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In this study, we compared the MMPI-2 and Rorschach tests, that are representative assessments in clinical practice including the index of psychotic state; in addition, we investigated the predictive validity and the discriminant validity for psychotic disorder indices of each assessment. Participants were 59 adults who underwent psychological testing at the department of psychiatry of the general hospital in Busan. Patients with schizophrenia, schizophreniform disorder, and brief psychotic disorder were categorized into the group with schizophrenia spectrum disorders; and patients with mood disorder, anxiety disorder, somatoform disorder, and adjustment disorder were categorized into the group with non-schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Logistic regression analysis was conducted using schizophrenia-related indicators from the MMPI (Pa, Sc3, Sc6, BIZ1, BIZ2, RC8, and PSYC) and Rorschach’s test (SCZI and PTI) as variables. The results showed that RC8, BIZ1, and Sc3 had significant between-group discriminatory power; however, neither of the Rorschach variables, SCZI and PTI, showed significant discriminatory power. In conclusion, aberrant perceptual experiences and cognitive distortion are decisive factors in the discrimination of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The MMPI-2 was developed for schizophrenia patients. However, it includes symptoms such as aberrant perceptual experiences and cognitive distortion, as well as paranoia features that can be experienced by patients both with and without schizophrenia. Our results suggested that this instrument should be used sparingly. Finally, we discussed the limitations of the study, future research directions, and psychological health significance. 본 연구에서는 대표적으로 사용되는 심리평가도구이자 정신병적 상태를 측정하는 지표를 포함하고 있는 MMPI-2와 Rorschach를 비교하여, 각 도구의 측정 지표의 정신병적 상태에 대한 예측력과 변별력을 알아보았다. 이를 위해 부산 지역의 종합병원 정신건강의학과에서 심리평가를 받은 59명의 성인을 대상으로 연구를 실시하였다. 본 연구에서는 정신병적 장애를 포함하는 조현병, 조현양상장애, 단기정신병적 장애 환자를 조현병 스펙트럼 장애 집단으로 분류하고, 기분 장애, 불안장애, 신체형 장애, 적응장애 환자를 비조현병 집단으로 분류하여 두 집단을 비교하였다. MMPI-2의 조현병 관련 지표인 Pa1, Sc3, Sc6, BIZ1, BIZ2, RC8, PSYC와 Rorschach의 조현병 관련 지표인 SCZI, PTI를 변인으로 선정하여 이분형 로지스틱 회귀분석을 실시하였다. 분석 결과, MMPI-2의 BIZ1, Sc3, RC8이 집단간 변별력이 유의한 변인으로 나타났으나, Sc3 점수의 증가만이 조현병 스펙트럼 장애 가능성을 예측해주었으며, BIZ1과 RC8은 점수가 증가할수록 조현병 스펙트럼장애에 속할 가능성이 낮아지는 것으로 나타났다. Rorschach 변인은 SCZI와 PTI 모두 변별력이 유의하지 않은 것으로 나타났다. 결론적으로, 조현병 스펙트럼 장애를 변별하는 데 결정적인 요인은 인지적 혼란 및 그에 대한 주관적 불편감으로 볼 수 있었다. 또한 진단 기준 구성의 특성 상, Rorschach의 변인은 임상 장면에서 진단적 정보를 주는 데는 한계가 있으나, 진단기준과는 독립적으로 장애군의 병리적 특성을 반영하는 것으로 이해할 수 있다. 끝으로 본 연구의 제한점과 향후 연구 방향 및 건강심리학적 의의에 대해 논의하였다.
One of the domesticated species; the dog has been selectively bred for various aims by human. The dog has many breeds, which are artificially selected for specific behaviors and morphologies. Dogs contribute their life to human as working dogs for guide, rescue, detection or etc. Working dogs requires good personality, such as gentleness, robustness and patience for performing their special duty. Many studies have concentrated on finding genetic marker for selecting the high-quality working dog. In this study, we confirmed quantitative expression patterns of eight genes (ABAT; 4-Aminobutyrate Aminotransferase, PLCB1; Phospholipase C, Beta 1, SLC10A4; Solute Carrier Family 10, Member 4, WNT1; Wingless-Type MMTV Integration Site Family, Member 1, BARX2; BarH-Like Homeobox 2, NEUROD6; Neuronal Differentiation 6, SEPT9; Septin 9 and TBR1; T-Box, Brain, 1) among brains tissues from four dog breeds (Beagle, Sapsaree, Shepherd and Jindo), because these genes were expressed and have functions in brain mostly. Specially, BARX2, SEPT9, SLC10A4, TBR1 and WNT1 genes were highly expressed in Beagle and Jindo, and Sapsaree and German Shepherd were vice versa. The biological significance of total genes was estimated by database for annotation, visualization and integrated discovery (DAVID) to determine a different gene ontology (GO) class. In these analyses, we suppose to these eight genes could provide influential information for brain development, and intelligence of organisms. Taken together, these results could provide clues to discover biomarker related to functional traits in brain, and beneficial for selecting superior working dogs.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known for their role in mRNA silencing via interference pathways. Repetitive elements (REs) shareseveral characteristics with endogenous precursor miRNAs. In this study, 406 previously identified and 1,494 novelRE-derived miRNAs were sorted from the GENCODE v.19 database using the RepeatMasker program. They were divided intosix major types, based on their genomic structure. More novel RE-derived miRNAs were confirmed than identified asRE-derived miRNAs. In conclusion, many miRNAs have not yet been identified, most of which are derived from REs.
Athletic performance is an important criteria used for the selection of superior horses. However, little is known about exercise-related epigenetic processes in the horse. DNA methylation is a key mechanism for regulating gene expression in response to environmental changes. We carried out comparative genomic analysis of genome-wide DNA methylation profiles in the blood samples of two different thoroughbred horses before and after exercise by methylated-DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing (MeDIPSeq). Differentially methylated regions (DMRs) in the preand post-exercise blood samples of superior and inferior horses were identified. Exercise altered the methylationpatterns. After 30 min of exercise, 596 genes were hypomethylated and 715 genes were hypermethylated in the superior horse, whereas in the inferior horse, 868 genes were hypomethylated and 794 genes were hypermethylated. These genes were analyzed based on gene ontology (GO) annotations and the exercise-related pathway patterns in the two horses were compared. After exercise, gene regions related to cell division and adhesion were hypermethylated in the superior horse, whereas regions related to cell signaling and transport were hypermethylated in the inferior horse. Analysis of the distribution of methylated CpG islands confirmed the hypomethylation in the gene-body methylation regions after exercise. The methylation patterns of transposable elements also changed after exercise. Long interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs) showed abundance of DMRs. Collectively, our results serve as a basis to study exercise-based reprogramming of epigenetic traits.
Research on concrete using activated Hwang-Toh is intensively conducted to protect environment. Therefore, in this study, the effect of activation of Hwang-Toh on strength was investigated through flexural and compressive tests. The specimen made by replacing part of cement with inactivated Hwang-Toh showed strength 55~61% of the control specimen. However, the specimen with activated Hwang-Toh as alternative material indicated load-carrying capacity 76~102% in comparison with the control specimen. Hence, concrete with activated yellow soil can be use in the construction market.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are single-stranded, small RNAs (21–23 nucleotides) that function in gene silencing and translational inhibition via the RNA interference mechanism. Most miRNAs originate from host genomic regions, such as intergenic regions, introns, exons, and transposable elements (TEs). Here, we focused on the palindromic structure of medium reiteration frequencies (MERs), which are similar to precursor miRNAs. Five MER consensus sequences (MER5A1, MER53, MER81, MER91C, and MER117) were matched with paralogous transcripts predicted to be precursor miRNAs in the horse genome (equCab2) and located in either intergenic regions or introns. The MER5A1, MER53, and MER91C sequences obtained from RepeatMasker were matched with the eca-miR-544b, eca-miR-1302, and eca-miR-652 precursor sequences derived from Ensembl transcript database, respectively. Each precursor form was anticipated to yield two mature forms, and we confirmed miRNA expression in six different tissues (cerebrum, cerebellum, lung, spleen, adrenal gland, and duodenum) of one thorough-bred horse. MER5A1-derived miRNAs generally showed significantly higher expression in the lung than in other tissues. MER91C-derived miR-NA-5p also showed significantly higher expression in the duodenum than in other tissues (cerebellum, lung, spleen, and adrenal gland). The MER117-overlapped expressed sequence tag generated polycistronic miRNAs, which showed higher expression in the duo-denum than other tissues. These data indicate that horse MER transposons encode miRNAs that are expressed in several tissues and are thought to have biological functions.
DNA methylation is an essential biochemicalmodification that regulates gene expression. Exerciseinduces changes in gene expression that adapt as metabolicchanges in the blood. We provide a database for the epigeneticchanges after horse exercise (http://www.primate. or.kr/hexdb). Horse Exercise Epigenetic Database (HEx-DB) explicates the change in genome-wide DNA methylationpatterns after exercise. Exercise changes the genomewideepigenetic patterns, and understanding the regionsthat change is important for confirming exercise physiologicalmechanisms. For this purpose, our database providesinformation on differentially methylated regions afterexercise that pass a set threshold. A total of 784 genesbased on NCBI RefSeq were identified as differentiallymethylated in equines after exercise. Our database providesclues for the study of exercise-related epigenetic pathwaysin the thoroughbred horse.