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Clouds play an important role in climate change, in the prediction of local weather, and also in aviation safety when instrument assisted flying is unavailable. Presently, various ground-based instruments used for the measurements of the cloud base height or velocity. Lidar techniques are powerful and have many applications in climate studies, including the clouds’ temperature measurement, the aerosol particle properties, etc. Otherwise, it is very circumscribed in cloud velocity measurements because there is no Doppler effect if the clouds move in the perpendicular direction to the laser beam path of Doppler lidar. In this paper, we present a method for the measurement of cloud velocity using lidar’s range detection and DIC (Digital Image Correlation) system to overcome the disadvantage of Doppler lidar. The lidar system acquires the distance to the cloud, and the cloud images are tracked using the developed fast correlation algorithm of DIC. We acquired the velocities of clouds using the calculated distance and DIC algorithm. The measurement values had a linear distribution.
In ancient China, Confucianists, orthdox and more practical viewers of music, regarded music as a means for political and moral influence, and they thought that the total harmony based on order and mederation is most essential in music. According to them, music symbolizes the noble personalities and political achievements of great king in ancient time, and makes contains or represent feelings and ideas in itself which can be transmitted from one to another. On the other hand, Taoists had metaphysical view that music symbolizes 'Tao', the great harmony of the real world, and spiritual pleasure resulted from being one with 'Tao'. From the 3rd century to the 6th, in spite of the political disorder and hard times, arts, literature, and the theories of arts showed a remarkable and fresh change with the back ground of the rise of Taoism: for instances, new standards in literature was suggested for evaluating literary works by aesthetic impression, and in the history of painting the landscape painting appeared for appreciating the beauty in nature and expressing some emotions and ideas through painting, while paying no attention to the morality in painting, and in music a new trend that the formalistic qualities in it give greater importance challenged the old doctrines. In such various changes in arts and literature as mentioned above, it can be found that arts and literature at the time were tinged with the autonomous theory of art to considerable extent. And this was much influenced by the Taoism. Jikang(223~262 a.d., wei dynasty) was one of the representative philosopher. Standing at the new point of view on music, he contented with a difiant attitude against the falsehood of the orthodox view which his political foes stood by for their ambition. His main points can be summed up and interpreted as follows. First, music is a physical and natural object that is real existence and has its own economy. Second, music is one thing emotions in human mind is another Music is independent from emotions and does not contain them in itself. Therefore, music does not directly excite emotions, but only stimulate human mind to express them outwardly. It is fallacious to argue that music causes certain emotions by the fact that an appreciator becomes sad, or another becomes delightful while hearing music. Music is abstract essentially so that it can not represent any object. Third, there is chance rather than necessity between a certain kind of music and the emotions excited in one's mind who hears it. Forth, appreciating in true sense requires a kind of mental attitude, "Pinghe" that does not admit any emotion to occupy mind, but keep a kind of serenity, both in case of creator and appreciator. it can be said that the pinghe has very close meaning to the aesthetic attitude. Fifth, the high value in music can be proved when the mind of creator coincides with the artistic principle of music, and music corresponds with the sincere mind of appreciator. True art can be realized in harmonious relation between subject and object. Sixth, the music created from the pinghe involves the perfect harmony based on order and moderation both in emotion and skill, and makes men come closer to the Goodness by purifying their minds, and consequently brings the world to peace. This is the true function of music.
There are 2 school of thoughts concerning the relationship between language, yen (言) and one's inner ideas and emotions, yi(意). Confucian school like Hsun Tzu(筍子), Record of Music(樂記) states that language can fully express a person's emotions and thoughts. The Taoist, however, asserts that such a possibility does not exist. The problems between Yen and yi has always been present but the issue intensified during the Wei-Chen(魏晉) dynasty in the 3rd century. Wang Pi(王弼) states that in order to completely understand and solve what yi is, one should not excessively concentrate on the physical form of language, but transcend up from the language's physical form to its essence and absoluteness, that is to say, the yi. Such a movement will allow one to recognize the ultimate reality of non-being and understand the essence of the universe. The progressive movement of the Buddhist thought in China led the way in creating this question as one of the key points in philosophy and religion. Chih Tao lin(支道林) asserted that the yi is transcendental and thus unreachable by human language Paradoxically, this will lead one to the ultimate reality, the infinite universe. In the Sung dynasty, as the tension between Tao(道) and Wen(文) began to grow, so did the question concerning language and expression of the inner world between the Neo-Confucianists and the spiritualistic literati. During the period in which the Neo-Confucianists were dominant it was asserted that Wen is nothing but the conveyer of Tao. Su Shih(蘇軾), however, supported the idea that Wen has its own autonomy, and the linguistic expressions are enevitably and essentially 'metaphoric'. Su Shih further suggested that one cannot reach Tao on the sole basis of pure logic and reasoning. Thus, the intimate union with the ultimate reality cannot be conceptually and rationally explained. The union is available only by approaching very closely to the Tao by metaphorical expression of language(Si 似). Ku Kai-chih(顧愷之) and Tsung Ping(宗炳) suggested that the artist, in his paintings, should not remain static in the realm of reality(Hsing 形), but further develop the creative process so that the painting will ultimately contain a spiritual value(Shen 神). For Liu Hsieh(유협) and Ssi Kong-tu(司空圖), the poetic yi does not exist within the poetic language but along side of it. So, though the language of the poetry ends once it has been recited, the essence and the elements such as its images, still lives in the listener's mind. This is the most valuable aspect of the poem, the creation or life of the image that is given to the reader through the poem's language. The empty spaces in Chinese calligraphy between the painted parts are not just spaces from the discontinuity of the brush strokes, rather it is a bridge that gaps the individual strokes together creating the artistic form and meaning. Thus, the empty space ultimately performs as an aesthetic function that provides the higher synthesis of two different types of elements, as the yin and the yang work together in the universe. As the landscape painting develops, the meaning and function of its empty spaces play a central role. In certain kinds of paintings, such as "one corner paintings" (Yi Chiao Ma 一角馬), more than half of the painting is empty. Here, the emptiness signifies the painting's "fogginess". Through the existence of empty spaces, the beholder can imagine such presences as a deep valley or a bridge, or a temple etc... Hence, behind the painting's "fogginess", the beholder is given infinite pleasures from such imaginings. This is the crux of the aesthetic experience in traditional China. The aesthetic meanings of the empty space are in two folds: 1) One can discover the fundamental elements of strength and meaning in one's life and universe (Chiyun 氣韻) in the rhythmical form of mountains and valleys in the painting, 2) Through the limited space in canvas, one can enjoy a sense of infinity. Such definitions have long been enjoyed by the Chinese literati. The possibility of accomplishing, through the metaphorical way, the intimate union with the ultimate reality has been suggested by philosphers like Su Shih who, as mentioned earlier, believed that the idea and emotions cannot be fully expressed by the human language.
The aim of this article is to try to interpretate some remarks on ritual and aesthetic problems in 'Shujing', and argue about them laying stress on music in ritual, its relation with politics and education. First, in ancient China the most typical aesthetic experience which was religioaes-thetic could be gained through the ritual and music in it performed by ruling classes. Second, though the function of music in ritual was for the political and religious purpose, we can also find in 'Shujing' some autonomous ideas that poetry and music are created on the innate and formal principle of Harmony, and the origin of them is Mind. Third, in creation, performance and appreciaton of music (including poetry and dance) in ritual the pure attitude is required that any self-interest is removed from Mind through ablution. Fourth, the ultimate aim of musical Harmony is the inspiration of ancestor spirit and establishment of public order and soial harmony. Fifth, Harmony in music is a very effective way to form an ideal personality. This idea is premised on an implicit assumption that there is some analogy between Harmony of music and that of personality. Sixth, in spite of autonomous ideas on music, the nescessity to emphasize its political function produced an absurd idea that music represents the great spirit and achievement of ruler, and evokes submissive spirit in people's mind.