http://chineseinput.net/에서 pinyin(병음)방식으로 중국어를 변환할 수 있습니다.
변환된 중국어를 복사하여 사용하시면 됩니다.
개별검색 DB통합검색이 안되는 DB는 DB아이콘을 클릭하여 이용하실 수 있습니다.
통계정보 및 조사
예술 / 패션
<해외전자자료 이용권한 안내>
- 이용 대상 : RISS의 모든 해외전자자료는 교수, 강사, 대학(원)생, 연구원, 대학직원에 한하여(로그인 필수) 이용 가능
- 구독대학 소속 이용자: RISS 해외전자자료 통합검색 및 등록된 대학IP 대역 내에서 24시간 무료 이용
- 미구독대학 소속 이용자: RISS 해외전자자료 통합검색을 통한 오후 4시~익일 오전 9시 무료 이용
※ 단, EBSCO ASC/BSC(오후 5시~익일 오전 9시 무료 이용)
'스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.
Hub network design for freight transportation is a decision process that determines hub locations together with freight transportation routes among shippers so as to ultimately minimize total logistics cost. This study presents the optimal location of hubs by strict hub network design policy with single allocation, which overcomes the limitation of Kim et al. (2008) that does not allow direct transportation among shippers. The greedy-interchange algorithm is employed for hub location decision process, and EMME/2 is adopted for the route searching process. Application of the processes to the nationwide highway network shows that the best hub locations in order are Seoul metropolitan, GyeongNam, Chung-nam, Jeon-Nam, Gyeong-Buk, Chung-Buk, and the locations are concentrated on the Seoul–Busan corridor. The strict hubnetwork design policy with single allocation increases the transportation distance but decreases the transportation cost by passing through the hubs instead of direct transportation. The reduction in total transportation cost can be achieved as the number of hubs increases, but the amount of the reduction gradually decreases because the cost reduction from the decrease in detour transportation distance between non-hubs and hubs becomes less than the discount reduction from dispersion of inter-hubs transportation volumes. 허브네트워크 설계는 수송량의 증가에 따라 단위 수송비가 감소하는 규모의 경제효과를 이용하여 네트워크의 총 물류비용을 최소화시키는 허브입지, 기종점별 수송경로를 결정하는 최적화과정이다. 본 연구에서는 비허브가 한 개의 허브에만 연결되고, 기종점간의 직결수송이 허용되지 않고 허브간 수송만을 허용하는 단일할당 제약 허브네트워크 설계를 통해 네트워크의 최적 허브입지를 제시하지 못했던 김남주 외 (2008)의 한계를 극복하여 최적 허브입지를 결정적으로 제시하였다. 허브집합 결정과정에서는 greedy-interchange algorithm을 사용하였고, 수송경로탐색에서는 EMME/2를 사용하였다. 우리나라 전국 도로수송 네트워크에 적용한 결과, 최적 허브입지는 수도권, 경남권, 충남권, 전남권, 경북권, 충북권 등의 순서로 선정되었으며, 수송의 간선축인 경부축에 집중되었다. 단일할당 제약 허브정책으로 각 기종점간 직접운송 대신에 허브를 경유하는 운송 방식을 취함으로써 운송거리는 증가했으나, 수송비용은 오히려 감소하였다. 또한 기종점-허브간 우회거리 단축으로 인한 수송비용 절감보다 허브간 수송량 분산으로 인한 규모의 경제효과 감소가 더 커 허브수가 늘어남에 따른 수송비용 감소폭은 점차 감소하였다. 본 연구는 GIS프로그램을 이용한 공학적 접근방법을 통해 국내 화물수송의 대부분을 차지하는 도로수송의 최적 허브입지와 수송경로를 결정적으로 제시한 것으로 국가물류비용을 절감하려는 정책적 측면에서 의미가 있을 것으로 판단된다.
본 연구는 허브간 수송비용할인의 비제약 허브네트워크를 설계하여 김남주 외 (2008), 김남주와 김용진 (2011)의 연구를 개선하였다. 허브간 대용량수송과 공차율 저감으로 인한 수송비용 절감효과를 고려하되 허브경유의 우회수송이 비용효과적이지 않을 경우 기종점간 직송을 하는 현실 수송시장특성을 반영할 수 있도록 설계했으며, 분석결과를 기존연구와 비교 종합검토하였다. 국내 도로화물수송망에 적용한 결과, 허브수가 늘어날수록 기종점 수요의 허브경유로 인한 우회수송의 증가로 톤km는 점차 증가하는 반면, 허브간 집적수송의 규모의 경제효과로 수송비용은 점차 감소하였다. 최적 허브입지는 전구간과 허브간의 수송비용 할인구간, 제약과 비제약의 허브정책 등 허브네트워크 설계방법과 무관하게 허브수가 늘어남에 따라 수도권, 경상권, 충청권, 전라권의 순서로 선정되었으며, 수송의 간선축인 경부축에 집중되었다. 허브수 증가에 따른 수송비용의 한계감소율은 허브간 수송량 분산에 따른 규모의 경제효과 감소로 허브수가 늘어남에 따라 감소하였다. 또한, 수송량 증가에 따른 비용할인효과가 클수록 허브간 거리가 멀어지는 반면, 비용할인효과가 작을수록 허브간 거리는 가까워졌다. 본 연구는 GIS프로그램을 이용한 공학적 접근방법을 통해 현실 수송특성을 반영할 수 있는 허브네트워크를 설계한 것으로, 산출된 허브입지는 실제 운영, 건설, 계획 중인 내륙화물기지입지와 유사한 것으로 나타났다. 향후, 내륙화물기지 신설 및 확장 타당성 검토 등 국가 수송비용을 절감하려는 정책적 측면에서 의미가 있을 것으로 판단된다. This study presents an algorithm and conducts a computer experiment based on real field data of Korea that determines optimal number and location of hubs and routes among shippers to minimize total transport costs. The algorithm is a non-strict hub network design policy based on the fact that freight trucking between hubs can reduce the costs due to large size cargo and reduced empty movement. Furthermore, the algorithm allows direct transportation between shippers if a route connecting hubs is not cost- effective, which is different from the assumption in the previous study (Kim et al. 2008). A greedy-interchange algorithm was employed for hub location decision process and EMME/2 was applied to find route searching process. Applied to national road transport network of Korea, as the number of hubs increase, Seoul metropolitan, Gyeong-Nam, Chung-Nam, Jeon-Nam, Gyeong-Buk, Chung-Buk are selected in order. Freight traffic is concentrated on main corridor between Seoul and Busan area. The proposed non-strict hub network design policy may increase the transportation distances but can reduce overall transport costs by passing through the hubs. Total transport costs reduction can be achieved as the number of hubs increase. However the marginal amount of reduction by increasing number of hubs gradually decreases because the cost reduction of decreased detour transportation length between non-hubs and hubs is smaller than the amount of discount reduction for dispersion of inter-hubs transportation volumes.
'스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.
Purpose: Fibrous dysplasia is an uncommon disease that replaces normal bone tissue with fibrous and osteoid tissue. We evaluated patients with fibrous dysplasia involving orbital bones to identify the ocular characteristic findings. Methods: We recruited 6 patients with fibrous dysplasia of the craniofacial bone. Best corrected visual acuity and facial asymmetry were measured. Slit lamp biomicroscopy, tonometry, strabismus examination, and funduscopy were performed. Results: Strabismus, exophthalmos and optic neuropathy were found in 5, 4, and 2 patients, respectively. One patient underwent a strabismus surgery. One patient had McCune-Albright syndrome, exhibiting a caf?-au-lait spot of the skin and precocious puberty. All 6 patients had facial asymmetry and higher superior orbital rims of the affected side in 5 patients. Conclusions: Ophthalmologic examination may be mandatory for patients with fibrous dysplasia involving the orbit, especially to prevent optic neuropathy. If optic atrophy, strabismus or exophthalmos is found in patients with facial asymmetry, the possibility of fibrous dysplasia must be considered.
A 8 year-old, 5.8kg, intact female shih-tzu dog with depression, anorexia, pale mucous membrane was referred to the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital of Chungnam National University. A diagnosis of the patient was made based on history taking, Physical examination, laboratory examination, radiography and ultrasonography. Blood and blood chemical examination revealed that PCV was 95% and total bilirubin was increased. Autoagglutination was observed and many spherocytes were found on Diff-Quik stained blood smear. Direct Coombs' test result was positive and marked hepatomegaly was found on the radiograph. Immune-mediated hemolytic anemia was diagnosed by above on these findings. No transfusion, and immunosuppressive agent with azathioprine was administrated. PCV increased from 9.5% to 15.5% 4 days later and to 34.9% 19 days later. PCV is 43.2% and azathioprine is administered every 3 weeks to date.
The establishment of balanced intestinal microbial flora bears importance in maintaining the well-being of the human host. In this context, probiotics improving the intestinal microflora confer a beneficial effect on human health when ingested as live microorganisms. Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus are mainly used as probiotics in the pharmaceuticals or functional foods. On review of the papers published in the scientific journals, prophylactic use of probiotics was promising in reducing both the incidence and severity of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm neonates, alleviating rotavirus infection and preventing the atopy symptoms in children. The efficacy of the probiotics with respect to the inflammatory disease such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are being studied. Analysis of the various cytokines and immune markers are being conducted to understand the mechanism of action of the probiotics related to allergy and inflammation. More clinical studies are needed based on appropriate and well-conducted trials with known strains and doses since the efficacy varies depending on the specific probiotic strains or doses. Some of the species or strains distributed in probiotic markets raised some safety concerns such as causing human infections or transmitting antibiotic resistance genes. Therefore continued efforts to improve strain characteristics with respect to the efficacy through evidence-based human studies and evaluation of the safety are desired.
A manpower study was conducted from Sept. 5 to Oct. 15, 1967 on 536 food and sanitary inspectors for the purpose of estimating minimun legally required workloads as well as health manpower demend which covers whole food and sanitary facifities throughout the country. The results obtained were as follows; 1. Average workable hours a day of a inspector for field inspection were 4 hours and 20 minutes according to 8 hours a day working basis. 2. Average workable days a year of a inspector for field inspection were 225 days with 61.6% of a year and average number of facilities possible to be covere 1 per person was 900 per year. 3. In comparison with aggregate minimun legally required manpower demand, number of food inspectors employed were short in most provinces except in Kangwon-do: Seoul with 19.2 persons, Pusan with 4.9 persons, Kyunggi-do with 42.3 persons, Chungchongbuck-do with 7.7 persons, Chungchongnam-do with 11.1 persons. Chollabuck-do with 5.6 persons, Chollanam-do with 2.2 persons, Kyungsangbuck-do with 8.3 persons, Kyungsangnam-do with 5.5 persons, and Cheju-do with 3.1 persons. 4. In comparison with aggregate minimun legally erquired manpower demand, number of sanitary inspectors employed were short in most provinces except in Kangwon-do and Kyungsangbuck-do: Seoul with 23.2 persons, Pusan with 17.4 persons, Kyunggi-do with 36.5 persons, Chungchongbuck-do with 14.4 persons, Chungchongnam-do with 10.4 persons, Chollabuck-do 24.0 persons, Chollanam-do with 10.4 persons, Chollabuck-do 24.0 persons, Chullanam-do with 13.8 persons, Kyungsangnam-do with 46.8 persons, Cheju-do with 1.2 persons. 5. As to legal qualification and employment status of food inspectors, number of qualified employees were less than 50% of food inspectors in most provinces except in Kangwon-do and among temporarily employed 44.9% was only qualified 6. After receiving food inspector's training courses offered by the National Institute of Health 56.7% of total trainers were transferred to jobs other than sanitary activities. 7. Number of temporarily employed was 69.1% of total sanitary inspectors and 30.9% of formally appointed was transferred to jobs other than sanitary activities.