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Recently, social conflicts have intensified, and a diverse society is to the fore as a solution to social problems. In rural areas, the transition to a diverse society progressed due to population outflow, changes in the agricultural labor force, and an increase in multicultural families. In this study, regional social diversity in Gyeongsangnam province was measured using the neighborhood diversity index and the Simpson index. In addition, the relationship with the regional economy at the county level and township level was analyzed. As a result, it was found that the Gun regions have higher social diversity than the Si regions. and the city area showed a larger index value for residential segregation.
This paper analyzes the ellipses and deletions performed by Deborah Smith in her translation The Vegetarian and the impact those deletions and ellipses have on the major elements of the fiction: the plot, characters, settings, and others. The study reveals that the translator deleted full sentences or sentence elements to simplify ST’s intricate plot, flatten supporting characters’ characteristics, clearly distinguish the protagonist’s dreams from the reality and maintain the TT’s internal consistency. The ST employs an intricate plot with numerous flashbacks but the translator deleted some flashbacks in the TT so that the reader can more easily follow the progression of main events. But this led to partial deletions of the protagonists’ narratives as to their past and relations with others. Second, the translator deleted descriptions of supporting characters so that the reader can focus on main characters and the progression of events, which, however, also resulted in flattening of the characteristics of the protagonists. Third, the translator deleted specific parts of the protagonist’s dreams while amplifying the subconscious emotions of the protagonist, Yeong-hye, and successfully delivered the effect of dreams to the target readers. However, this effort involved deletions of some clues that can give the reader an insight into the relationship between Yeong-hye and In-hye. Fourth, the translator deleted some parts following her free translations or initial deletions to maintain internal consistency of the TT.
This paper studies transitivity changes in English-Korean translation ofchildren’s literature in comparison with those in English-Korean translationof adults’ literature. It applies Halliday’s functional grammar in order toidentify if meaningful patterns exist depending on the types of processesthat are the linguistic realizations of experiential aspects of the world. Theanalysis shows different patterns of transitivity changes between thetranslation of children’s literature and the translation of adults’ literature. In children’s literature, it is more obvious that the translation of verbsis done in a manner of strengthening the dynamics of the stories:material processes, or the verbs of doing/happening, show the biggestincrease among all the processes, and a large portion of relationalprocesses, or the verbs of being/having, and other less active processes,are switched into material processes or sometimes behavioral processeswhereas a large portion of mental processes, or the verbs of sensing,are deleted in TT. In contrast, adults’ literature translation shows amoderate increase in material processes as well as mental processeswhile showing less omissions in verbal processes used for quotationthan those in the translation of children’s literature.
목적: 간폐증후군은 간질환이 있는 환자에서 저산소증이 유발되는 상태로서, 폐내 단락이 그 주된 기전으로 알려져있다. 간이식은 간폐증후군의 유일한 치료 방법으로 알려져 있고, 이식 후에 폐내 단락의 정상화가 일어날 수 있다. 그러나 간이식을 시행할 경우 가역성을 미리 예측할 수 없는 것이 문제이다. 국내에서는 이식 대기중인 간경변증 환자에서의 폐내 단락의 유병률에 관한 연구가 아직 없는 실정이다. 저자 등은 간이식 대기중인 간경변증 환자에서 의미 있는 폐내 단락의 유병률과 폐내 단락과 연관된 위험 인자를 알아보고자 하였다. 대상과 방법: 1999년 11월부터 2001년 2월까지 삼성서울병원 에서 간경변증이나 이에 동반된 간암으로 간이식 대기 중인 환자 57명 (남 : 여 = 38 : 19, 연령 18∼71 세, 중앙값 49세)을 대상으로 하였다. 간경변증의 원인은 B형 간염이 47명, C형 간염이 4명, 그 외 알코올과 윌슨병, 원발성 담도성 간경변증 등이 6명이었고, 전체 환자 중에 간암이 동반된 환자는 13명이었다. 이들에게 조영 증강 심초음파를 시행하여 폐내 단락의 유무 및 정도를 평가하였으며, Ⅱ등급 이상의 단락을 의미 있는 단락으로 보았다. 대상 환자를 의미 있는 단락을 가진 군과 그렇지 않은 군으로 나누어, 양 군 간의 간기능, 식도 정맥류 유무, 위 정맥류 유무, 복수, 간성 뇌증 유무를 비교하였다. 결과: 총 57명의 환자 중 의미 있는 폐내 단락을 가진 군 은 30명(52.6%)이었다. 의미 있는 폐내 단락은 Child- Pugh분류 C군에서 38명 중 24명(63.2%), A, B군에서 19명 중 6명(31.6%)으로 관찰되었다(p< 0.05). 의미 있는 폐내 단락이 있는 군과 없는 군 간의 성별, 나이, 간경변증 원인, 식도 정맥류 유무, 위 정맥류 유무, 복수, 간성 뇌증 유무 등에는 유의한 차이가 없었다. 결론: 이상의 결과로 폐내 단락은 간이식 대기중인 간경변증 환자에서 흔히 관찰되는 소견이며, Child-Pugh 분류 C군은 의미 있는 폐내 단락의 위험 인자임을 알 수 있었다. Backgrounds/Aims: Hepatopulmonary syndrome is a condition of severe hypoxia with intrapulmonary shunt (IPS) in the setting of hepatic dysfunction. Liver transplantation has been suggested as a definite treatment for hepatopulmonary syndrome with reversal of IPS in some patients. Inconsistency of response and inability to predict reversibility, however, are significant problems. We performed this study to evaluate the prevalence of significant IPS in pretransplantation cirrhotic patients and to find any risk factors of IPS. Methods: Fifty-seven patients (M:F = 38:19, median age 49 years (range 18 - 71)) with liver cirrhosis awaiting liver transplantation were serially included. Their IPS status was evaluated using contrastenhanced echocardiography. Significant shunt was defined as a shunt of grade ≥2. Results: Significant IPS was detected in 30 (52.6%) among 57 patients. Significant shunt was found in 24 (63.2%) of 38 Child-Pugh class C patients and in 6 (31.6%) of 19 Child-Pugh class A or B patients (p<0.05). No significant difference in prevalence of significant shunt was seen according to age, sex, presence or absence of hepatocellular carcinoma, ascites, hepatic encephalopathy, and gastroesophageal varix. Conclusion: Significant intrapulmonary shunt is a common finding in cirrhotic patients awaiting liver transplantation. Child-Pugh class C is the risk factor associated with high prevalence of significant shunt. (Korean J Hepatol 2002;8:271-276)
Most of countries are trying to increase the supply of renewable energy as the substitute of the fossil energy for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, renewable energy sources account for only about 3.86% of the total Korea primary energy supply. To increase the rate of renewable energy in Korea’s energy consumption, various policies for expanding the use of renewable energy should be applied. Also these policies should be consider renewable energy resources distribution and regional inequality. In this study, the potentials of photovoltaic, wind power and bioenergy from rice straw, livestock waste and food waste are calculated and the distribution characteristic and regional inequalities are analyzed using Gini’s coefficient and Gini decomposition method. As the results, technical potentials of photovoltaic and wind power of city region(Gu) has more potential rate than theoretical potentials. Livestock waste has the most unequal distribution (Gini’s coefficient: 0.617) among renewable resources.
This paper explores the functions and features of netizen translations as well as their implications from the perspectives of 'collective intelligence' and 'reverse agenda-setting' which are considered the most salient characteristics of Web 2.0. The study reveals that netizens’ translations serve as a starting point for discussion and expansion of knowledge and as an indispensable part of integrating different types of information. Netizens engage in translation activities in a simultaneous and immediate manner. They are generous toward machine-translated, low-quality translations by other netizens and do not question whether the source texts are genuine. The study also shows that netizens’ translations or their translation activities have been covered by major mass media. However, the coverage is mostly concentrated in the sports and entertainment areas. These findings shed light on the possible role segregation between professional translators and netizens and the areas the academia and professional translator's need to educate netizens on.
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Given the situation where research attention targeted at toddler group was relatively small, this study aimed to investigate relationships between toddlers’ emotion regulation abilities and adjustment in daycare center. Considering the previous findings suggesting that toddler age and gender could affect their adjustment in daycare center, this study included toddler age (months) into correlation and regression analyses and administered these analyses for each toddler gender. Participants were 189 toddlers (91 male and 98 female, mean age of 30.16 months old) from 10 daycare centers located in Seoul metropolitan area. Toddlers’ emotion regulation abilities and adjustment in daycare center were measured using the Toddler Emotion Regulation Abilities Scale(Kim, 2011) and the Preschool Adjustment Questionnaire (Jewsuwan, Luster, & Kostelink, 1992). Correlations analyses among toddler age, three emotional regulation abilities dimensions (emotion recognition/expression, emotion management, and emotional coping) and five adjustment indices (adjustment to routines, peer relationships, positive emotions, ego strength, and prosocial behaviors) revealed mostly similar relationship patterns but gender differences in the relationships between toddler age and four adjustment indices and between emotion recognition/expression and prosocial behaviors. Next, hierarchical regression analyses were conducted for each of the five adjustment indices with the step 1 entering toddler age and step 2 entering three emotion regulation abilities. Results suggest that three emotional regulation abilities significantly incremented explanation for the variance in each of the five adjustment indices. Emotion management, and emotional coping seemed to be particularly important in predicting these adjustment indices, regardless of toddler gender. Gender difference in the effects of emotion regulation abilities were found only in the prediction of ego strength and prosocial behaviors. In the prediction of ego strength, only emotional coping was significant in male, but both emotional coping and emotion management were significant in female. Noticeably, emotion management abilities were found to have negative effects on toddler ego strength. In the prediction of prosocial behaviors, all the three emotion regulation abilities were significant in female but only two (emotion recognition/expression, emotion management) were significant in male. Results were interpreted and clinical implications of the findings were discussed.