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Although the officially confirmed incidence of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome(AIDS) has remained low thus far in Korea, the progression of the pandemic has been rapid, concerned about an eventual increase in transmission. Until a vaccine or cure is found, public information and education remain an important weapon againt AIDS. For the year 2000, the current WHO projection is that there will be a cumulative total of 40 million HIV infections in man, woman and children, of which more than 90% will be in the developing countries. The incerased mortality among adults and children has raised concerns that AIDS may become so devastaing as to reverse positive population growth rates and wipe out entire population. In order to plan for the rising incidence of patient with AIDS, an assessment of AIDS-related cognition and behavior, attitude of the recognized high-risk groups is necessary. Considering that undergraduates have sexuality active and more oriented toward sexual concerns than other ages. Adolescents today are more sexually involved than in the past: The media, including films, music, and television, reinforce sexual concerns by preseating images of highly sexual adolescents. Incidence of both petting and sexual intercourse in higher and occurs at earlier ages, they are important reservoir of AIDS infection. Hence, it has become important to emymerats and describe the knowledge, atteitude and behavior of them, I want.. This information will eventually guide the direction of change in public policies and education programs to meet the challenges of AIDS. The objective of this study were to identity Knowledge, Attitude, Experience of Sex and AIDS in Korea. The data were collected by survey at Korean Federation for AIDS Affairs, INC. and J university, K junior college. After October in 1993, surveyed with 507 student during their's college days in Seoul. The questionnaire was designed to provide information on sex and AIDS -related knowledge and attitudes and experience. AIDS-related knowledge was measured by using 26 question on mode of transmission and AIDS-related attitudes were measured by 7 questions, AIDS-related experience was measured by 5 questions. There were the main dependent variables in our study. In conclusion, students during their university day need to develop AIDS-preventive education programs. Clearly, the many AIDS-prevention educational effort need to be guided by well trained health agents. Financial supports from all sectors (i.e., public and private) of our society are required to achieve that end. Further researches on AIDS-related Knowledge and Attitude and behaviors of undergraduates are needed for development of comprehensive AIDS prevention programs.
For commercialization of hydrogen refuelling station (HRS), we need to reduce the clearance distance for jet fire in the real entities in the HRS. Thus, we revisited the current regulations of clearance distance for jet fire in the law. The law in korea has been set up by replica of japan, not by our own scientific basis. Recently, sandia lab developed Hydrogen Risk Assessment Model (HyRAM) tools and we simulated a series of circumstances such as 10 to 850 bar with several leak hole sizes. In 850 bar with 10 mm diameter hole leak cases, it shows 4,981 kW/m2 at 12 m separation from leak source and 1,774 kW/m2 at 17 m separation from leak source. In 850 bar with 1 mm diameter leak hole, it shows 0.102 kW/m2 at 12 m separation and 0.044 kW/m2 at 17 m separation. Current law may be acceptable with 1 mm hole size with 850 bar.
Acute limb ischemia (ALI) is a serious condition requiring prompt intervention due to a sudden decrease in limb perfusion threatening limb viability. Treatment of ALI depends on the clinical status of the affected limb and patient comorbidities. Surgical therapy has been the historical standard of care for restoring limb perfusion; however, percutaneous endovascular intervention has been shown to be a promising treatment option in selected patients of ALI at high surgical risk. We report on a case of a 75-year-old man with ALI caused by thrombotic occlusion of the suprainguinal artery, successfully treated with endovascular therapy including stent insertion and thrombus aspiration and catheter-directed urokinase infusion in view of the clinical findings and imaging studies.
Attracting highly skilled workers (HSWs) is a major element for the economic development of many countries, especially developing countries. However, the general international mobility of workers is from developing countries to developed ones. Historical evidence has indicated that Korean and Taiwanese firms scout for highly skilled Japanese workers (either retired or soon-to-retire) to accrue knowledge and achieve catch-up. Therefore, this article investigates how highly skilled Japanese workers have been scouted by firms in Korea and Taiwan. Aimed at producing evidence rather than testing hypotheses, the findings of this article provide practical information for firms in developing countries on attracting HSWs for their growth. In addition, this article provides insights into the international mobility of HSWs from a developed country to developing countries, which has not been examined in the previous literature.
(연구배경 및 목적) 최근 아파트 단지 개발은 친환경적이고 쾌적한 주거환경을 목적으로 하고 있다. 이에 따라 아파트 단지를 구성함에 있어 자연적인 요소를 반영하여 친환경 아파트를 짓는 것은 하나의 기본구성으로 자리 잡게 되었다. 본 연구에서는 아파트 단지 환경시설물과 보편적 호감도의 상관관계에 대해 조사하였으며, 아파트 단지 내에서 자연풍경으로부터 느끼는 인간의 본성적 감성을 파악하고 이를 활용한 디자인 방안을 살펴보고자 한다. 이를 바탕으로 향후 아파트 단지 패러다임의 변화에 맞춰 아파트 환경특화의 방향성을 제안하는 것을 목적으로 한다. (연구방법) 첫째, 상위개념인 도시경관의 기본개념을 인지하고 아파트 경관의 의미에 대해 알아보았으며, 아파트단지는 도시경관 구조물로서 건축물외에도 다양한 환경시설 및 조형적 요소가 있음을 알아보았다. 그리고 환경시설물과 자연 형상과의 관계 및 향후 방향성에 대해 요약해보았다. 둘째, 인지과학과 진화 이론 및 진화 심리학을 기반으로 신경학 선행연구를 바탕으로 신경미학적 관점에서 자연 조형 구조와 조형 방법을 분석한다. 이를 통해 자연 형상 질서에 의한 프랙탈 이론과 접목하여 인간의 시각적 호감도 및 조형성과 관계가 있음을 고찰하였다. 셋째, 프랙탈 기하학 구조를 통한 환경시설물 및 아파트 단지 외부공간의 구조물을 사례 분석하여 공통적인 요소를 파악하였다. 단지 내에는 건축물, 복합공간, 인공시설 등이 있었으며, 자연 형상의 조형성과 호감도의 연계성을 알 수 있는 체크리스트를 설정한다. 체크리스트를 설정하는 방법은 프랙탈 기하학 구조의 핵심인 대칭성, 연속성, 반복적인 유사성을 기준으로 주변 경관과 조화로운지 판단하고자 하였다. 판단하는 기준은 총5개의 적합성 기준 (매우 강 ● / 강 ⊙ / 중 ◐ / 약 ◎ / 매우 약 ○)으로 분석을 하였다. 그리고 아파트 선정기준은‘한국기업평판연구소’에서 진행한 아파트 브랜드 평판 조사와 서울시의‘차 없는 아파트’기준으로 4개를 선정하였다. (결과) 이에 본 연구에서는 현재 아파트 단지의 환경시설물과 주변경관이 이질감 없이 어울리는지 연구하고자 하였다. 연구 결과 대부분의 환경시설물은 자연형상 보다는 인공적인 형태로 되어있어 주변 경관과 조화롭지 못하였다. (결론) 결론적으로 아파트 단지를 계획함에 있어 아파트 외 시설물 계획 시 자연 형상 구조가 고려되어야 할 사항임을 보여주고자 한다. 이를 바탕으로 친환경 주거공간으로서 지속적이고 가치 있는 아파트 단지계획에 활용될 수 있음을 제시하고자 한다. (Background and Purpose) The recent trend of developing apartment complexes was aimed at providing eco-friendly housing for a pleasant living experience. Hence, eco-friendly plans that take into consideration natural factors have become a standard factor while constructing apartment complexes. This study will explore the correlation between apartment environmental specialization and general favorability, and explore the design methods by identifying human preferences for natural landscape. Consequently, the purpose of this project is to propose the direction for apartment environmental specialization in line with the paradigm shift for future apartment complexes. (Method) First, we identified the basic concept of the urban landscape, which is a higher concept, and investigated the significance of the apartment landscape. An apartment complex is considered as an urban landscape structure, and includes various environmental facilities and formative elements in addition to buildings. The relationship between environmental facilities and natural shapes and future directions was summarized. Second, based on the literature review through cognitive science, evolutionary theory, and evolutionary psychology, we analyzed the natural structures and shaping methods from a neuroesthetics perspective. In relation to fractal theory caused by the shaping order in nature, the study identified the relationship between human visual favorability and formability. Third, certain common elements were identified by analyzing the structure of environmental facilities and exterior spaces of apartment complexes through fractal geometry. There are buildings, multi-use spaces, artificial facilities inside the complexes, and a checklist was established to identify the correlation between the composition of nature shaping and favorability. The checklist was aimed at determining whether it is harmonious with the surrounding landscape based on symmetry, continuity, and repetitive similarity, which are the core of fractal geometry. The checklist is classified into five conformity levels which are (Very Strong● / Strong⊙ / Medium◐ / Weak◎ / Very Weak○). In addition, four apartment selection criteria were identified based on the apartment brand reputation survey conducted by the “Korea Corporate Reputation Research Institute” and the “car-free apartment” standard in Seoul. (Results) This study examined the current apartment complexes’ environmental specialization elements and whether the surrounding landscapes are harmonized. The results showed that most of the facilities are more artificial than natural, therefore, it is not harmonized with the surrounding landscapes. (Conclusions) It is imperative to consider a natural structure in the process of planning any facilities within an apartment complex. This consideration can also be applied in the planning of sustainable and valuable apartment complexes as an eco-friendly residential space.
Rechargeable Li ion batteries are widely used as power sources for portable electric and electronic devices. Recently, use of Li ion batteries has been extended to large-scale applications such as electrical vehicles and energy storage systems. In these large scale applications, the energy density and safety of the battery as well as low cost are important. Especially, LiFePO<sub>4</sub> has been attracted a lot of attention because of excellent capacity retention with very high rate capability. However, LiFePO<sub>4</sub> has a low operating voltage leading to relatively low energy density. Efforts to increase the operating voltage of polyanion-based compounds have been tried by exploiting an inductive effect. LiFeSO<sub>4</sub>F achieves the highest voltage (3.9 V) among Fe<sup>2+</sup>/Fe<sup>3+</sup> redox couples, and therefore can have higher energy density than LiFePO<sub>4</sub>. However, full utilization of 3.9V-LiFeSO<sub>4</sub>F is severely limited by its non-scalable synthesis process and poor electrochemical activity. In this talk, I will discuss about how experimental parameters affect the synthesis of 3.9 V-LiFeSO<sub>4</sub>F and simple solid-state reaction process. Furthermore, I will talk about the electrochemical properties of LiFeSO<sub>4</sub>F even though the compound has severe structural disadvantages for facile kinetic property.