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In this study, we identified the volatile compounds of Artemisia princeps Pampan. Cv. Ssajuari (ssajuarissuk) essential oils and analyzed changes in the contents of volatile compounds under four different storage conditions, such as exposure to air at 20℃ and 40℃. Sixty-five volatile compounds consisting of 6 monoterpene hydrocarbons, 23 oxygenated monoterpenes, 16 sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, 6 oxygenated sesquiterpenes, I diterpene, 6 benzene derivatives, and 7 non-isoprenoid compounds were identified on the basis of their mass spectra characteristics and retention indices from original ssajuarissuk essential oils. Identified compounds constituted 90.56% of the total peak area. Bomeol (l0.29%) was the most abundant compound in the original ssajuarissuk essential oils, followed by 1.8-cineole (9.06%), viridiflorol (8.99%), spathulenol (8.73%), a-thujone (5.28%), and camphor (4.39%). After six months storage at 40℃ with the cap opened for 3 min everyday, the total amount of volatile compounds in essential oil as determined by the percentage peak area decreased by 84.93%. The total levels of cis-sabinene hydrate, camphor. 4-terpincol, humulene oxide, β-caryophyllene oxide, and caryophyllene alcohol increased significantly. For ssajuarissuk essential oils stored under experimental conditions, changes in the contents of volatile compounds in essential oils were accelerated by temperature and contact with the atmosphere.
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This article has reviewed the small group discussion courses for reading, speaking, listening, and writing at Duksung Women s University. These courses were mandated as requisite liberal arts courses in 1969. From 1969 to 1977, in the <Reading>, students were instructed to write essays after readings. Later, courses such as <Study in Humanities>, <Human Being in Society>, and <Introduction to Literature> were introduced. As the titles, organizations, and contents of the courses changed, other courses such as <Seminars in Philosophy>, <Seminars in Literature>, <Research Methodology and Writing>, <University Study Skills>, <Communication>, <Critical Reading>, and finally <Critical Reading and Writing>were added. Through these courses, students were able to appreciate different perspectives and also develope their creative and critical thinking capabilities in order to prepare them for the entry into information society. In 1997 and 1998, small group discussion courses accounted for 8.3% of the total credits required for graduation. However, recently this has decreased to 3.1%. This study found that, with 2 courses, <Critical Reading and Writing in Literature> and <Critical Reading and Writing in Humanities and Natural Science>, where writing ability was not addressed intensively, limitations were remained. Therefore, it is recommended that the university improve the quality of these courses by keeping writing as a separate course and including all four disciplines (philosophy, literature, humanities and social science, and natural science) in seminar courses.
To investigate the responses of yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) seedlings to the interactive effects of the elevated atmospheric CO₂ level and nitrogen addition, we measured biomass, photosynthetic pigments, photosynthesis, and the comtents of nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) from the seedlings after 16 weeks of the treatments. Yellow poplar seedlings were grown under the ambient (400umol mol?¹)and the elevated (560 and 720 mol?¹) CO₂concentratoins with three different N addition levels (1.2, 2.4, and 3.6 g kg?¹) in the Open Top Chambers (OTC). The dry weight of the seedlings enhanced with the increased N levels under the elevated CO₂concentrations and the increment of the dry weight differed among the different N levels. Photosynthetic pigment content of the yellow poplar leaves also increased with the increase of the CO₂concentration levels. The effects of the N levels in the photosynthetic pigment cont, were significantly different among the CO₂levels. Photosynthetic rates were affected by the levels of CO₂and N concentrations. Stomatal conducatance and transpiration rates increased with increasing CO₂concentration. The carboxylation efficiency of the seedlings without N addition increased under the higher CO₂concentrations whereas that with N addition decreased under the elevated CO₂concentrations. Nitrogen and carbon uptake in leaf, stem, and root increased with the elevated CO₂concentration level and N addition. In conclusion, under the elevated CO₂concentrations, physiological characteristics and carbon uptake of the yellow poplar seedling were improved and increased with N addition.
본 연구는 교통사고 가해운전자의 PTSD(Post-traumatic Stress Disorder) 정도를 남녀별로 측정하고, 피해자와 가해운전자 본인의 신체적 피해와 형사처벌이 PTSD 정도에 미치는 영향을 다룬 것이다. 또한 DSM-5의 PTSD 진단기준에 따른 신체적 피해와 형사처벌이 남녀의 PTSD 정도에 미치는 영향을 분석하였다. 총 428명의 교통사고 가해운전자를 대상으로 PCL-5 척도를 이용하여 조사한 결과, 전체 PTSD 정도에 따른 성별의 차이는 보이지 않았지만, 남성보다 여성의 PTSD 정도가 다소 높았다. 다중회귀분석 결과, 남성의 경우 피해자의 신체적 피해는 정적으로, 형사처벌은 부적으로 PTSD 정도에 유의미한 영향을 끼쳤다. 여성의 경우에는 피해자의 신체적 피해가 PTSD 정도에 정적으로 유의미한 영향을 주는 것으로 나타났다. 진단기준에 따른 다중회귀분석 결과는 성별에 따른 다중회귀분석 결과와 동일하였지만, ‘인지와 감정에서의 부정적인 변화’ 기준에서는 자신의 신체적 피해가 추가적으로 PTSD 정도에 유의미한 영향을 주는 것으로 나타났다. 전반적으로 남성은 교통사고를 다시 경험하는 듯한 침습을, 여성은 지나치게 경계하거나 놀라는 과각성이 PTSD 정도에 가장 큰 설명력을 보여주고 있다. 마지막으로 본 연구의 제언과 한계점을 제시하였다. The aim of this research is to measure the PTSD value of car accident offenders by gender. This study focused on the effects of physical injury and criminal penalty using the diagnostic criteria of PTSD presented in DSM-5. Assessment via PTSD checklist (PCL-5) on participants (N=428) indicated no gender differences by total PTSD value. However, PTSD value of female offenders was more severe than of male offenders. Multiple regression analysis test results indicate male offenders were affected positively by physical injury of others and negatively by criminal penalty. Female offenders were affected positively by others" physical injury. The results of regression analysis on the detailed diagnosis DSM-5 was similar in regression analysis by gender. The criteria method "negative cognitions and mood" indicates severity of physical injury on offenders affected both male and female offenders. Male offenders experienced the intrusion symptoms as if they encountered traffic accidents again, whereas PTSD of female offenders resulted in heightened arousal and reactivity. The study concludes with limitations and recommendations for future research.
꿀풀과 꽃향유의 1신변종이 한국 제주도 서귀포시 중문동, 햇볕이 드는 산록의 길가에서 발견되었다. 새 분류군을 다발꽃향유(Elsholtzia splendens var. fasciflora N.S. Lee, M.S. Chung & C.S. Lee, var. nov.)로 명명하였다. 형태적 특징을 기재하고 기준표본에 의한 해부도와 서식지의 식물사진을 제시하였다. 다발꽃향유는 잎의 길이가 2-4 cm, 화서 밑의 잎이 대부분 4장이며, 대개 2-4개의 화서가 다발로 모여나고, 총포의 모양이 난형인 점에서 꽃향유와 뚜렷이 구별된다. A new variety of Elsholtzia splendens (Lamiaceae) was found by the roadside of a mountain base at Jungmun-dong, Seogwipo-si, Jeju-do. The new taxon is termed Elsholtzia splendens var. fasciflora N.S. Lee, M.S. Chung & C.S. Lee, var. nov. The Korean name ``Da-bal-kkot-hyang-yu`` was given. The morphological characters and illustrations of the species based on the holotype are provided together with a photograph of the habitat. It is distinctly distinguished from Elsholtzia splendens var. splendens by a few characteristics: leaves that area 2-4 cm long, leaves beneath the inflorescence, typically mostly 4; and inflorescence mosyly 2-4, fascicled, involucres oval.