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In this paper, we described about evaluation of human sensibility using park assist system of the commercial vehicle. The perpendicular parking and parallel parking have been carried out as a user test and subjects are classified as beginning drivers, drivers with less than 1 year experience and over 3 years experience. As a result, parking duration of beginning drivers and drivers with less than 1 year experience who use automatic parking assistance system is similar to drivers with over 3 years experience. However error occurred according to sensor position and distance between vehicle and parking space. And also it occurred that the vehicle leaves from parking line or does not recognize the parking space. Therefore, if we improve its completeness by compensating problems that came up from this evaluation and distribute the automatic parking assistance system, it is expected that the park assistance system is to help driver providing convenience of parking.
Objective: This study aims to analyze occupational accidents of parking lot attendants by parking lot type. Background: Recently, efforts are made to analyze accident characteristics by occupation type targeting the workers engaged in the same work. Method: This study analyzes 303 occupational accidents of parking lot attendants occurring from 2010 to 2012. Parking lots are grouped into two groups according to the work environment. One is public/ground type which comprises road side or open area parking lots and the other is building/mechanical type which comprises a multi-story parking building with connecting ramps and/or mechanical parking system. The characteristics of occupational accidents by parking lot type are analyzed. Results: Accident characteristics showed the difference between public/ground type and building/mechanical type on the size of enterprise, age, gender and work experience of the injured. Also the accident type, source of accident and parts of body affected are different between the two parking lot types. Conclusion and Application: The findings of accident characteristics according to parking lot types can be used as baseline data for establishing systemized preventative policies for occupational accidents of parking lot attendants.
현재 주차장 내 주차단위구획과 차로너비 규정의 경우 주차장법 시행규칙의'주차장 구조 및 설치기준'에 의거하여 계획설치되고 있다. 그러나 최근 RV차량 및 대형승용차가 급속히 증가하는 추세에서 기존의 주차단위구획의 설치기준으로는 주차 시 발생하는 차량훼손 민원 주차장 이용자의 통행불편 주차장 유지·관리 등의 문제를 해소하기 힘든 실정이다. 이에 본 연구는 현실에 적합한 주차단위구획과 차로너비 규정의 재정비가 필요하다는 판단 하에 최근 증가하는 국내·외 RV차량 및 대형승용차의 차량제원 최소 회전반경 주차시 운전자 주행행태 등을 고려하여 주차단위구획 및 차로너비를 산정하였다. 산정된 주차단위구획 및 차로너비를 국외 사례와 비교·분석한 후 기존보다 확대된 주차단위구획 및 차로너비를 이용하여 주차시 운전자의 편의성 및 비용적 측면을 고려한 최적의 개선방안을 제시하였다. 또한 교통안전을 고려한 주차단위구획과 차로너비의 개선방안 그리고 차종별 주차계획 방법을 제시하였다. 주차장 내 원활한 차량소통과 안전을 도모한 주차계획단위 산정 및 주차계획 방법을 제시함으로써 향후 주차장의 구조 설치기준의 정립과 주차장 교통안전 개선에 이바지할 것으로 판단된다. At the present planning and installation of parking space sections and lane width are implemented in accordance with the installation standard and parking lot structure by the enforcement regulations of the Parking Act. While large and RV (Recreational Vehicle) vehicles have increased in number recently parking is complex with improper installation standards. It causes serious problems including vehicle vandalism increased civil complaints travel inconveniences for parking lot users management and maintenance issues for parking lots and so forth. The study therefore determined that the practical and appropriate realignment of parking unit adjustment and lane width regulations are essential. The study conducted prior review on domestic parking sections and change cases of composition by vehicle types including the component ratio of domestic and foreign vehicles width of vehicle by types in order to examine the parking problems that account for a increasing social issues and provided parking plan methods by types of vehicle as well as reform and reaction plans for parking unit adjustment and lane width considering security and smooth traffic flow After comparing and analyzing between estimated installation of parking space and lane width and internal and external cases the study suggests the improvement that considers expenses and convenience of a driver. Also it shows installation of parking space that considers traffic safety improvement of lane width and parking way depends on vehicle types. By providing estimation for parking planning and parking planning methods that secure safe and smooth traffic flow within a parking lot the study will contribute to the development of improved alternatives for cost-effective traffic safety and set-up structure including installation standards of parking lots.
The Mountainous National Park is the area where it has the coexisted purposes, use and preservation, which cannot be harmonized. But in recent year, it is natural tendency that the use of the National Park is increasing day by day and the fact is that the side of use than preservation is emphasized. Especially in leisure society as today, even the appointment itself of the National Park is the factor that use can be increased and because it has the great influence affecting to the neighboring community economy including the National Park its neighbors have a marked leaning toward the use of two purposes and insist only development. In fact, the area of most National Park is equipped with the necessary facility to offer convenience of the user. But such necessity causes the increase of the weighted level of use in liaison with the requests of development of its inhabitants. But the National Park, for the original purposes, must keep the balance between use and preservation. Because the natural environmental condition that the National Park has is the product of nature and cannot be produced by human-power the demand cannot be met by the increase of supply even though the requests for the offer of natural environment are increased. Therefore, to keep the balance between use and preservation it is necessary that there should be consideration for the usable side and preservable one of resource, the National Park. This can be said by the concept of social carrying capacity and ecological carrying capacity. Accordingly the concept of carrying capacity of the National Park is formed by the duplicated projections of the ecological carrying capacity and the social one. In addition these carrying capacity of the Mountainous National Parks are used for the efficient management objectives of them and they offer the policy frame necessary for their future purpose. Finally, the results from this research work are as follows: 1. We can define the concept of the carrying capacity of the Mountainous National Park consisting of the total of management objectives, ecological carrying capacity and social carrying capacity as the level which the characteristics of the Mountainous National Park can be maintained without the deterioration in quality of experience of user and ecological environment. 2. The major key points consisting of the concepts of the carrying capacity of the Mountainous National Park necessarily require the establishment of the concrete and clear management objective. 3. The management of the Mountainous National Park, centering around the zoning district, requires the establishment of the levels of management and the followings are required by each level. 1) non-interference. 2) the intensive management. 3) the more intensive management. 4. We must recognize the management objectives of the Mountainous National Park as the limitation of acceptable changes. 5. The concept of the carrying capacity of the Mountainous National Park can use for the policy level deciding the means and strategies for the management of the Mountainous National Park.
The data for this research were collected by the interview in mountainous national parks, Mt. Sorak and Mt. Songni. F-test was applied to analyse the significant differences among the activities in the park by the type of accommodations and by the purpose of visits. Each demand functions for the whole tourism and recreation experiences of these national parks were derived through the use of OLS regression method after multiplying the square roots of the populations to variables. Explanatory variables were round-distance, population, and per capita Local tax. Demand functions for each national parks were also taken by the regression. Finally the tourism and recreation values of each parks per user. day and for October of 1982 were estimated by the main activities of the users. The main results of this study are summarized as follows: 1. In Mt. Soˇrak and Mt. Songni National Park, demands for each parks differed significantly at 1% level by the type of accommodations and by the purpose of visits. 2. In Mt. Soˇrak and Mt. Songni National Park, most of the demand functions for the whole experience of the users for each parks were well fitted by the variables of round-distance and population. 3. In Mt. Soˇrak and Mt. Songni National Park, most of the demand functions of the users for each parks by the type of accommodations and by the purpose of visits were well fitted by the added costs. In both parks, demand functions for parks were well fitted when the number of users was in the form of natural logarithms. 4. In Mt. Soˇrak National Park, the users by the type of accommodations valued in km the park per user.day and for October of 1982 as follows: (도표) 5. In Mt. Soˇrak National Park, the users by the purpose of visits valued in km the park per user. day and for October of 1982 as follows: (도표) 6. In Mt. Songni National Park, the users by the type of accommodations valued in km the park per user. day and for October of 1982 as follows: (도표) 7. In Mt. Songni National Park, the users by the purpose of visits valued in km the park per user. day and for October of 1982 as follows: (도표)
In America and Europe from the latter part of the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century, the planning ideologies of park system and greenbelts were made and these planning ideologies are called Green Network System. They are different in terms of the purpose, type and method, but they have common characteristics of encouraging order and amenity in cities based on the consecutive connection of green space, and of coping with the problems happening in cities. Just as the park system was made, centering around new America and greenbelts were developed to meet with the problems happening in large cities, the structural arrangement and the roles of greens should be different. However, this connection system of greens was oriented in the circumstances of America and Europe at that time so it has not been confirmed what sizes of cities it would be useful for. On the other hand, separately from the Green Network System, the theory of park arrangement is being developed. It intends to cope with deterioration of the living environment caused by overcrowded cities and with increase in the demands of public parks. It is based on the neighborhood unit and the science of human settlement. In addition, the theory of park arrangement is based on the effects of greens in use, rather than, in decoration so it encourages dispersion and hierarchical system of parks, having the human settlement as base. Consequently, the theory of park arrangement is influenced by the characteristics and the type of households, and it has a required area and planning unit. However, this theory has the right for walking and human scale as the basic unit so for the large parks that are beyond the human scale, the planning criteria are not clear. The theory of park arrangement, which is based on the neighborhood unit, may be useful for the cities with tens of thousands of residents, but it is partially applied for the cities with 500,000~1,000,000 residents. And further, in organizing the green system for the whole city, the theory of park arrangement can be ignored. As seen in the above, the existing arrangement theory has some problems: it is just for partial application; and it is not suitable for the size and the growing speed of cities. The greens in cities should be operated as the comprehensive system, but greenbelts and park arrangement have been studied separately so far. That`s why it is necessary to review again the existing arrangement theory.
The data for this research were collected by the standarized interview in the mountaneous National Park of Mt. Songni on October of 1982. F-test was applied to analyse the significant differences among the activities in the park by the type of accommodations and by the purpose of visits. Demand functions for the whole tourism and recreation experience of the national parks were taken by the OLS regression after multiplying the square roots of the populations to various variables. Demand functions for the national park were also taken by the regression. Finally the tourism and recreation values of the parks per user-day and for 1984 year were estimated by the main activities in the parks. The main results are summarized as follows: 1. In Mt. Songni, demands for the national park also differed at 1% significance level by the type of accommodations: inn, private house, camp, and by the purpose of visits: relaxation, mount climbing and camping. 2. In Mt. Songni, the demand function for the whole experience was well fitted by the variables of the round distances and the amount of local taxes per person; R²=0.661. The demand functions for the whole experience by the type of accommodations: inn, private house, no overnight and by the purpose of visits: relaxation and mount-climbing were well explained by the variables of the round distances and the populations, but the demand for the whole experience of the users of camp and for camping was well fitted by the variables of the round distances and the amount of local taxes per person. 3. In Mt. Songni, the demand function for the national park was well fitted by the added costs (in km); R²=0.946. The demand for the park was theoretically 1 person when the added cost was 1,097Km. The demand functions for the park by the type of accommodations were also well fitted by the added cost (in km). When the added cost was 1,840km, Which was the largest, the demand for the activity to use the private house was theoretically 1 person. Those demand functions for the park by the purpose of visits were well explained by the added cost (in km). When the added cost was 1,503km, which was the largest, the theoretical demand for the mount-climbing was 1 person. 4. In Mt. Songni, the tourism and recreation value of the national park by the total users was 209.09km per user-day and 225.51 million km for 1984 year. The tourism and recreation values of the park by the users and by the type of accommodations: inn, camp, private house, no over-night were respectively 371.14km, 116.16km, 420.38km, and 124.75km per user-day. The tourism and recreation value of the park for 1984 year was 100.22 million km in case of the users who used inn and 81.44 million km in case of the users who didn't stay overnight. By the purpose of visits, the users who visited the park for mount-climbing valued for the park the largest 225.03km and those for relaxation valued 222.71km per user-day. The largest value by the users for 1984 year among the purpose of visits was 99.15 million km in case of the users who visited the park for mount-climbing and the next largest value was 85.24 million km in case of the users for relaxation.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the prime factors that affect to user postoccupancy evaluation of activities and facilities in urban parks, to classify those factors, to find out factors about them, and then to suggest important indicators in the urban park planning, design, and development. The survey research was done using the self-administered questionnaire method by 435 peoples in the Busan City who participated in recreational activities in the Amnam Park. The Analysis of the data primarily consists of two phase: The first analysis was dealt an exploratory factor analysis which identified major factors involved in user postoccupancy evaluation with reacreational activities and facilities in Amnam Park by the SPSS(Ver.6.0) program and the second analysis was used to investigate the factors affected to user postoccupancy evaluation in the urban park by the Regression Analysis. According to the factor analysis, user postoccupancy evaluation of facilities in urban parks concerning the 20 variables, 5 prime factors by the staistical values were considered. The factor analysis showed that user postoccupancy evaluation of activities in urban parks concerning the 11 variables, 3 prime factors by the staistical values were analysed. Postoccupancy evaluation in the urban park by the Regression Analysis suggested that the two varlables as 'the directions of park development' and 'companies with the personal specific characteristics' are significant in addition to the some variables presented in user postoccupancy evaluation with reacreational activities and facilities in Amnam Park by the factor analysis. Furthomore the analysis models were identified as having significant effects on the factor and regression analysis. Overall fits of both models were very good. These significant relationships indicate important factors and variables that should be considered in planning, design, and development of the urban parks. Therefore, development direction of the h a m park has to be analyzed as significant factors concerning user postoccupancy evaluation in a systematic way, recognized as important variables for planning process. The urban park has to be fully designed and established in the planning process not by the decision-maker's subjective evaluation but by user postoccupancy evaluation.
Park, Park and Kwun is defined the intuitionistic fuzzy metric space in which it is a little revised from Park. According to this paper, Park, Kwun and Park Park and Kwun, Park, Park and Kwun are established some fixed point theorems in the intuitionistic fuzzy metric space. Furthermore, Park, Park and Kwun obtained common fixed point theorem in the intuitionistic fuzzy metric space, and also, Park, Park and Kwun proved common fixed points of maps on intuitionistic fuzzy metric spaces. We prove a fixed point for pair of maps with another method from Park, Park and Kwun in intuitionistic fuzzy metric space defined by Park, Park and Kwun. Our research are an extension of Vijayaraju and Marudai's result and generalization of Park, Park and Kwun, Park and Kwun.
주차안내 시스템은 주차장에서 주차정보를 제공하여 운전자에게 주차 편리성을 제공한다. 동시에 다수의 센서, 디스플레이와 제어모듈을 이용하여 아주 소량의 전기 에너지 만을 소모한다. 녹색 빌딩 설계의 요구가 점차 증가함에 따라 주차관리 시스템의 운용 전력 감축 문제가 이수화 되고 있다. 본 논문에서는 주차 관리 시스템의 감지기와 디스플레이 장치의 설계와 소비전력 감축의 결과를 제시한다. 이 시스템은 무선 Park Tile 과 Park Disk를 사용하여 전력소비를 감축 시키고, 여러 개의 주차공간 감지기와 자동차 카운터, 정보 디스플레이 장치, 안내 터미널과 제어장치로 구성되어 있다. 그리고 시스템 구조설계와 통신망 설계, 주차정보 서비스 시나리오 설계, .배터리 수명 제어, 운영 전력 평가 등이 수행되었다. 주차장당 운영전력은 0.4W로 평가 되었으며, 이는 기존 시스템의 17%정도 이고 매년 유지비는 기존 시스템에 비해 43%에 해당된다. The parking guidance system can increase driver's convenience with detailed parking information service in the parking lot. At the same time, parking guidance system consumes non-negligible electrical energy with large amount of sensors, displays and control modules. With the increase in the demand for green and sustainable building design all over the world, it becomes a meaningful issue for parking guidance system to reduce operating power. This paper presents the preliminary design and estimated results of a parking guidance system which is optimized to reduce the power consumption mainly on detectors and displays. The system design is based on pre-developed wireless parking detectors, Park Tile and Park Disk. The system has a number of parking space detectors, vehicle count detectors, information displays, guidance terminals and other control units. We have performed system architecture design, communication network design, parking information service scenario planning, battery life regulation and at last operating power estimation. The estimated operating power was 0.4 watt per parking-slot, which is 17% of traditional systems. The estimated annual maintain cost was 43% of traditional systems.