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Before considering why the system of the female musicians (Gisaeng) were established' and what the contradiction to the organization was, it may be noted that the Gisaeng had contributed to preserve so much precious cultural, especially musical inheritances. Nevertheless born of humble parents, they had to be well educated in art as litterature, fine arts, dance and music, because they partnered with from the nobilities of princes and ministers to gentlemen of artists. The original purpose of establishing the Gisaeng system belonged to the government was, oddly enough, to make a diagnosis and prescription for women, and they were attached to the court hospital, the court clotheshouse or the public medical center. In addition to the medicine, they learned the classical songs and dances to perform at the queen or princess' banquets. The Gisaeng belonged to the government were selected from the pretty, clever and young Gisaeng belonged to the town government of the Choongchong, Chonla, and Kyongsang provinces, southern part of Korea. They were brought to the court to be educated, and after cultivated, they were again sent to their home town. Therefore, the classical songs and dances were spread all over the country by them. This Gisaeng system continued to, exist for over five hundred years from 1405 A.D. to nineteen hundred's. This article mentions not only the educational system, curriculum, and capacity of the Gisaeng's institute, but also of the duty and education of the blind, and court musicians who were closely related to the Gisaeng. And it also gives an outline of various matters of the female musicians, and of the diversities of opinion to maintain or abolish them for many, generations.
In Korea Buddhist music has been dying out steadily with the lapse of time, being conveyed orally through generations and failing to arouse enough interest to gather its dispersing notes.<br/> Consequently the only notations of extant music of this kind are those of yongsanhoesang, Yombul-t'aryong and Yukja-yombul(by So, Myongung in the 18th century) in Daiak-hubo and the Yuyeji(by So, Yugo). <br/> Among them Yongsan-hoesang, in which the text "Yongsan-hoesang Bul-bosal" occurs time and again, is the initial portion of the present-day Yongsan-hoesang, as has been indentified by Dr. Yi, Hyegu. However, Yombul-t'aryong and Yukja-yombul have still not been indentified, leaving it in doubt whether they have any connection with Yombul in the present-day Yongsan-hoesang or with any other. The connection between the two doubtful pieces in the Yuyeji and the present-day Yombul in Yongsan-hoesang is proposed here for the first time on the following bases.<br/> 1. The present-day Yongsan-hoesang comprises Sang-yongsan, Chung-yongsan, Se-yong-san(prefixes here denote the increasing tempo of each portion), Karak-dori, Samhyonhwanip, Hahyon-hwanip, Yombul, T'aryong, and Kunak.<br/> On the other hand Yuyeji consists of Yombul-t'aryong, Yukja-yombul, T'aryong, Kunak-ryuip-t'aryong, Ujo-t'aryong, Samhyon-hoeip, Samhyon-hoeip-jangdu, Yongsan-hoe-sang, Se-yongsan, Yongsan-hoesang-ich'ung-jeji and Samch'ung-jeji.<br/> These componet pieces of Yuyeji are arranged so unlike the ordinary sequence that they seem independent pieces, but a careful study of the compiler's note reveals that they follow practically the same sequence as in present-day Yongsan-hoesang. <br/> As to Yombul-t'aryong, Yukja-yombul, T'aryong, Kunak-ryuip-t'aryong which still remain unidentified, it is assumed that the first two are closely connected with Yombul, and the remaining two with T'aryong.<br/> 2. In the note to the Yombul-t'aryong in Yuyeji it is stated that at the end of the fourth phrase, the music returns to the beginning of the second phrase. Present-day Yombul is alike in that bars 4 to 11 are repeated as bars 13 to 20. <br/> 3. The first four phrases in the Yukja-yombul in Yuyeji are made up of short melodies with Kyong Samhoe melody attached at the end, suggesting that they represent the six syllables of nammu-amita-bul and the beating of the kyong, a brass or stone percussion instrument.<br/> On the other hand bars 21-22, 23-24, 25-26, 29-30 of the present-day Yombul has a distinctive cadence at the end of each pair, closely resembling nammu-amita-bul.<br/> 4. From the thirty-fifth bar to the end the present-day Yombul is the repetition of Samhyon-hwanip from the eight bar to the end of the second phrase.<br/> 5. Kyong Samhoe melody in Yuyeji corresponds to bars 30-35 of the present-day Yombul.<br/> On these close similarities, it is maintained that Yombul and Yukja-yombul in Yuyeji make the same piece of music as Yombul in present-day Yongsan-hoesang, and are to be interpreted as such. The very probable truth is that the Buddhist monks repeated their prayer nammu-amita-bul to musical accompaniment until the whole process gave birth to its orchestral size. The absence of Buddhist orchestral music has been regretted, but here is one dug out of obscurity between the covers of Yuyeji.