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사회적 경제는 경제적 가치뿐만 아니라 개개인의 욕구, 사회적 욕구를 충족시키는 것을 주된 요소로 삼는 대안 경제이다. 한국에서는 1997년 말 IMF 외환위기를 계기로 기업들의 연쇄부도와 구조조정, 실업과 빈곤의 문제를 타계하기 위해 사회적 경제에 대한 관심이 생겨났다. 그 과정에서 2007년에는 ‘사회적 기업 육성법’이, 2012년에는 ‘협동조합 기본법’이 제정되어 사회적 기업과 협동조합은 한국 사회적 경제의 대표적인 모델로서 자리 잡기 시작했다. 본고는 한국에 생겨난 사회적 경제에 따른 문화예술분야의 대응방안을 연구하기 위한 목적을 가지고 있다. 문화예술분야에서도 다양한 사회적 기업과 협동조합이 만들어졌는데, 타 분야에 비해서 시장에서의 경쟁력 확보가 어렵고 사회적 기업이나 협동조합 스스로의 자생력 또한 미비하기 때문이다. 특히 ‘협동조합 기본법’의 제정 이후, 한국 사회에서는 “사회적 기업은 실패했으며, 이제는 협동조합이 대세”라는 분위기가 시민 사회와 정부, 지자체를 중심으로 생겨나기도 했다. 하지만 이는 정부의 사회적 기업에 대한 정책과 제도에서 실패했다고 판단할 수 있었다. 정부의 사회적 기업에 대한 정책은 사회적 목적 실현보다는 직접적인 인건비 지원을 통한 일자리 창출에 집중되어있었으며, 다양성과 특성을 무시한 사회적 기업에 대한 획일화 된 정책은 사회적 기업의 자생력과 지속가능성을 더욱 약화시켰기 때문이다. 그리고 향후 사회적 기업 인증 범주에 사회적협동조합이 포함될 것으로 전망되는 상황에서 사회적 기업과 협동조합을 이분법적으로 나누는 것도 어려운 일이다. 협동조합 또한 자본주의 한국사회에서 하나의 주요한 영역이 아닌 대안이라는 점에서 지속가능한 모델인가에 대해 고민해볼 필요가 있으며, 수익성이 낮은 서비스 분야에 권장된 협동조합이 그에 수반된 충분한 사업적 고민과 상품이 없는 상태에서의 설립열풍을 두고 무작정 대세라고 평가하기에는 어려울 것이다. 이에 본고에서는 사회적 경제에 대한 분석과 사회적 기업, 협동조합 관련 정책의 문제점과 문화예술분야의 사례를 토대로 문화예술분야 사회적 경제의 활성화 방안에 대해 다음과 같은 세 가지 방안을 제시했다. 첫째, 정책 및 제도적 관점의 경우, 의존지향성을 극복하기 위한 사업 방향에 대한 지원, 운영에 필요한 교육 및 컨설팅, 각 문화예술분야 사회적 기업과 협동조합이 연결될 수 있는 네트워크 구축 및 매개 역할 수행, 그리고 사회적 경제와 사회적 기업, 협동조합에 대한 적극적인 홍보가 필요할 것이다. 둘째, 기업 내부적 관점의 경우, 사회적 기업과 협동조합 설립의 분명한 목적 수립, 수익모델의 다양성과 독창성 발굴을 위한 다양한 장르의 문화예술인 및 경영 전문가 결합, 지역 내의 네트워크를 통한 긴밀한 연계가 필요할 것이다. 셋째, 사회 환경적 관점의 경우, 문화예술이 한국 사회 전반에 존재하는 경쟁과 자본의 논리에 의한 대안으로써 단순한 선택적 향유가 아닌 필수적 요소로서의 사회적 인식이 필요할 것이다. 이처럼, 문화예술분야의 사회적 기업과 협동조합은 단순한 정책과 제도의 측면이 아닌 사회적 가치의 추구와 다양한 영역 내에서 판단되어야 할 것이며, 아직 명확한 성공사례가 없는 문화예술분야 협동조합의 경우 향후 평가에 대한 정책적, 사회적 기준 역시 사회적 가치의 실현과 지속가능성 추구에 맞춰져야 할 것이다.
Cultural art education improves the quality of life and strengthens the capacity of society, which not only provides students with opportunity to experiences establishment of ego identity and art but also supplies the driving force of cultural industry growth. In the diverse parts of cultural art education, drama is said to be art which is connected highly with human beings, because drama directly expresses life of man on stage as the result of imitation and play instinct. Cultural art education policy is policy to support drama education as well as literature, music, art, dance, which is one of ways to support and develop cultural art education that a person and community are hard to carry out, This study aims to look into direction to advance cultural art education and drama education in relation to the notion and importance of cultural art education, and problems of cultural art education and drama education around drama education. Besides, this study was to apply in learning environment as teaching and learning plan, which is cultural art education program around drama through education drama program development focused primary school textbook, practical program. Because this study aims to suggests direction for cultural art education and drama education to advance, this thesis introduces the object and notion about cultural art education and drama education, estimates debates about them, and looks into practise condition government supports. Besides this study suggests the improvement and direction of cultural art education and drama education. Specifically, this study is to develop cultural art education program applying textbook around drama in primary and suggest teaching and learning plan applying primary school textbook. The things studied to achieve this objective are as follows. First, this study looked into the notion and importance of cultural art education, which regulated the definition and notion of cultural art education, and looked into the notion of education, ant the importance of cultural art education and education drama. Second, the change and situation of cultural art education to cultural welfare was looked into. And the situation of primary school cultural art education and problems of primary school cultural art education looked were looked into, and problems of cultivating professionals were looked into. Third, in the development direction of and drama education, method to institutionalize stable support by diversification and systematization of cultural art education was suggested, and direction to activate primary school cultural art education was proposed. Fourth, this study suggested education drama program applying primary school textbook, which arranged research direction and application scheme and scheme of developing cultural art textbooks. Analyzed textbooks from second to sixth grade, and studied teaching plan around contents which are relevant to drama class. And teaching and learning plan that was based on this study was added to appendix. Finally, This study emphasized the importance of cultural art education for future generations in suggestion for cultural art education policy, and finished studying the development of cultural art education program. I wish that united cultural art education are practiced, and that specific program to activate in diverse parts and ways are produced, and that the study to formulate policy authority and theory applying those is in progress.
It is living a space where it's a refreshing space by spending most of your time on food, clothing and shelter living in human being. So the house can offer us a glimpse of a dweller's culture consciousness comprehensively. The traditional korean house(called 'Han-Ok') which is spoken at all the on-dol(heating system) & the floor must be preserved to make sightseeing and development of residential culture as which has not only environmentally friendly from a Feng Shui perspective but also wisdom of life to be hidden in Han-Ok. Especially in Han-Ok, We will be available to find the only space structure of Han-OK architecture such as the lay out called 'chae na num' which is suitable to live together with many families because the Han-Ok architecture sustained the life style of the extended-family structure in Korea. And it's Han-Ok where we can learn manners respecting for elders and to come across examples. This study has begun for a reason because of the beauty of architecture and community sprit of Han-Ok can't become representative culture resources of Korea in this century. Thus this research studied many ideas to revive Han-Ok villages and the Han-Ok which is traditional living space of korean as resources of culture and tourism by utilizing the tangible and intangible properties in architecture of Han-Ok and Han-Ok villages. A summary of the essential points is as follows. To make Han-OK villages as tourism resources, participation principle voluntarily through democratic agreement of residents should be the most important precondition. And on the participation principle, I draw the main theme from attraction of villages and find the action plan in terms of four detailed aspects to expose the main theme of Han-Ok villages, so proposed the integrated marketing plan with network marketing of nationwide Han-Ok villages. To explain in terms of four aspects for increasing tourism resources of Han-Ok: 1) At the aspect of hardware on Han-Ok, 'the idea of preserving the architecture in harmony with nature'. 2) At the aspect of software in Han-Ok villages, 'the idea of utilizing the experience programs to organize community with much pride'. 3) At the aspect of 'administrative supports.' 4) And in closing, This study mentioned the need of customer relations and emphasized active participation voluntarily & training of collective residents in Han-Ok villages. In my point, to explain the H/W aspect is to preserve the beauty of Han-Ok architecture and structure including the Han-Style(such as 'Han-Ji', 'Han-Bok', 'Han-Sik', 'Han-Gul', 'Han-Ok', 'Han-Kook music'.) then, this study suggested utilizing plan by exposing Han-Ok villages which guarded korean's health and spiritual well-bing with environmentally friendly perspective. To explain the S/W aspect, The dweller of Han-Ok & history of villages are exactly resources of culture and tourism. Which will also increase the experience tourism of Han-Ok, dwellers should develope playing program and festival suitable to the tourist by characteristic of villages on the active participation. And this study emphasized what it's possible that the plan to hold festival Han-Ok villages regularly for exchange cultures is important strategy as resources of culture & tourism in Han-Ok. This study gains the secondary effects of integrated marketing plan utilizing IT technology, which can share tourists of Han-Ok and be useful to the making basic system to be available secure popular local products for internet shopping mall. In the end the plan of tourism resources of Han-Ok villages should develope Han-Ok using lodge to reform as culture space, which people talk about the life & nature on the basic of community in this open space, the cultural products nationwide can be exchange with fluency through internet shopping mall of Han-Ok villages. In addition, the festival for exchange culture should be guarantee in reality by meeting regularly. The point of beginning tourism is able to start from the pride of village what you were born and to live in. By a research method, this study analyzed reference books, reports and relevant homepage more over made the field survey. By details of the research, in chapter Ⅰ, set-up the reason & the scope of this study. In chapter Ⅱ, researched preceding studies and checked attractions of Han-Ok & the possibility of resources as culture tourism in Han-Ok. In chapter Ⅲ, searched a present condition for tourist to use the traditional house through cases in domestic and foreign data more over sought other alternative for tourism resources. In chapter Ⅳ, emphasized to develope the main theme including dweller's participation & charm of Han-Ok villages with four aspects(H/W, S/W, A/S, C/R). In this respect, to give you an example researcher applied this study to the Jeon-Ju Han-Ok village. In addition, this study suggested the integrated network system of Han-Ok nationwide to explain how internet technology can be applied in this case for Han-Ok tourism. The fruit of this study is to stress to make tourism resources of Han-Ok. So, that is not using Han-Ok for sleeping but utilizing Han-Ok for culture space which is a playing program & experience education on the basic of community by participation voluntarily. And, how to manage 'Han-Ok tourism', it's as follows. This study stressed the marketing strategy and the operating plan which is the network system of Han-Ok nationwide that should be organized on the level of culture tourism in Korea. There were some complaints that this study lacks, it's like this. The study's lack is that doesn't go how to utilizing the Han-Style composing the Han-Ok essentially and how to boost the Han-Style for tourist. From now on the research of utilizing plan of Han-Ok tourism should be studied with the plan of boosting the Han-Style in Han-Ok. This study can't present the solution of dweller's participation & the program of playing experience in each Han-Ok & Han-Ok villages, thus only the solution is limited to the Jeon-Ju Han-Ok village. But it is impossible that this study present the powerful model covering all situations because capability & environment are different in each Han-Ok & Han-Ok villages. By suggesting this study, I think that although every Han-Ok has uniqueness from different environment this is worthy of the important principle for boosting Han-Ok tourism. From now on if someone studies Han-Ok tourism in each village with characteristics charm on this suggestion, Han-Ok tour will be higher. In conclusion, I'd like to hope to have motivation that the living in the Han-Ok village echo-friendly with pride is the best tourism resources.
Hanji is traditional Korean handmade paper made from the inner bark of mulberry tree known in Korean as dak, and made by possessor of the skill in making paper. The purpose of this study is to understand the culture of skilled workers exposed through the daily life, and to provide basic and practical materials analyzed their culture. In order to do this, possessors of the skill were observed in a qualitative research, topic-oriented ethnography. To achieve this study, three specific research questions were established. The following are the research questions. First, which productional context was adopted for making Hanji, and why did it selected? Second, did production processes has the meaning, value and difficulties inherent in the selected context? The Final point is that, do possessors of the skill have and objective for Hanji development? As the results of this research, possessors of the skill can be categorized according th their sense of value. One was "Jang" who inherited the traditional heritage, the other was "Ggun" who considered commercial property frist. Although traditional method typically has a high cost and low efficiency system, "Jang" actively participated in general production process following old method. But "Ggun" passively did assigned tasks for not the quality but the increase of production. This different cultures between them made the different quality and worth between papers they made. The reason behind cultural differences was the commercialism of brokers, consumers, organizations. Brokers did not care for profit not only the country of origin of materials is from imposts or domestic production but also the method which is machine-made or handmade. Consumers bought Hanji on the basis of price not quality, and organizations did not care about possessors of th skill. Because of this, "Jang" became "Ggun" and changed a job for a living, finally passed down being lethargic to the next generation. This phenomenon interpreted with culture topic such as 'learned helplessness' which caused a rapid decline of Hanji. Although consumers wanted various new substances, possessors of the skill supplied only one dimension material. Skilled workers who could not afford to research new materials had little reason to exceed their limit. Based on the results, possessor of the skill making paper is required to return to the essentiality of the work having sense of duty and pride. And the perception changeover is not only necessary for consumers but attention and support of organization is also needed.