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The price and output response of the marketable surplus of a subsistence crop would be a topic of major concern to agricultural planners. In this study an attempt was made to determine the factors that influenced a farmer's decision to allocate output between home consumption and market sale within farm households. All equations employed in this analysis were fitted by teh ordinary least square multiple regression techniques using time-series data for the period 1966∼'74. Major findings and conclusions drawn from the numerical results are as follows: 1. The effect of price change on marketable surplus of rice for a given output level is negligible in general. This suggests the posibility that an increase in rice price due to high price policy may not have a positive effect on marketable surplus at least during the crop year. 2. The total price elasticity of rice marketings, including production adjustment, is positive in all cases and ranges from 0.3 to 0.6 in the short run and 0.7 to 1.0 in the long run. This implies that high price policy for rice attempting to stimulate output would be also effective and desirable as a mean s of stimulating the transfer of a larger proportion of the output from the agricultural sector to the non-agricultural sector. 3. One of the major findings is that the elasticity of marketing with respect to output is greater than unity in every case, ranging from 1.3 for the large farms to 1.5 for the small farms, and substantially higher than the partial and the total price elasticities. From the policy point of view, this means that increases in output resulting from introduction of new high yielding varieties or improvement in basic infrastructure such as irrigation would have a strong positive impact on an increase in total marketable surplus of rice.
Knowledge of food marketing system in advanced countries is very important in the improvements of Korean food marketing system and overall food industry as well. This paper is attempted to provide useful information on the recent development of food retail structure and consumer cooperative movement in the United Kingdom. Special emphasis is placed on examing the factors contributing to development of large-scale retailing and on appraising the business performance of the Co-operative Retail Society and Co-operative Wholesale Society in the United Kingdom. Major findings and conclusions are as follows; First, over the years, the development of the retail food industry in the United Kingdom has been conditioned by changing circumstances in other parts of the economy. The important conditioning factors affecting the development of food retailing has been (1) the rapid growth of consumer in come, (2) the increase mobility to the consumer, (3) the entry of women into labor force at an increasing rate, and (4) the changing conditions of food supply. As a result, food retailing has gone through important changes in recent years in the country. Among these have been (1) expanding total sales, (2) expanding sales per store, (3) declining number of store and (4) expanding sales area of store. These changes have important implications about the industry's overall performance. Second, the number of shops in retail trades as a whole remained relatively stable in the 1950s at around 580 thousand, gut the period since 1961 has been one of rationalization. Approxitmately 70 thousand shops were closed in the 1960s, and a further reduction between 1971 and 1978 of 160 thousand shops. More than 90% of this decline was accounted for by single outlet retailers-i.e. independents. On the other hand, the average physical size of retail stores had been growing continuously. The average selling area of three large-scale grocery stores such as Tesco, Sainsbury, and Asda was more than 13,000 square feet. In case of Tesco, about 66% of Tesco's stores were below 5,000 square feet in 1972, but by 1980 the proportion of stores in this category had fallen to only 34% of the total, and the average size of shop was in excess of 10,000 square feet. Third, the British consumer co-operative movement is the oldest in the world and the Co-operative Retail Society (C. R. S) is the largest retail organization in the United Kingdom. The C. R. S has 216 retail consumer co-operative societies in 1979, each democratically controlled on the basis of co-operative principles originated by the pioneers of the co-operative movement in the 19th century. The societies owned about 9,800 shops including such a large-scale retail organization as department store, supermarket, superstore and off-centre store. The societies had more than 10 million members and their sales totalled 3,500 million pound. They had a 11% of the total U.K. sales of food and 7% share of U.K. sales of consumer goods of all kinds. Fourth, to obtain the benefits of operations on the national scale, the C.R.S set up the Co-operative Wholesale Society (C.W.S) to develop distribution and procurement facilities, especially the provision of the co-operative owned-brand products. The C.W.S is the largest wholesaler in the United Kingdom and also operates in manufacturing, banking, insurance and their allied technical services. The operations are mainly on behalf of the consumer co-operative societies in the country and their members. The sales of the C.W.S in 1980 were 1,800 million pound, about a quarter of these goods being produced in its own factories. It had 133 factories and large farming enterprise, amounting to some 40 thousand acres. Fifth, recent policy of the consumer co-operative movement has been to encourage amalgamations and mergers between societies in order to compete with large-scale private competitors and to adapt itself to changing conditions. Consequently, the number of consumer co-operative societies have been reduced considerably in recent years and this deliberate policy is still continuing. Small shops are being closed and the trade concentrated into larger, more economic and attractive units. In 1970 there were about 357 societies but by the end of 1979 the number had decreased to 216 societies. And also the number of shops have decreased from approximately 27,000 in 1966 to 9,800 in 1979. However, even though the consumer co-operative movement has been involved in large scale closures and has developed a significant number of new outlets, the vast majority of its shops are still very small by comparisons with large-scale retailing of its private enterprise competitors.