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The study aims to investigate the process of professional socialization of oriental medical students, to analyze influencing factors on it, and to compare the results with those of western medical students. Professional socialization, in the context of this study, means the process through which a layperson becomes a profession equipped with professional identity and values. A survey using specially designed questionnaire was carried out in 1999. The data were collected from 11 oriental medical colleges for 2,656 students. A total of 2,597 cases was finally included in the statistical analysis. Analysis of factors related to professional value found that oriental medical students thought highly of human-oriented factors, followed by science and status, and this trend remained unchanged as they moved on to qualification. Among professionalism related items, those involved in professional regulation and dominance factors showed high scores, while showing low scores on items related to bio-ethics and autonomy factors. Unlike items of professional value, those of professionalism showed a notable difference in attitude statistically by schooling level. The average scores of factors for professionalism increased with increasing schooling years. This trend proved that oriental medical students acquired professional norms and attitudes through their educational period. Multiple regression analysis with the factors related to professional value and professionalism as dependent variables found that independent variables had some impact on science, status, and clinical autonomy, but no impact on human, policy autonomy, and professional regulation factors. In conclusion, with increasing schooling years, professional norms and attitudes of oriental medical students were also strengthened. And, in spite of the differences in general propensity, they have a base consciousness in common with western medical students. The difference of mind-set and attitudes related to professionalism in the two groups, however, considering the necessity of future cooperative relations, indicated that a common curriculum between both schools is needed, and the education of social medicine should be strengthened in oriental medical colleges.