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As the, historian who wrote a systematic history of Confucianism in Korea for the first time and also as the journalist who was imprisoned after opposing bitterly to the Treaty of Protection between Japan and Korea (1905), Chang Ji-yŏn(張志淵) (1863~1921) is a man of great renown in Korea. Born in Sangju (尙州), North Kyŏngsang Province, he passed the civil service examination at the age of 31 and served as a clerk in the Ministry of Home Affairs for a while. But with the foundation of The Hwangsŏng Sinmun(皇城新聞) in 1898, which followed The Doklip Sinnmun(獨立新聞) (1896~98), as an influential civilian news-paper, he joined it as an editorial writer. For seven years, as an editorial writer and later the president of the newspaper and as the most representative of the journalists of his time, he preached nationalism and modernization. In the following year of his imprisonmnt at the time of the Treaty of Protection, he was released from the prison and worked for a time on the editorial staff of Chŭngbo-Munhŏn-Bigo(增補文獻備考), an encyclopedia. Not long after, he helped organize Dehan Chakanghwe (大韓自強會), a nationalist group of the masses, and worked as a Central figure of the group. Then, as an exile in Vladivostok and Shanghai, he did not find a favorable opportunity. Returning to Korea the year before the Japanese annexation of Korea (1910), he became an editorial writer of The Kyŏngnam Ilbo(慶南日報), which was the first civilian local newspaper published at Chinju(晋州), and served in that capacity for several years. He spent his last years at Masan(馬山), indulging in wine; dejection marked his death. Chang Ji-yŏn left behind about ten historical books such as Chosŏn-Yukyo-Yŏnwŏn(朝鮮儒敎淵源) (a history of Confucianism in Korea), Man’guk-Samul-Kiwŏn-Yŏksa(萬國事物紀原歷史), (a concise encyclopedia of things modern), and Ilsa-Yusa(逸士遺事) (the biography of a master hand of humble origin). His thought was based, of course, on Confucianism, particularly on Silhak(實學) (practical learning) since the latter period of the Yi Dynasty. He was also interested in the theory of Kang Yu-wei(康有爲) in the latest period of China’s Ch’ing(淸) Dynasty. Most of the traditional Confucian scholars in his time refused to accept modernization(開化), but he was one of the very few progressive intellectuals advocating nationalism through modernization. When Confucianism is focused on the problems of political reality, history is usually brought to the fore. As both a journalist and a historian, Chang Ji-yŏn typified the journalist of the early period of modernization in Korea. He was in the belief that journalism was a driving force in the formation of modern society and had the modern journalistic view that journalism should fight injustice on the side of the masses.