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This study was designed to document the mechanism through which globin digest, a dietary herbal supple-ment, might cause weight loss by exploring possible fat malabsorption, calorie malabsorption, energy expenditure, and fat ox-idation. Six healthy subjects were placed on an outpatient diet for 14 days and given a meal containing 40.9 g of fat on days5 and 11, and stools were collected for 72 hours after each meal for analysis of fecal fat content. Four grams of globin digestwas given with one meal and placebo with the other. In another separate study, six subjects were placed on a 100-g fat, weight-maintaining diet for 14 days. All food was prepared by the Pennington Center (Baton Rouge, LA) metabolic kitchen. Globindigest (2 g) or placebo was given with each of three meals per day, and stool was collected for calorie determinations duringthe last 72 hours of each week. Subjects received globin digest during one of the 2 weeks and placebo during the other. Rest-ing metabolic rate and respiratory quotient were measured on the last day of each 1-week period. There was no increase in72-hour fecal fat or fecal calories by bomb calorimetry during either of the studies. There was no difference in the respira-tory quotient. Globin digest did result in an increase in resting metabolic rate. However, this increase was not statistically sig-nificant. Globin digest, if effective, does not cause weight loss or fat loss through fat malabsorption or a relative increase infat oxidation. Future studies are needed to document the efficacy of globin digest for weight loss in humans before furthermechanistic investigation is attempted.
<P>The UV-induced photochemical grafting of terminal alkenes has emerged as a versatile way to form molecular layers on semiconductor surfaces. Recent studies have shown that grafting reactions can be initiated by photoelectron emission into the reactant liquid as well as by excitation across the semiconductor band gap, but the relative importance of these two processes is expected to depend on the nature of the semiconductors, the reactant alkene and the excitation wavelength. Here we report a study of the wavelength-dependent photochemical grafting of alkenes onto single-crystal TiO<SUB>2</SUB> samples. Trifluoroacetamide-protected 10-aminododec-1-ene (TFAAD), 10-<I>N</I>-BOC-aminodec-1-ene (t-BOC), and 1-dodecene were used as model alkenes. On rutile (110), photons with energy above the band gap but below the expected work function are not effective at inducing grafting, while photons with energy sufficient to induce electronic transitions from the TiO<SUB>2</SUB> Fermi level to electronic acceptor states of the reactant molecules induce grafting. A comparison of rutile (110), rutile (001), anatase (001), and anatase (101) samples shows slightly enhanced grafting for rutile but no difference between crystal faces for a given crystal phase. Hydroxylation of the surface increases the reaction rate by lowering the work function and thereby facilitating photoelectron ejection into the adjacent alkene. These results demonstrate that photoelectron emission is the dominant mechanism responsible for grafting when using short-wavelength (∼254 nm) light and suggest that photoemission events beginning on mid-gap states may play a crucial role.</P><P><B>Graphic Abstract</B> <IMG SRC='http://pubs.acs.org/appl/literatum/publisher/achs/journals/content/langd5/2012/langd5.2012.28.issue-33/la302169k/production/images/medium/la-2012-02169k_0004.gif'></P><P><A href='http://pubs.acs.org/doi/suppl/10.1021/la302169k'>ACS Electronic Supporting Info</A></P>
대부분 인간의 역사에 있어서, 통치자들은 산림을 베어냄으로써 자신의 힘을 보여 왔다. 숲은 (중대한 군사적 가치를 포함한) 가치 있는 자원들을 제공해 왔고, 산림지대는 종종 통치체계에서 벗어나 있는 사람들을 위한 피난처였다. 그러나 중앙 유럽의 산림 관리는 달랐다. 그 곳에서는 삼림을 보호하려 했으며, 초기 근대 국가들은 산림의 주요한 보호자로서 힘을 행사하려했다. 국가적 통제와 과학적이며 미래를 내다보는 사용은 줄곧 지속 가능한 산림 관리의 대들보로서 기능했으나, 오늘의 발표는 유럽의 산림관리에 있어 좀 더 미묘한 관점을 제시하고자 한다. 새롭게 제시될 관점을 통해 지속가능성에 대한 약속이 매우 불분명했으며, 훨씬 더 이해관계에 영향을 받았음이 그리고 다양한 부작용들이 있었음이 드러나게 될 것이다. 농촌 주민들은 전통적으로 무상으로 취할 수 있었던 산림 자원에 대한 대가를 지불하기를 거부 했다. 산림관리원들의 계산은 기대치 못했던 기상 현상과 수요의 동요로 인해 무가치하게 되었다. 산림관리원들이 숲의 사용을 관리하는 것으로부터 빠르게 성장하는 침엽수를 이용해 새로운 숲을 가꾸어 나가는 방식으로 옮겨갔을 때, 단일재배의 문제들이 확연하게 드러나게 되었다. 요컨대, 유럽의 숲 관리는 식민주의를 따라 지구화되기 이전에도 불분명한 프로젝트였다. 본 발표는 지속가능한 산림관리의 모순에 대해 논의할 것이며, 산림에 대해 엄격한 통제를 가했던 일본은 좀 더 정교한 방식으로 산림을 보호할 수 있었는지에 대해 알아볼 것이다. For most of human history, rulers showed their power by cutting down woodlands. Forests provided valuable resources, including resources with high military values, and woodlands served often served as a refuge for unruly people. However, Central European forestry was different. It sought to protect the forests and drew on the powers of the early modern states as the crucial protectors of the woodlands. State control and scientific, far-sighted use have been pillars of sustainable forestry ever since, and yet this presentation argues for a more nuanced view of European forestry. The promise of sustainability was far more ambiguous and far more interest-driven, and multiple side effects soon came into view. Rural residents were disinclined to pay for forest resources that they had traditionally obtained for free. The foresters' calculations came to naught with unexpected weather events and fluctuations of demand. When foresters moved from managing forest use to planting new forests with fast-growing conifers, the problems of monoculture became evident. In short, European forestry was an ambiguous project even before it went global in the wake of colonialism. The presentation will discuss the contradictions of sustainable forestry and inquire whether Japan, the other country that exerted tight control over its woodland, protected forests in a more sophisticated way.
This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a dietary herbal supplement containing citrusaurantium and phenylephrine in the treatment of obesity. Two pilot studies enrolled healthy subjects with body mass indexes2540 kg/m2 to similar 8-week weight loss programs. Safety was assessed by physical examination and laboratory tests atscreening and 8 weeks. The first pilot study randomized eight subjects to citrus aurantium (herbal phenylephrine) or placebo.Body composition by DEXA scan, waist circumference, and resting metabolic rate (RMR) were measured at baseline and 8weeks. Food intake and appetite ratings were measured at baseline and week 2. The second pilot study randomized 20 sub-jects to two 2-hour RMR tests a week apart after phenylephrine (20 mg) or placebo followed by phenylephrine (20 mg) threetimes a day for 8 weeks. In the first pilot study, the citrus aurantium group gained 1.13. 0.27 (mean. SEM) kg comparedwith 0.09. 0.28 kg in the placebo group (P. .04). RMR at baseline rose more in the citrus aurantium group, 144.5. 15.7kcal/24 hours, than the placebo group, 23.8. 28.3 kcal/24 hours (P. .002), but not at 8 weeks. DEXA, waist circumfer-ence, food intake, and hunger ratings were not different. In the second pilot study, the phenylephrine group lost 0.8. 3.4 kgin 8 weeks (not significant), and RMR increased more in the phenylephrine group (111.5. 32.6 vs. 37.4. 22.7 kcal/24hours, P. .02). There were no significant safety issues in either study. Although no toxicity was seen, these pilot studiessuggest phenylephrine is not efficacious for weight loss.
Fat in meat greatly improves eating quality, yet many consumers avoid visible fat, mainly because of health concerns. Generations of consumers, especially in the English-speaking world, have been convinced by health authorities that animal fat, particularly saturated or solid fat, should be reduced or avoided to maintain a healthy diet. Decades of negative messages regarding animal fats has resulted in general avoidance of fatty cuts of meat. Paradoxically, low fat or lean meat tends to have poor eating quality and flavor and low consumer acceptability. The failure of low-fat high-carbohydrate diets to curb "globesity" has prompted many experts to re-evaluate of the place of fat in human diets, including animal fat. Attitudes towards fat vary dramatically between and within cultures. Previous generations of humans sought out fatty cuts of meat for their superior sensory properties. Many consumers in East and Southeast Asia have traditionally valued more fatty meat cuts. As nutritional messages around dietary fat change, there is evidence that attitudes towards animal fat are changing and many consumers are rediscovering and embracing fattier cuts of meat, including marbled beef. The present work provides a short overview of the unique sensory characteristics of marbled beef and changing consumer preferences for fat in meat in general.