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In this paper, practical biped humanoid robot is presented, designed, and modeled by fuzzy system. The humanoid robot is a popular research area in robotics because of the high adaptability of a walking robot in an unstructured environment. But owing to the lots of circumstances which have to be taken into account it is difficult to generate stable and natural walking motion in various environments. As a significant criterion for the stability of the walk, ZMP (zero moment point) has been used. If the ZMP during walking can be measured, it is possible for a biped humanoid robot to realize stable walking by a control method that makes use of the measured ZMP. In this study, measuring the ZMP trajectories in real time situations throughout the whole walking phase on the flat floor and slope are conducted. And the obtained ZMP data are modeled by fuzzy system to explain empirical laws of the humanoid robot. By the simulation results, the fuzzy system can be effectively used to model practical humanoid robot and the acquired trajectories will be applied to the humanoid robot for the human-like walking motions.
The purpose of this study is to research the effect of selectable(2nd & 3th grade course) physical education class(2unit, 1unit) according to 7th education curriculum to physical and mental transition of 3rd grade female high school student who are in top 10% grade group. First, physical strength, physical basic exercise function, of 'P' women high school students who selected 2 unit physical class is higher than 'H' women high school students whi selected 1 unit physical class. Beside there is similar difference in several sports events except 50m running between two groups. Second, the increase of physical activity from increase physical education class means students have more opportunity to move. This causes decrease of apprehension to various stimulations as prior researchers presented. Moreover positive effect was discovered to Self-Evaluation. 3rd, as a result of comparison overall change of emotional disturbance, physical activities in school is effective to release uneasiness state and improve mental health.
Background: Electrical stimulation can be used to verify the location of epidural catheters. Although epiradicular localization of a catheter is important for patients with radiating pain in the lower extremities due to spinal stenosis or disc herniation, no prospective study results pertaining to the stimulation threshold within the epiradicular space have been reported. Therefore, we set out to investigate the threshold current for motor response in the epiradicular space by the use of a catheter containing a removable stylet. In addition, this study examines the reliability of such epiradicular stimulation. Methods: In 105 patients undergoing a retrograde interlaminar ventral epidural injection, a lumbar epiradicular catheter was inserted. Loss of resistance was used to identify the epidural space. Afterward, the TheraCath was advanced into the epiradicular space and connected to a nerve stimulator. A nerve stimulator delivered progressively, increasing electrical current until an appropriate muscle contraction was observed. Contrast media was then injected and epiradicular dispersal was assessed. Results: Epiradicular stimulation yielded a mean threshold of 0.56± 0.50 mA (range: 0.06 to 2.84). When compared with epiradicular dispersal as a gold standard, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of epiradicular stimulation with the TheraCath were 90%, 56%, 96% and 33%,respectively. Conclusions: The threshold current of an insulated needle required to elicit a motor response in the epiradicular space was evaluated. We conclude that the epiradicular stimulation test is useful for confirming catheter placement. Nonetheless, further studies are required before implementing its routine use in clinical settings.
In an autonomous multi-mobile robot environment, path planning and collision avoidance are important functions used to perform a given task collaboratively and cooperatively. This study con-siders these important and challenging problems. The proposed approach is based on a potential field method and fuzzy logic system. First, a global path planner selects the paths of the robots that mini-mize the potential value from each robot to its own target using a potential field. Then, a local path planner modifies the path and orientation from the global planner to avoid collisions with static and dynamic obstacles using a fuzzy logic system. In this paper, each robot independently selects its desti-nation and considers other robots as dynamic obstacles, and there is no need to predict the motion of obstacles. This process continues until the corresponding target of each robot is found. To test this method, an autonomous multi-mobile robot simulator (AMMRS) is developed, and both simulation-based and experimental results are given. The results show that the path planning and collision avoid-ance strategies are effective and useful for multi-mobile robot systems.
The design point of the cross-flow fan is generally based on the region within low static pressure and high flow rate. It relatively makes high dynamic pressure at low speed because a working fluid passes through an impeller blade twice. However, it has low static pressure efficiency between 30% and 40% because of relative high impact loss. The purpose of this study is to research the reciprocal relation among each parameter. Experiments and numerical analyses are conducted on effects of a stabilizer and a rearguider on performance analysis of a cross-flow fan. Two-dimensional, unsteady governing equations are solved using FVM, PISO algorithm, sliding grid system and standard k-ε turbulence model. Experiments are also carried out to estimate the performance of the modeled cross-flow fan. It is clarified that the rearguider of Archimedes type has excellent results for the most part.
이 논문은 20세기 초 영국 케임브리지 대학 캐븐디쉬연구소에 유학했던 호주, 뉴질랜드, 캐나다 출신 물리학자들의 활동을 분석한 것이다. 캐븐디쉬연구소는 19세기말부터 우수한 연구자들을 이들 영연방 소속 식민지에 보내서 물리학자사회가 등장하는 데 커다란 영향을 미쳤다. 한편 이들 식민지들은 우수한 연구자들을 지속적으로 캐븐디쉬연구소에 공급함으로써 연구소 발전에 커다란 공헌을 했다. 필자는 이 논문에서 식민지 본국에서 가장 중요한 연구기관이었던 캐븐디쉬연구소와 식민지와의 관계가 단순히 “중앙부-주변부” 또는 “식민지 본국-식민지”간의 일방적인 관계가 아니라 훨씬 복잡하고 다양했음을 보이고자 한다.