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Gardenia jasminoides is an herbal medicine that treats obesity and dampness-phlegm. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of Gardenia jasminoides on insulin resistance induced by Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). 8-week-old C57BL/6 male mice were divided into three groups: control group (Ctrl), high-fat diet group (HFF), and high fat diet with Gardenia jasminoides extract administration group (GJT). Each 10 mice was allocated to each group (a total of 30 mice). All mice were allowed to eat fat-rich diet freely throughout the experiment. To examine the effect of Gardenia jasminoides, we observed weight changes, lipid blot distributions, PPAR-γ, p-IkB, p-JNK in liver tissue, total cholesterol, and glucose levels in serum. Comparing of body weight measurements between 3 groups, in the GJT group, weight gain was significantly suppressed compared to the HFF group. The distribution of lipid blots and positive reaction of PPAR-γ were significantly lower in GJT group. The expression levels of p-IκB and p-JNK that plays critical roles in the development of insulin resistance were significantly decreased by GJ treatment. Total cholesterol and glucose levels in serum were also significantly lower in GJT group. Gardenia jasminoides has the effect of improving non - alcoholic fatty liver induced insulin resistance through the regulation of lipid metabolism.
Objectives: This study was conducted to confirm the inhibitory effect of β-glucan on epithelial inflammation induced by atopic dermatitis through Endocannabinoid system (ECS) activity. Methods: Six-week-old NC/Nga mice were divided into a control group (Ctrl), atopic dermatitis elicitation group (ADE), and a β-glucan-treated group (β-glucan treatment after atopy dermatitis elicitation, β-GT). After 3 weeks, CB1, CB2, and GPR55 were observed to confirm the regulation of ECS activity, and filaggrin in the stratum corneum and Kallikrein-related peptidase (KLK) 7 in the stratum corneum and protease activated receptor (PAR)-2 were observed to confirm the inhibition of the inflammation, Phosphorylated extracellular signal-related kinase (p-ERK), Phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin (p-mTOR), and E-Cadherin were observed to confirm microenvironmental regulation. Results: β-GT was significantly increased in CB1, CB2, and GPR55 positive reactions compared to that of the ADE. In positive reaction of the filaggrin in the stratum corneum, β-GT was significantly increased than that of the ADE. For KLK7 positive and PAR2 positive, β-GT was significantly reduced compared to the ADE. The p-ERK-positive and p-mTOR-positive reactions were significantly reduced in β-GT than in ADE. E-cadherin positive reaction was significantly increased in β-GT than in ADE (All p < 0.01). Conclusions: It was confirmed that β-glucan has the effect of inhibiting the epithelium induced by atopic dermatitis through the ECS activity.
Objectives Bangpungtongsungsan is an herbal medicine that treats obesity and dampness-phlegm. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of Bangpungtongsungsan on insulin resistance induced by non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Methods Male 6-week-old C57BL/6 male mice were divided into four groups: control group (Ctrl), high fat diet group (HFF), high fat diet with Bangpungtongsungsan extract administration group (BT1), and high fat diet with double concentration of Bangpungtongsungsan extract administration group (BT2). Each 10 mice were allocated to each group (total of 40 mice). All mice were allowed to eat fat rich diet freely throughout the experiment. To examine the effect of Bangpungtongsungsan, we observed weight changes, lipid blot distributions, PGC-1, p-IκB, 8-OHdG, p-JNK, total cholesterol and glucose levels. Results Comparing of body weight measurements between 4 groups, weight gain was significantly lower in BT1 and BT2 group than the HFF group. The distribution of lipid blots and positive reaction of PGC-1 were significantly lower in BT1 and BT2 group. The positive reaction of p-IκB and 8-OHdG in hepatic tissues was significantly lower in BT1 and BT2 group. The positive reaction of p-JNK in hepatic tissues was significantly lower in BT1 and BT2 group. Total cholesterol and glucose levels were significantly lower in BT1 and BT2 group. Conclusions Bangpungtongsungsan has the effect of improving non-alcoholic fatty liver induced insulin resistance through regulation of lipid metabolism.
[Purpose] Although physical activity is required to prevent or ameliorate osteoporosis, medicine prescription should precede it, since it may be limited in severe osteoporosis patients. Furthermore, osteoporosis has a great effect on physical activity disorders that accompany fractures and pain, and therefore, research on treatment or prevention to decrease the number of patients is required. The purpose of this study was to discover candidate substances from natural products with an effective pharmacological action and to prepare basic data to help patients. [Methods] To prepare the osteoporosis model, ovari- ectomy (OVX) was performed using surgical methods. The prepared prescription [Shinkiwhan (SKH), a Korean medicine] was administered orally at a dose of 210 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks. After completion of the animal experiment, the bone mineral density (BMD) was analyzed using double-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The analysis of the effect of drugs on bones was performed using histological analysis and immunostaining. [Results] SKH increased the BMD in the OVX rats. Furthermore, SKH signi cantly increased the expres- sion of osteoprotegerin and downregulated receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand and phosphorylation of c-jun N-terminal kinases in the bones of the OVX model. [Conclusion] Our findings suggest a protective effect of SKH against BMD loss in the OVX model.
Objectives This study was aimed to offer basic data in long term drug efficacy test using monosodium iodoacetate-induced osteoarthrits model. Methods Sixty male rats were divided into normal and osteoarthritic group. Rats of normal group were injected with 0.1 ml physiological saline, and rats of osteoarthritic group were inected with 0.1 ml monosodium iodoacetate (3 mg/ml) into each left and right knee joint cavities. Gross examination, proteoglycan contents and histopathological examination on the knee joint were performed at 10, 20, 40, and 60 days after injection. Results Grossly, degenerative changes at 10 days, desquamation at 40 days, and ulceration of articular cartilages at 60 days were observed. Proteoglycan contents in articular cartilages were decreased rapidly to 40 days, after than decreased gradually. Osteoarthritic scores were increased rapidly to 20 days, after than increased gradually to 60 days. Conclusions From above results, osteoarthritis model induced by a single intra-articular injection of monosodium iodoacetete is useful model for long term drug efficacy test. (J Korean Med Rehab 2015;25(4):21-28)
This study was carried out to characterized the hemorrhagic lesion sof the collagenase induced hemorrhagic stroke in rats. Fifty three Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided into two group. Group Ⅰ was served as model animals for hemorrhagic stroke, which were infused with 2㎕ saline containing 0.5unit collagenase(type Ⅶ) into the caudaate nuclei. Group Ⅱ was served as control animals, which were infused with 2㎕ saline only into the caudate nuclei. Six heaks of the rats of group Ⅰ were sacrificed at 30 min, 1, 5, 24 hours, 2, 5, 10 days after the infusion , and 3 heads of rats were sacrificed at 15 days after the infusion. Two heads of the rats of group Ⅱ were sacrificed at 30min, 1,5, 24 hours after the infusion. The brains of the rats were removed and examined grossly and histopathologically. Grossly, pin point sized or linear hemorrhage were occurred at 30minutes and the hemorrhagic lesions extended to 5mm in diameter at 24 hours. After then the hemorrhagic lesions faded gradually. Histopathologically, extended hemorrhage with degeneration of brain parenchyma were observed at 5 hours. Large area of malacia were observed at 24 hours. At 5 days, proliferation of astrocytes, proliferation of newly formed capillaries, and infiltration of lipid laden macrophages were seen at the periphery of the area of malacia. At 15 days, most of the area of malacia were replaced by granulation tissue. These observations may be useful parameters for the screening of therapeutic drugs using collagenase induced hemorrhagic stroke animal model.