1.9 W and a laser scanning speed of 4 pm/s and with the laser focal position of 20 mu m beneath from the surface in 2NiO-1.1Y(2)O(3)-29.8BaO-33.1Nb(2)O(5)-36B(2)O(3) glass. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</P>
Jets issuing through small holes in a wall into a freestream has proven effective in the control of flow separation. This technique is known as the vortex generator jet (VGJs) method. If a precursor signal of separation is found, the separation control system using VGJs can be operated just before the onset of separation and the flow field with no separation is always attained. In this study, we measured the flow field and the wall static pressure in a two-dimensional diffuser to find a precursor signal of flow separation. The streamwise velocity measurements were carried out in the separated shear layer and spectral analysis was applied to the velocity fluctuations at some angles with respect to the diffuser. The pattern of peaks in the spectral analysis changes as the divergence angle increases over the angle of which the whole separation occurs. This change in the spectral pattern is related to the enhancement of the growth of shear layer vortices and appears just before the onset of separation. Therefore, the growth of shear layer vortices can be regarded as a precursor signal to flow separation.
This study examined the behavior of dairy heifers and the factors affecting the performance of them on pasture. Behavior of 10 Holstein heifers in a herd of 25 animals that rotationally grazed five 8-ha pastures was observed and recorded every 5 minutes during 24 hours; body weights were measured once a month from June to October. Blood and rumen fluid samples were collected from 5 of them bimonthly. Chemical composition was analyzed for the forage samples collected each month. CP content (DM basis) of herbage ranged from 12.2 (June) to 17.2% (October) and ADF from 31.1 (October) to 39.1% (July). Standing (posture) time was different significantly among months (p<0.001) ranging from 48.3 to 61.3% of 24 hours and was longer in July and August (61.3% and 58.3%, respectively) when ADF content of herbage was higher than in the other months. Grazing time which significantly differed among months (p<0.001) ranged from 29.1 to 41.6% of 24 hours and was shorter in June and September (29.1% and 33.0%, respectively) when ADF content was lower than in the other months. Average DG through the experiment period was 0.74 kg/day. August was the lowest in DG (0.41 kg/day) and the longest in rumination time and standing-rumination time among months. Animals of higher DG had a shorter standing time (r=-0.36, p<0.01) and a longer lying-rumination time (r=0.55, p<0.001) throughout the experiment. Total protein concentration in blood ranged from 9.04 to 9.64 g/dl and was negatively correlated with DG (r=-0.65, p<0.05). Phospholipid concentration of blood ranged from 119.66 to 156.40 mg/dl and was negatively correlated with DG (r=-0.57, p<0.05). VFA in rumen fluid, acetic acid proportion (ranging from 69.35 to 74.76%) and butyric acid proportion (ranging from 7.18 to 12.05%) showed significant differences among months (p<0.05, p<0.001, respectively). Butyric acid proportion was significantly related with DG (r=0.60, p<0.05).
Recently, DNA vaccination is attracting attentions as a new therapeutic method for lifestyle diseases and autoimmune diseases. However, its clinical applications are limited because a safe and efficient gene transfer method has not been established yet. In this study, a new method of gene transfer was proposed which utilizes the jet injection and the magnetic transfection. The jet injection is a method to inject medical liquid by momentary high pressure without needle. The injected liquid diffuses in the bio tissue and the endocytosis is considered to be improved by the diffusion. The magnetic transfection is a method to deliver the conjugates of plasmid DNA and magnetic particles to the desired site by external magnetic field. It is expected that jet injection of the conjugates causes slight membrane disruptions and the traction of the conjugates by magnetic field induces the efficient gene transfer. In conclusion, the possibility of improvement of the gene expression by the combination of jet injection and magnetic transfection was confirmed.