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The main purpose of this study is to discuss about what the governance mechanism to enhance the urban creativity is and how to construct this mechanism. This study compares two cities in terms of the governance mechanism. It utilizes the structure theory of Giddens which emphasizes on the dynamic interrelations between the social structure and actors. It analyses the growth process of Sheffield and Huddersfield in United Kingdom with literature review and primary data. The results show that two cities have different governance systems: one is top-down, while the other is bottom-up system. According to the system, the relation between the social structure and actors is different. The bottom-up system appears to achieve relatively higher performance in terms of the city dynamism and creativity. This implicates that it is more important to make cooperative and horizontal relationships with the spontaneous networking among actors rather than to rely on unilateral supports and requests from the central government.
본 연구는 사회적 기업의 CSR 활동이 사회적 성과와 재무적 성과에 영향을 미치는 요인과 장기지향성의 조절효과를 검증하는 것이 목적이다. 본 연구를 수행하기 위해 사회적 기업, CSR 활동과 성과, 장기지향성에 관한 이론적 배경을 기반으로 연구의 모형 및 가설을 설정하였다. 본 연구에서는 지역사회 활동, 환경 활동, 자선 활동을 CSR 활동으로 분류하였다. 이러한 CSR 활동이 사회적 성과 및 재무적 성과에 영향을 미치는지 분석하고자 한다. 연구는 115개의 사회적 기업을 대상으로 Smart PLS 2.0을 이용하여 분석하였다. 본 연구의 결과를 요약하면 다음과 같다. 첫째, 지역사회 활동, 환경 활동, 자선 활동은 사회적 성과에 정(+)의 영향 관계가 있는 것으로 나타났다. 둘째, 사회적 성과는 재무적 성과에 정(+)의 영향 관계가 있는 것으로 나타났다. 마지막으로, 장기지향성은 사회적 성과와 재무적 성과의 관계에 있어서 조절효과를 가지는 것으로 나타났다. 본 연구의 결과는 사회적 기업의 CSR 활동을 수행한 결과 사회적 성과가 재무적 성과에 긍정적인 영향을 미침을 실증적으로 검증하였다는데 의의가 있을 것이다. 또한, 사회적 성과가 재무적 성과에 영향을 미치는데 있어서 장기지향성의 조절효과를 검증함으로써 사회적 기업에서 CSR 활동은 사회적 성과를 통해 기업의 경쟁 환경의 질을 개선할 뿐만 아니라, 장기적인 목표와 전략을 지향함으로써 사회적 기업의 재무적 성과에도 긍정적인 효과를 가져 올 수 있는 유용한 시사점을 제공할 것이다. The purpose of this study is to examine the factors influencing performance of social enterprise and moderating effect of long-term orientation. This model tests various theoretical research hypotheses relating to social enterprise, corporate social responsibility (CSR) activity and performance, and long-term orientation. CSR activity have been classified as community, environmental, and philanthropic activity. The proposed model is analyzed to target 115 social enterprises. Smart PLS 2.0 have been utilized for deriving this study results. The result of hypothesis testing are as follows. First, community, environmental, and philanthropic activity positively influence social performance. Second, social performance positively influence financial performance. Finally, long-term orientation as a moderating effect significantly influence the relationship between social and financial performance. This study results will provide various implications to improve performance of social enterprise and CSR activity and long-term orientation.
본 연구의 목적은 여성 기업가의 특성과 창업지원정책이 경영성과에 영향을 미치는 요인을 분석하는 것이다. 여성 기업가의 특성과 여성창업지원정책에 대한 이론적 배경을 바탕으로 연구모형을 설정하였으며, 여성 기업가 130 명을 대상으로 SPSS 15.0 통계패키지를 이용하여 실증연구를 수행하였다. 연구결과, 성취욕구, 위험감수성, 비전, 기 회인지 능력, 창업지원정책이 경영성과에 정(+)의 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다. 본 연구의 결과는 여성 기업가가 성공할 수 있는 다양한 시사점을 제공할 것이다. The aim of this study is to examine the factors influencing managerial performances of women entrepreneur's characteristics and entrepreneurial supporting policy. This model tests various theoretical research hypotheses relating to characteristics of women entrepreneurs and an entrepreneurial supporting policy. The model is used by SPSS 15.0 for analysis on the sample collected from 130 respondents. The result of hypothesis testing are as follows: need for achievement, risk-taking propensity, vision, opportunity perception and entrepreneurial supporting policy influence positively managerial performances. The results of this study will provide practical implications on success of women entrepreneurs.
본 연구는 모바일 상거래에서 웹사이트 품질이 m-로열티에 미치는 요인을 분석하고자 한다. 이를 위해 모바일 사용자를 대상으로 실증연구를 수행하였다. 지금까지 모바일 상거래, 고객 만족, m-로열티에 대한 부분적인 연구는 있었으나 전체적인 관점에서의 연구는 시도되지 않았다. 따라서 본 연구는 모바일 웹사이트 품질 특성을 정보 품질, 시스템 품질, 서비스 품질로 분류하고, 이러한 모바일 웹사이트 품질 특성이 고객 만족에 영향을 미치고, 고객 만족이 m-로열티에 영향을 미치는지 대해서 영향요인을 검증하였다. 연구 결과, 정보 품질 특성 중 컨텐츠 품질은 고객 만족에 유의한 영향을 미쳤지만, 디자인 품질은 유의한 영향을 미치지 못했다. 시스템 품질 특성에서 이용용이성과 네비게이션은 고객만족에 정(+)의 영향을 미쳤으며, 서비스 품질 특성에서 신뢰와 고객서비스도 고객 만족에 정(+)의 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다. 고객 만족이 m-로열티에 정(+)의 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다. 본 연구는 웹사이트 품질과 m-로열티에 관한 연관성을 확인함으로써 차세대 모바일 비즈니스 의사결정자에게 전략적이고 유의미한 경영관리적 통찰력을 제시하고 있으며 모바일 산업 및 유사한 환경에 있는 비즈니스에도 본 연구 결과를 활용할 수 있을 것이다. This study is to examine factors that web site quality affect m-loyalty in mobile-commerce. This paper conducts an empirical study in order to seek this study purpose. Quality characteristics in mobile web site have been classified as information quality (content quality and design quality), system quality (usability and navigation), and service quality (reliability and customer service). This study focuses if quality characteristics in mobile web site affects customer satisfaction, consequently that affecting m-loyalty. Study results found that content quality in information quality affects positively customer satisfaction, while design quality is not significant. Usability and navigation in system quality are positively significant as well as reliability and customer service in service quality are also positively significant. Customer satisfaction affects positively m-loyalty. This study will provide the management with significant and strategic insights for identifying relationship between web site quality and m-loyalty in mobile commerce and other similar business settings.
본 연구의 목적은 가족기업의 핵심역량 축적과정을 살펴보고 성공적인 가업승계의 중요성을 논의하는 것이다. 이를 위해 가족기업의 경쟁우위를 설명한 Miller and Le Breton-Miller (2005)의 4C(Continuity, Community, Connection, Command)모델을 기반으로 3대에 걸친 성공적인 가업승계를 기반으로 한 에스엘의 핵심역량 축적과정을 조사했다. 국내 자동차부품회사인 에스엘의 성장과정에 관한 2차 자료를 분석하고, 대표이사와의 심층인터뷰를 통해 그 연관성을 구체적으로 살펴보았다. 분석결과 창업자 가족이 공유한 가치관과 비전, 노하우, 경험 등은 장기적인 지향성을 가지고 지속적으로 핵심역량을 개발하는데 큰 역할을 하였다. 또한 신뢰의 가치관이라는 사회적 자본을 효과적으로 전달받은, 다음 세대의 후계자는 가족 가치관을 토대로 대외 네트워크를 더욱 견고히 하고 지속적으로 발전시켰다. 에스엘은 성공적인 가업승계로 소유와 지배구조를 집중화 할 수 있었고, 이에 따라 외부 이해관계자들의 압력 없이, 가족 내부 조화를 통해 독립적이고 과감한 의사결정이 가능하였다. 이는 가족기업의 경우 고유한 공동체적 문화와 신뢰에 기반 한 외부 네트워크 형성을 통해 경쟁력 구축에 힘쓸 필요가 있으며, 일반기업의 경우에도 공동체 적 조직문화와 중장기적 관점의 외부 협력관계가 기업의 영속성 유지에 중요하다는 시사점을 제공한다. 또한 가엽승계가 기업경쟁력의 유지와 세대 간 이전에 중요한 기능을 함에 따라 이에 대한 적절한 정책적 배려가 필요하다. The purpose of this study is to examine the process of accumulating com-petences and competitiveness by family companies, and discuss the importance of successful succession of a family business. The core competence accumulation process and competitiveness sources of SL, which is based on successful succession of the family business for three generations, was examined based on the 4C (Continuity, Community, Connection, Command) model of Miller and Le Breton-Miller (2005), which explains the competitive superiority of family companies. Secondary data on the growth process of SL, a domestic auto-mobile parts company, was analyzed and their strategic implications were examined in detail through an in-depth interview with the CEO. The 4C factors, which are antecedent variables of a successful family business, played an important role on the growth process of SL. The continuity factor existed through continuous research and development that focuses on and invests in improving technology quality such as mold pro-duction, lamp production, sash production, and design automation. 2 to 3 percent of the sales amount each year was spent on research and development, regardless of the condition of the economy. As a result, the intellectual property of the company reached 1,108 items (583 applications, 440 registered properties, 47 in review, 38 trademarks) by 2006. From a long-term perspective, the company is improving their technical power to an international standard through technical investments. The continuity of investments in research and development is apparent through three generations, and it can be said that this reflects the characteristics of family business management that shares a goal, and confirms and develops the core capacities of the company. The factor of community started with the "people first" business, management philosophy of the late presi-dent, Hae-joon Lee. Then, it expanded to "human respect" during the president Choong-kon Lee`s generation, and to "ethical management" for the CEO Sung-yup Lee`s generation. The sense of community was revealed to be in the form of a community corporate culture based on a good welfare system for employees and com-munity awareness. Diverse benefits including a housing support system, housing fund support system, child-ren`s education fee support system, scholarship system, and company clubs support system were used to make people feel like "the company and I are one" and work with a sense of ownership. The fact that there has not been one conflict between labor and management since 1968, when the labor union was first established, is especially a noteworthy point. The business management based on "people first" stresses the responsibility and roles of employees and reflects the belief that a workplace should not simply be a place to make a living, but a part of life where you can cultivate character and fulfill your role as a member of society. The connection factor appears as continuous partnerships and networks with domestic and international parts suppliers and technologically advanced companies. The late honorary chairman Hae-joon Lee maintained partnerships and networks with Hyundai Motor Company and Daewoo Motors. Then, chairman Choong-kon Lee expanded the network to include KIA and Ssangyong Motors and maintained long-term relationships with domestic automobile makers. In addition, the company is maintaining cooperative relations with the Japanese company Stanley and German company Hella, and has started dealing with the U.S. company GM, too. CEO Sung-yup Lee`s generation improved the company`s relationship with GM and made the achievement of re-ceiving the QSTP Award (an award GM gives to selected skilled companies out of all the parts companies in the world) from GM for 14 consecutive years (1997-2010), solidifying its position as a skilled partner of GM. SL is also advancing into China through collaborations with the local branch to extract new cooperative relations. The value of "trust" is the motivation that helped SL maintain and strengthen relationships and networks. This value started with the founder of the company and was handed down to chairman Choon-kon Lee and CEO Sung-yup Lee, and worked as a core factor to strengthen external cooperative relationships. The factor of command is apparent from the decisions of business managers who take on a challenge, structural management that includes an endless will for innovation, and leadership. When the late honorary chairman Hae-joon Lee could not cultivate a road for the automobile parts industry because of smuggled goods, he recognized the importance of the automobile parts industry and folded his bicycle parts business, which was number one in the market at the time, without hesitation thanks to his owner-focused independent and bold decision-making skills. In the mid-1990s, when most automobile production companies experienced difficulties because of the economic crisis where Korea was dependent on the IMF, and the aftershocks of restructuring affected automobile parts manufacturing companies, chairman Choong-kon Lee considered the crisis an opportunity and acquired and merged with Seogu Industry (currently known as SL Litech), Oriental Construction and Poongi Building (currently known as SL Seo Bong Co., Ltd. Shiheung factory), creating a turning point to develop further after the crisis. CEO Sung-yup Lee pursues continuous innovation including a corporate culture that places importance on learning and admitting mistakes, change of the structural system to a project based system, and a human resources system that focuses on human resources management, and is emphasizing corporate changes according to the situation of the times. An examination of the SL core competence accumulation process based on the 4C model shows that it is establishing positive relationships and continuity based on connection and trust, leading to a cooperation sys-tem based on the value of trust. It also establishes a positive relationship with command focusing on a com-munity structure culture, which leads to structure capacity based on community culture. The factors of con-nection and community were found to be especially strong at SL. The factor of connection was a core growth motivation, influenced by the key values of family. SL reveals its growth motivation to be "unification of all employees," shares the goals and visions of family with its employees, and offers a variety of different benefits. The active will of employees to participate in this community is seen to be the background behind big accomplishments such as innovations in the field, which are still being pursued. Successful succession of the family company and family business management are strengths that lie in the center of the motivation that allowed SL to continue to grow for three generations, starting with the founder, the late honorary chairman Hae-joon Lee, who provided a foundation of growth with values of trust and peo-ple first, moving on to the second generation chairman Choong-kon Lee, who accomplished a rapid development of the company based on technological developments and respect for people, and finally through to the third generation CEO Sung-yup Lee, who is making efforts for globalization and innovation based on ethical management and change. This shows that the values of trust set by the founder have continued on for a long time, through his son, chairman Choong-kon Lee, and grandson, CEO Sung-yup Lee. Chairman Lee, CEO Lee and executive director Lee Seung-hoon are learning corporate culture and management know-how through a great will to participate and actual participation in management. SL was able to gain competitiveness and continuously reach excellent management performance through cooperation based on the value of trust and structural management that focuses on community culture. As a result of analyzing the company through the 4C model and conducting in-depth interviews with man-agement, it can be said that the values, vision, know-how and experience the founder shared with his family largely contributed to continuous development of core competence with a long-term goal. This in turn had a positive effect on establishment of a corporate community based on trust. By inducing loyalty, participation, and focus on employees in the organizational structure with something more than just financial incentives, the core values of the company are relayed through generations and play an important role in maintaining the community, and also emotionally motivating members of the community. Another point is that the successor who effectively received the social capital of trust as a value, strengthened and continued to develop the ex-ternal network based on the family values. The value of "trust" started by the founder played a key role in strengthening external cooperative relations as it was succeeded through generations. This had a positive ef-fect on connection based on the value of trust, and especially decisively contributed to maintaining close rela-tions of cooperation in the external network and long-term cooperative relationships. SL was able to focus the possession and domination structure through successful succession of the family business, and make in-dependent bold decisions through internal harmony of the family, without pressure from people involved externally. The results above lead to the following points of discussion regarding corporate management. From a busi-ness management perspective, first, a family company needs to establish an external network based on a unique community culture and trust to work on establishing competitiveness. Second, there is a need to reflect the fact that a community-like structural culture and external cooperative relations from a mid- to 0long-term perspective have an important effect on maintenance of corporate continuity, even for companies that are not family businesses, on business management. Third, there is a need to focus on the fact that a structural man-agement method that uses values such as community help secure continuity of a company. From a policy per-spective, since succession of a family business can be not succession of wealth but succession of accumulated technological core competence and good management philosophy and know-how, it is important for improve-ing national competitiveness, to maintain corporate competitiveness, and transfer the competitiveness between generations. Therefore, there is a need for appropriate policies that support the successful transgenerational succession of family businesses.
본 연구는 사회적 기업의 장기지향성(long-term orientation)이 기업의 사회적 책임(CorporateSocialResponsibility: CSR)활동과 사회적 기업의 경영성과에 영향을 미치는 요인을 분석하는 것이 목적이다.연구의 목적을 달성하기 위해 사회 적 기업,CSR활동,장기지향성에 관한 이론적 배경을 바탕으로 연구모형 및 가설을 설정하였다.본 연구에서 제안된 연구모 형은 사회적 기업가 115명을 대상으로 SmartPLS2.0을 이용하여 구조방정식 모형을 분석하였다.분석결과,첫째,장기지향 성은 지역사회의 책임,환경적 책임,제품(서비스)의 책임에 정(+)의 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다.둘째,지역사회의 책임 은 재무성과 및 비재무성과에 정(+)의 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다.셋째,환경적 책임은 비재무성과에 정(+)의 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났지만,재무성과에는 유의한 영향을 미치지 않는 것으로 나타났다.마지막으로,제품(서비스)의 책임은 재무성과 및 비재무성과에 유의한 영향을 미치지 않는 것으로 나타났다.본 연구의 결과는 장기지향성과 CSR활동의 관련성 을 검증하고,CSR활동이 사회적 기업의 성과를 향상시키고,사회적 기업이 지속적으로 성장할 수 있는 전략적 시사점을 제공할 수 있을 것이다. The purpose of this study is examine the factors influencing performance of long-term orientation and Corporate Social Responsibility(CSR) activities. This model tests various theoretical research hypotheses relating to social enterprise, CSR activities and long-term orientation. The proposed model is analyzed to target 115 social entrepreneurs with Smart Partial Least Square(PLS) 2.0. The result of hypothesis testing are as follows. First, long-term orientation positively influence community responsibility, environmental responsibility, and product(service) responsibility. Second, community responsibility positively influence financial and non-financial performance. Third, environmental responsibility positively influence non-financial performance, but does not significantly influence financial performance. Finally, product(service) responsibility does not significantly influence financial and non-financial performance. The results of this study will provide various implications to improve performance, long-term orientation, and CSR activities in social enterprise.