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Examined in this article is how Gweon Geun justified his serving of two countries, and why he decided to cooperate with Jeong Do-jeon. Gweon Geun wanted to make the world a place ruled by Confucianism instead of Buddhism. He compiled important academic points of the Confucian philosophy when he wrote Ib'hak Do'seol and 『O'gyeong Cheon'gyeon-rok』. He intended to establish Confucianism as a legitimate, one-and-only righteous form of study. He argued that Confucianism was the ‘real, substantial' philosophy(實學) to lead the world, and criticized Buddhism as a heresy that would impede the world's efforts to become a better one. Based upon a Neo-Confucian view of the world, he criticized Buddhism as a school of thoughts that did not recognize the objective world and its principles, and a mere form of belief that eventually forced people to ignore their own human obligations. In his eyes, Buddhism was a religion for the animals, as it allowed people to sever all the personal relationships, either between a king and a vassal, or between a father and son, by having them commit to a Buddhist way of life. He also argued that Buddhism considered all actions as of the mere heart(imagination), and did not acknowledge the existence of a principle or an obligation, from which the actions would generate, or upon which the actions would operate. With Neo-Confucian theories regarding the ‘Human nature(“Inseong, 人性”)' and the ‘Law of Nature(“Cheon'ri, 天理)' in mind, Gweon Guen considered morality to be very important, and hoped for an enlightenment to come to the people, based upon all that. He also wanted a world in which the people's good nature would be more refined(or corrected from a corrupted state) with the concept of ‘Respect(Gyeong, 敬),' so that morality could firmly be established. In order to maintain social stability and order, he preferred a character-building exercise based upon people's moral nature and respect, to the employment of external forces such as law enforcement or institutional corrections. He wanted to reinforce school education, and modified the national examination system to prioritize Creative writing(製述), so that the Confucian concept of morality would dominate the people's consciousness and living patterns. In the meantime, Gweon Geun decided to join the new dynasty and bring his plans to realize his political philosophy in motion. First, to support Jeong Do-jeon's plans for a new dynasty in theoretical terms, he authored the foreword for 『Bulshi Jab'byeon』, and highlighted the book's meaning. He depicted Jeong Do-jeon as a visionary who intended to establish a new country, and explained Jeong's academic traits, from the perspective of the Neo-Confucian argument of legitimacy. Gweon Geun participated in the publication of 『Gyeong'je Mun'gam』 which did not thoroughly cited all the Chinese materials consulted in its creation. In 『Gyeong'je Mun'gam』, Jeong Do-jeon cited the Chinese texts yet marked them as his own thoughts, and Gweon Geun did the same, because he agreed with Jeong Do-jeon's thoughts and accommodate his intentions. In short, Gweon Guen tried to establish an idealistic Confucian soceity, and joined the Joseon government, established a relationship with the powerful Jeong Do-jeon, and tried to accommodate his intentions.
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정도전은 주자의 사서오경(四書五經)의 주석(註釋)을 받아들이고, 세계와 인간, 사회를 성리학의 리기(理氣), 태극(太極), 성정(性情) 으로 설명하였다. 《대학》과 《중용》을 통하여 천도(天道)와 인도(人道)를 재확인하고 《논어》와 《맹자》를 통하여 유학의 경세 론(經世論)을 이해하였으며, 오경(五經)을 통하여 수기치인(修己治 人)의 학을 말하고 도통(道統)을 제시하였다. 정도전은 《주례》에 의한 중앙집권체제와 재상정치론을 제시하 였다. 불교를 이단으로 비판하였고, 주자가례의 시행을 통하여 유교의 예적 질서를 확립하고자 하였으며, 성리학의 명분론(名分論) 및 춘추대의(春秋大義)와 천리인욕설(天理人欲說)을 기초로 의(義)와 공(公)에 의한 공적 관계를 내세웠다. 그런데 정도전은 정치적․사상적으로 제대로 평가받지 못했다. 왕자의 난을 일으켰다는 이유로 반역, 간신으로 죽임을 당하고, 태종이 즉위하면서 정도전의 부정적인 평가는 확립되었다. 문묘종사(文 廟從祀)에 배향되지 못하였고, 김종직, 신흠, 허균과 같은 조선 유학자들은 정도전을 부정적으로 인식하였다. 이는 정도전이 모반을 꾀하였다는 점이 국가의 공식적인 사실로서 인정받게 되고, 성리학의 도통(學統)을 학문 수수(收受)의 사실 여부나 학문 업적보다는 의리(義理) 정신의 실천에 그 기준을 삼은 결과였다. 조선시기에 정도전을 부정적으로 인식해도, 사상면에서 달리 볼수 있는 여지가 있다. 정도전과 동시대 유학자인 권근이 평가하고, 500여년이 지난 지금의 정도전 연구에서 인정하듯, 정도전이 불교를 배척하며 성리학을 진흥한 공을 받아들일 수 있기 때문이다. In this article, the bases of Jeong Do Jeon s philosophy in terms of Confucian classic texts, and the characteristics of his political ideas(政治思想), are examined. Jeong Do Jeon explained Ju Hi s annotation(註釋) of Four texts and Five classics(四書五經), and the issue of humans and the society, with concepts such as Ih-Gi /理氣(Ih and Gi elements of the universe), Taegeuk /太極(Taegeuk principle of the universe) and Seongjeong /性情(nature of human beings). He reasserted Confucianism s Way of the universe (天道) and Way of the humans(人道) through Daehak and Jungyong, understood Confucianism s suggestion of how to govern the world(經世論) through Noneo(Confucius words) and Maengja(Mencius words), and commented upon the task of building one s character and then leading the others( 修己 治人 ) and suggested the line of legitimacy(道統) , through his interpretation of the Five classics(五經). Jeong Do Jeon presented a centralized format of political governance and a concept of governance led by the ministers, based upon the teachings of Juryae/周禮. He criticized Buddhism as heresy, tried to establish a protocol-based Confucian order by implementing the dictations of Juja Garyae throughout the society, and supported a public and official relationship between people & entities built upon righteous(義) & public(公) elements, based upon the notion of a righteous cause(名分論) , Chunchu s grand righteousness(春秋大義) and the theory of Universe s reason and humans desire(天理人欲說) of Neo-Confucianism. Yet in subsequent periods Jeong Do Jeon s philosophy was not appreciated for what it was worth, in terms of politics and philosophy. In a political reality, he was killed as a treacherous figure under the charge of treason and of staging the insurrection of the princes, and after King Taejong rose to the throne a negative evaluation of his actions became complete. He was not admitted into the Munmyo/文廟 shrine and was not paid any respect in its services(從祀). A lot of Seoweon/書院 schools were erected, yet his achievements and their academic values were not reevaluated. Kim Jong Jik or other Sarim figures who were faithful to Neo-Confucianism, and Joseon dynasty Confucian scholars like Shin Heum or Heo Gyun also maintained a negative attitude toward Jeong Do Jeon. This means that the charges that Jeong Do Jeon faced, committing treason, was established as a nationally official fact. It was a result of the Joseon society, which embraced Neo-Confucianism as its own doctrine(國是), establishing the line of legitimacy in Neo-Confucian studies(學統), neither with the criteria to base such line upon facts regarding actual exchanges(收受) of studies nor with individuals accomplishments, but with the criteria to base such line upon an obligatory determination to realize the spirit of righteousness(義理) in the world. Even if he had been negatively viewed for the duration of the Joseon dynasty period, we can still reevaluate his philosophy in many different ways. No matter what kind of negative reviews had been suggested over the years, Jeong Do Jeon should be noticed for his vetoing Buddhism and promoting Neo-Confucianism, as had been already acknowledged by Confucian scholar Gweon Geun who lived in the same period with Jeong, by Lee Deok Mu who lived in the latter half period of Joseon, and by many people who still study Jeong s thoughts after some five hundred years.
We studied the infection rate of and various metacercariocidal approaches to controlling Gymnophalloides seoi for prevention of human infection in cultured and natural oysters in Korea. The selected survey areas were Aphae-do (Shinan-gun, Jeollanam-do), which is an endemic area for G. seoi, and Tongyeong (Geonsangnam-do), which is the main production area of oysters in Korea. In the Tongyeong area, the metacercariae of G. seoi were not detected in cultured oysters (0/201) or wild oysters (0/134). Seventy-two G. seoi metacercariae were observed in 33 of 265 natural oysters collected from Aphae-do; however, metacercariae were not detected in the cultured oysters (0/1101) purchased from the Daejeon Fish Market. To investigate the viability of G. seoi metacercariae, various metacercariocidal treatments were used with 3.5% saline and oyster juice used as positive controls. The metacercariae survived for 75.4 h in 3.5% saline and 112.6 h in oyster juice. After the metacercariocidal treatment, G. seoi metacercariae were survived for 13.29 min in tap water, < 20 sec in 4.3% vinegar, no effect in a rinse of the whole oyster body in 70°C water for 1 sec, but 1 sec in a rinse of the whole oyster body in 90°C water for 1 sec. The greatest metacercariocidal effect on G. seoi was from rinsing oysters in 90°C water followed by those from treatment with 20% ethyl alcohol, 4.3% vinegar, and tap water. However, we suggest that the most actual prevention to G. seoi human infection is rinsing the oysters with tap water for at least 30 min.
A pilot scale SBR (working volume, 20㎥) treating piggery wastewater was operated with real wastewater. The operation mode of intermittent feeding of raw water and sub-cycle with repeating anoxic-aeration conditions were adapted to avoid the high-strength nitrogen inhibition. In sub-cycle, aeration time for nitrification was tried to be controled with ORP and/or DO meter. The characteristics of control was somewhat different between ORP and DO. DO showed potential ability to detect complete ammonia oxidation point by the first order differential values or absolute value. Especially, DO was proved to be useful for high loading rates. ORP indicated the ending point of nitrification by the plateau appearing after bending point. Because ORP can be utilized as a diagnosis tool by its good sensitivity for the microbial condition in reactor, the simultaneous application of DO and ORP was recommended for the stable control of SBR.
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This paper focuses on the historical fact that the name Geunjeongjeon(勤政殿), created by Chung Do-Jeon(鄭道傳), means “diligence helps governance”, and he set a theme about monarchies' diligent governance for the civil service examination in the 5th Year of Taejo, and then aims to examine the political ideas of the Joseon Dynasty through analyzing the answer sheets written by Kim Ik-Jung(金益精) who was the top examination passer that year. Chung Do-Jeon established the goal for political systems and ideas of the Joseon Dynasty and suggested the ideal monarchy which was essential in managing the monarchy-state. His viewpoint of monarchy was found out while Hangyang City Wall was constructing at the time of the founding of the country. The construction of Gyeonbokgung was completed in the 4th year of Taejo(1395) and the name of Geunjeongjeon, which means “diligence helps governance” indicated the Neo-Confucian ideal for monarchy. Chung Do-Jeon asked what the ways of practice for monarchies' diligent governance are as a theme for the civil service examinations. Kim Ik-Jung, the top examination passer, suggested in his answer sheets that monarchies should practise the diligent governance on the basis of the Neo-Confucianism, and they should possess sagacious judgements of the right policy to be conducted diligently, and that they should open the offices to the wise men in order to be helpful to monarchies' sagacity, and that they should strive to figure out people's actual circumstances, and that they should not be contrary to the most pressing agenda and the late King's precedents. This is what Kim Ik-Jung organized diligent governance by appealing to Neo-Confucian Sung-Hak(聖學, Learning of the Sage) according to Chung Do-Jeon's ideal for monarchy. 본고는 정도전이 태종 4년에 근정전의 의미를 설명하면서 군주의 근면 정치를 제시하고, 태조 5년에 과거시험 문제로 군주의 근면 정치를 제시했다는 점에 착안하여, 태조 5년 과거 시험의 장원 급제자인 김익정의 답안지를 분석하여 조선의 정치이념을 살펴본 글이다. 조선왕조의 정치체제와 정치이념의 방향을 설정하였고, 왕조국가의 정치운영의 핵심인 이상군주론을 제시하였다. 정도전의 군주관은 조선왕조 건국기에 한양 도성 건설 사업의 과정에서 나타났다. 1395년(태조 4) 9월 경복궁이 완성되고, 근정전이라는 명칭을 통해 군주의 근면 정치라는 성리학적 군주상이 제시되었다. 다음 해인 1396년(태조 5) 5월 과거 시험 문제에서 정도전은 시험 문제로 군주의 근면한 정치의 구체적인 실천방법을 질문하는 것이었다. 이 시험의 장원급제자인 김익정은 성리학적 사유를 바탕으로 군주가 근면한 정치를 행하되, 근면하게 시행해야 할 올바른 정책에 대한 명철한 인식을 가질 것, 현자를 등용하여 군주의 명철함을 돕도록 할 것, 백성들의 실정을 파악하는 데 힘쓸 것, 당대의 급선무와 선왕의 전례에 어긋나지 않도록 할 것 등의 구체적인 방법을 제시하였다. 이는 정도전의 이상군주론에 부응해서, 김익정이 군주의 근면한 정치를 성리학의 성학론으로 풀어 정리한 것이다.
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Apharyngostrigea ibis (Trematoda: Strigeidae) were obtained from the small intestine of two black-crowned night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) and three grey herons (Ardea cinerea jouyi) between July 2006 and September 2018 in Daejeon metropolitan city and Kangwon province, Republic of Korea. The body is covered with a relatively thick cuticle, devoid of spines, and bipartite. The body measures at 2.3-3.33 × 0.86-1.20 mm, and the fore-body is ventrally concave. The oral sucker leads into a short esophagus that is devoid of a muscular pharynx. The worm was studied with a scanning electron microscope for the first time resulting in the detection of a pair of lappets located at the bilateral portion of the oral sucker. This is the first record of A. ibis in the Republic of Korea.
HEVC(High Efficiency Video Coding) 보다 뛰어난 압축 성능을 갖는 차세대 비디오 압축 표준으로 진행중인 VVC(Versatile Video Coding)에서는 보다 향상된 움직임 병합(Merge) 모드를 위한 기법들이 다루어지고 있다. 기존의 병합 모드에서는 다수의 주변블록에서 움직임 정보가 존재하지 않으면 현재 블록의 움직임 정보로 사용할 병합 후보 리스트에 제로(zero) 움직임 벡터가 후보에 삽입될 수 있으며 이는 부호화 효율을 저하시킬 수 있다. 본 논문에서는 병합 후보 리스트에 제로 움직임 후보가 삽입되는 경우를 줄이기 위해 대체 움직임 정보를 생성하여 병합 후보 리스트에 삽입하는 효율적인 병합 모드 후보 리스트 구성 기법을 제시한다. 실험결과 제안 기법은 VTM1.0 대비 3% 복호화 복잡도 증가와 함께 0.2%의 부호화 성능 향상을 보였다. Recently, enhanced methods on the inter merging have been being investigated in Versatile Video Coding (VVC) standardization which will be a next generation video coding standard with capability beyond the High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC). If there is not enough motion information available in the neighboring blocks in the merge mode, zero motion candidate is inserted into the merge candidate list, which could make the coding efficiency decreased. In this paper, we propose an efficient method of constructing the merge mode candidate list to reduce the case that the zero motion is used as a candidate by generating an alternative merge candidate. Experimental results show that the proposed method gives the average BD-rate gain of 0.2% with the decoding time increase of 3% in the comparison with VTM 1.0.