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        사례연구 : 가업승계와 가족기업의 경쟁력: 에스엘 사례

        이장우 ( Jang Woo Lee ),마윤주 ( Yoon Joo Ma ),정수철 ( Su Chul Jung ) 한국중소기업학회 2010 中小企業硏究 Vol.32 No.4

        본 연구의 목적은 가족기업의 핵심역량 축적과정을 살펴보고 성공적인 가업승계의 중요성을 논의하는 것이다. 이를 위해 가족기업의 경쟁우위를 설명한 Miller and Le Breton-Miller (2005)의 4C(Continuity, Community, Connection, Command)모델을 기반으로 3대에 걸친 성공적인 가업승계를 기반으로 한 에스엘의 핵심역량 축적과정을 조사했다. 국내 자동차부품회사인 에스엘의 성장과정에 관한 2차 자료를 분석하고, 대표이사와의 심층인터뷰를 통해 그 연관성을 구체적으로 살펴보았다. 분석결과 창업자 가족이 공유한 가치관과 비전, 노하우, 경험 등은 장기적인 지향성을 가지고 지속적으로 핵심역량을 개발하는데 큰 역할을 하였다. 또한 신뢰의 가치관이라는 사회적 자본을 효과적으로 전달받은, 다음 세대의 후계자는 가족 가치관을 토대로 대외 네트워크를 더욱 견고히 하고 지속적으로 발전시켰다. 에스엘은 성공적인 가업승계로 소유와 지배구조를 집중화 할 수 있었고, 이에 따라 외부 이해관계자들의 압력 없이, 가족 내부 조화를 통해 독립적이고 과감한 의사결정이 가능하였다. 이는 가족기업의 경우 고유한 공동체적 문화와 신뢰에 기반 한 외부 네트워크 형성을 통해 경쟁력 구축에 힘쓸 필요가 있으며, 일반기업의 경우에도 공동체 적 조직문화와 중장기적 관점의 외부 협력관계가 기업의 영속성 유지에 중요하다는 시사점을 제공한다. 또한 가엽승계가 기업경쟁력의 유지와 세대 간 이전에 중요한 기능을 함에 따라 이에 대한 적절한 정책적 배려가 필요하다. The purpose of this study is to examine the process of accumulating com-petences and competitiveness by family companies, and discuss the importance of successful succession of a family business. The core competence accumulation process and competitiveness sources of SL, which is based on successful succession of the family business for three generations, was examined based on the 4C (Continuity, Community, Connection, Command) model of Miller and Le Breton-Miller (2005), which explains the competitive superiority of family companies. Secondary data on the growth process of SL, a domestic auto-mobile parts company, was analyzed and their strategic implications were examined in detail through an in-depth interview with the CEO. The 4C factors, which are antecedent variables of a successful family business, played an important role on the growth process of SL. The continuity factor existed through continuous research and development that focuses on and invests in improving technology quality such as mold pro-duction, lamp production, sash production, and design automation. 2 to 3 percent of the sales amount each year was spent on research and development, regardless of the condition of the economy. As a result, the intellectual property of the company reached 1,108 items (583 applications, 440 registered properties, 47 in review, 38 trademarks) by 2006. From a long-term perspective, the company is improving their technical power to an international standard through technical investments. The continuity of investments in research and development is apparent through three generations, and it can be said that this reflects the characteristics of family business management that shares a goal, and confirms and develops the core capacities of the company. The factor of community started with the "people first" business, management philosophy of the late presi-dent, Hae-joon Lee. Then, it expanded to "human respect" during the president Choong-kon Lee`s generation, and to "ethical management" for the CEO Sung-yup Lee`s generation. The sense of community was revealed to be in the form of a community corporate culture based on a good welfare system for employees and com-munity awareness. Diverse benefits including a housing support system, housing fund support system, child-ren`s education fee support system, scholarship system, and company clubs support system were used to make people feel like "the company and I are one" and work with a sense of ownership. The fact that there has not been one conflict between labor and management since 1968, when the labor union was first established, is especially a noteworthy point. The business management based on "people first" stresses the responsibility and roles of employees and reflects the belief that a workplace should not simply be a place to make a living, but a part of life where you can cultivate character and fulfill your role as a member of society. The connection factor appears as continuous partnerships and networks with domestic and international parts suppliers and technologically advanced companies. The late honorary chairman Hae-joon Lee maintained partnerships and networks with Hyundai Motor Company and Daewoo Motors. Then, chairman Choong-kon Lee expanded the network to include KIA and Ssangyong Motors and maintained long-term relationships with domestic automobile makers. In addition, the company is maintaining cooperative relations with the Japanese company Stanley and German company Hella, and has started dealing with the U.S. company GM, too. CEO Sung-yup Lee`s generation improved the company`s relationship with GM and made the achievement of re-ceiving the QSTP Award (an award GM gives to selected skilled companies out of all the parts companies in the world) from GM for 14 consecutive years (1997-2010), solidifying its position as a skilled partner of GM. SL is also advancing into China through collaborations with the local branch to extract new cooperative relations. The value of "trust" is the motivation that helped SL maintain and strengthen relationships and networks. This value started with the founder of the company and was handed down to chairman Choon-kon Lee and CEO Sung-yup Lee, and worked as a core factor to strengthen external cooperative relationships. The factor of command is apparent from the decisions of business managers who take on a challenge, structural management that includes an endless will for innovation, and leadership. When the late honorary chairman Hae-joon Lee could not cultivate a road for the automobile parts industry because of smuggled goods, he recognized the importance of the automobile parts industry and folded his bicycle parts business, which was number one in the market at the time, without hesitation thanks to his owner-focused independent and bold decision-making skills. In the mid-1990s, when most automobile production companies experienced difficulties because of the economic crisis where Korea was dependent on the IMF, and the aftershocks of restructuring affected automobile parts manufacturing companies, chairman Choong-kon Lee considered the crisis an opportunity and acquired and merged with Seogu Industry (currently known as SL Litech), Oriental Construction and Poongi Building (currently known as SL Seo Bong Co., Ltd. Shiheung factory), creating a turning point to develop further after the crisis. CEO Sung-yup Lee pursues continuous innovation including a corporate culture that places importance on learning and admitting mistakes, change of the structural system to a project based system, and a human resources system that focuses on human resources management, and is emphasizing corporate changes according to the situation of the times. An examination of the SL core competence accumulation process based on the 4C model shows that it is establishing positive relationships and continuity based on connection and trust, leading to a cooperation sys-tem based on the value of trust. It also establishes a positive relationship with command focusing on a com-munity structure culture, which leads to structure capacity based on community culture. The factors of con-nection and community were found to be especially strong at SL. The factor of connection was a core growth motivation, influenced by the key values of family. SL reveals its growth motivation to be "unification of all employees," shares the goals and visions of family with its employees, and offers a variety of different benefits. The active will of employees to participate in this community is seen to be the background behind big accomplishments such as innovations in the field, which are still being pursued. Successful succession of the family company and family business management are strengths that lie in the center of the motivation that allowed SL to continue to grow for three generations, starting with the founder, the late honorary chairman Hae-joon Lee, who provided a foundation of growth with values of trust and peo-ple first, moving on to the second generation chairman Choong-kon Lee, who accomplished a rapid development of the company based on technological developments and respect for people, and finally through to the third generation CEO Sung-yup Lee, who is making efforts for globalization and innovation based on ethical management and change. This shows that the values of trust set by the founder have continued on for a long time, through his son, chairman Choong-kon Lee, and grandson, CEO Sung-yup Lee. Chairman Lee, CEO Lee and executive director Lee Seung-hoon are learning corporate culture and management know-how through a great will to participate and actual participation in management. SL was able to gain competitiveness and continuously reach excellent management performance through cooperation based on the value of trust and structural management that focuses on community culture. As a result of analyzing the company through the 4C model and conducting in-depth interviews with man-agement, it can be said that the values, vision, know-how and experience the founder shared with his family largely contributed to continuous development of core competence with a long-term goal. This in turn had a positive effect on establishment of a corporate community based on trust. By inducing loyalty, participation, and focus on employees in the organizational structure with something more than just financial incentives, the core values of the company are relayed through generations and play an important role in maintaining the community, and also emotionally motivating members of the community. Another point is that the successor who effectively received the social capital of trust as a value, strengthened and continued to develop the ex-ternal network based on the family values. The value of "trust" started by the founder played a key role in strengthening external cooperative relations as it was succeeded through generations. This had a positive ef-fect on connection based on the value of trust, and especially decisively contributed to maintaining close rela-tions of cooperation in the external network and long-term cooperative relationships. SL was able to focus the possession and domination structure through successful succession of the family business, and make in-dependent bold decisions through internal harmony of the family, without pressure from people involved externally. The results above lead to the following points of discussion regarding corporate management. From a busi-ness management perspective, first, a family company needs to establish an external network based on a unique community culture and trust to work on establishing competitiveness. Second, there is a need to reflect the fact that a community-like structural culture and external cooperative relations from a mid- to 0long-term perspective have an important effect on maintenance of corporate continuity, even for companies that are not family businesses, on business management. Third, there is a need to focus on the fact that a structural man-agement method that uses values such as community help secure continuity of a company. From a policy per-spective, since succession of a family business can be not succession of wealth but succession of accumulated technological core competence and good management philosophy and know-how, it is important for improve-ing national competitiveness, to maintain corporate competitiveness, and transfer the competitiveness between generations. Therefore, there is a need for appropriate policies that support the successful transgenerational succession of family businesses.

      • KCI등재

        완전 이식형 인공중이를 위한 자동 충전종료형 무선 충전장치의 구현

        이장우,임형규,정의성,한지훈,이승현,박일용,조진호,Lee, Jang-Woo,Lim, Hyung-Gyu,Jung, Eui-Sung,Han, Ji-Hun,Lee, Seung-Hyun,Park, Il-Yong,Cho, Jin-Ho 대한의용생체공학회 2007 의공학회지 Vol.28 No.4

        In the paper, a wireless charger with the function of auto-shutdown for fully implantale middle ear hearing devices (F-IMEHD) has been designed. The wireless charger can communicate with an implant module to be turned off automatically shutdown after an internal rechargeable battery has been fully-charged by electromagnetic coupling using two coils. For the communication with an implant module, the wireless charger uses the load shift keying (LSK) method. But, the variation of the mutual inductance due to the different distance between two coils can cause the communication error in receiving the fully-charged signal from an implant module. To solve the problem, the implemented wireless charger has a variable reference generator for LSK communication. The wireless charger generates proper level of the reference voltage for a comparator using an ADC (analog-to-digital converter) and a DAC (digital-to-analog converter). Through the result of experiment, it has been confirmed that the presented wireless charger can detect signals from implantable module. And wireless charger can stop generating electromagnetic flux after an implanted battery has been fully charged in spite of variable coil distance according to different skin thickness.

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        VO<sub>x</sub> 박막의 구조적 특성과 전기적 특성에 대한 열처리 영향

        이장우,정지원,Lee, Jang Woo,Chung, Chee Won 한국공업화학회 2006 공업화학 Vol.17 No.5

        $VO_x$ thin films with the thickness of 450 nm were prepared on a $Pt/Ti/SiO_{2}/Si$ substrate at room temperature by a reactive radio frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering method. The deposition rates of $VO_x$ thin films were investigated as a function of $O_{2}$ concentration and rf power. As the $O_{2}$ concentration in a $O_{2}/Ar$ mixture increased, the deposition rate decreased. However, the deposition rate increased with increasing rf power. The deposited $VO_x$ thin films were annealed at $450^{\circ}C$ for 2, 4, and 6 h in $O_{2}$ and $N_{2}$ ambient. After annealing, the phase changes of $VO_x$ thin films were investigated using X-ray diffraction analysis. The plane and cross-sectional views of $VO_x$ thin films before and after annealing were observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy. The metal-insulator transition (MIT) properties of $VO_x$ thin films were measured using current-voltage measurement. The excellent MIT properties were observed in $VO_x$ thin films annealed in $O_{2}$ ambient. $VO_x$ 박막이 상온에서 $Pt/Ti/SiO_{2}/Si$ 기판위에 반응성 radio frequency (rf) 마그네트론 스퍼터링 방법에 의하여 450 nm 두께로 증착되었다. 증착 공정에서 산소의 농도와 타겟에 인가되는 rf power를 변수로 설정하여 증착 속도를 조사하였다. $VO_x$ 박막의 증착속도는 산소 농도가 증가함에 따라서 감소하고, rf power가 증가할수록 증가하는 것이 관찰되었다. 증착된 $VO_x$ 박막은 $O_{2}$와 $N_{2}$ 가스 분위기에서 $450^{\circ}C$의 온도로 2, 4, 그리고 6 h 동안 각각 열처리 되었고, 열처리 과정을 진행한 후 x-ray diffraction (XRD) 분석을 이용하여 열처리 전과 후의 결정성 변화를 관찰하였다. 그리고 열처리 전과 후의 $VO_x$ 박막의 표면과 단면을 field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM)를 이용하여 관찰하였으며 전류-전압 측정을 이용하여, 증착된 $VO_x$ 박막의 metal-insulator transition (MIT) 특성을 관찰하였다. $N_{2}$ 분위기에서 열처리된 $VO_x$ 박막보다 $O_{2}$ 분위기에서 열처리된 $VO_x$ 박막에서 더 우수한 MIT 특성을 관찰 할 수 있었다.

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        SiN<sub>x</sub> 박막을 이용한 Si Nanodot의 형성

        이장우,박익현,신별,정지원,Lee, Jang Woo,Park, Ik Hyun,Shin, Byul,Chung, Chee Won 한국공업화학회 2005 공업화학 Vol.16 No.6

        Silicon nitride ($SiN_x$) 박막이 상온에서 $SiO_2/Si$ 기판 위에 반응성 직류 마그네트론 스퍼터링 방법에 의하여 증착되었다. 증착된 $SiN_x$ 박막의 조성은 x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy를 이용하여 분석되었으며 Si가 풍부한 $SiN_x$ 박막이 증착되었음을 확인할 수 있었다. 증착된 $SiN_x$ 박막은 annealing 온도와 시간을 변화하여 annealing 되었다. X-ray diffraction (XRD) 분석이 $SiN_x$ 박막 내에 Si의 결정화를 조사하기 위해서 수행되었고, 박막의 광학적 특성과 전기적 특성들이 Si nanodot의 형성을 확인하기 위하여 측정되었다. 그 결과로써, XRD 분석에서 Si으로 예상되어지는 peak을 관찰할 수 있었으며 annealing 시간과 온도가 증가함에 따라서 $SiN_x$ 박막의 photoluminescence intensity는 점진적으로 증가하는 것이 관찰되었다. Annealing 전과 후에 측정된 $SiN_x$ 박막의 capacitance-voltage 특성으로부터 $SiN_x$ 박막 내에 존재하는 Si nanodot에 의하여 electron이나 hole의 trap 효과가 나타남을 예상할 수 있었다. The deposition of silicon nitride ($SiN_x$) thin films was carried out on $SiO_2/Si$ substrate at room temperature by reactive dc magnetron sputtering. The analysis of deposited $SiN_x$ films using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that the composition of $SiN_x$ films was Si-rich. The deposited $SiN_x$ thin films were annealed by varying annealing temperature and time. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was performed in order to examine the crystallization of Si in $SiN_x$ thin films. The optical and electrical properties of $SiN_x$ thin films were measured for the observation of Si nanodot. As a result, we observed the XRD peaks that might be the Si crystals. As the annealing time and annealing temperature increased, the photoluminescence intensity of $SiN_x$ films gradually increased. The capacitance-voltage characteristics of $SiN_x$ film measured before and after annealing indicated that the trap effect of electrons or holes occurred due to the existence Si nanodots in the $SiN_x$ thin films.

      • KCI우수등재
      • KCI등재

        절연링형 금속플렉시블호스(CSST)의 저항 특성 및 신뢰성 평가

        이장우 ( Jang Woo Lee ),김점식 ( Jeom Sik Kim ),최충석 ( Chung Seog Choi ) 한국안전학회(구 한국산업안전학회) 2016 한국안전학회지 Vol.31 No.6

        This paper has analyzed the structure, applicable regulations and the resistance characteristics of insulation ring type of CSST (Corrugated Stainless Steel Tubing for Gas). With the flammability test conducted in accordance with KS C IEC 60811-1-1, the evaluation of insulation resistance, temperature characteristics, and reliability has been conducted. An insulation ring type CSST consists of protective coating, tube, nut, insulation ring, packing, socket, and ball valve. Connecting an insulation ring type CSST to gas tubings for gas appliance is not permitted, moreover, the product shall be installed inside a sleeve pipe in case of buried installation such as the ceiling. Damages on protective coating and tube were detected when fire was applied to the test sample with a portable torch for 60 seconds. The insulation resistance of a normal product was 49.59 MΩ, while that of the product completed the flammability test reduced to 9.21 MΩ. The mean insulation resistance within the confidence Interval of 95% using the mini tap program 17 was 49.59 MΩ and the mean insulation resistance within the confidence interval reduced to 9.21MΩ. In the normal distribution analysis of 95% confidence interval, the value-P of the normal product was stable at 0.075 and AD(Anderson-Darling) statistic value was turned out to be 0.063, which is very normal, and the standard deviation was analyzed as 0.2586. The value P of the product completed the flammability test resulted in 0.005, the AD was 1.355 and the standard deviation reduced to 0.07908.

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