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      • 鍼刺가 人體의 血漿 Atrial Natriuretic Peptide,Aldosterone, Cortisol 濃度 및 Renin 活性度에 미치는 影響

        朴秀雄,李昊燮 圓光大學校 韓醫學硏究所 1991 원광한의학 Vol.1 No.1

        The sources of body water are metabolically produced and ingested water. There are four sites from which water is lost to the external environment : skin, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and kidneys. According to the theory of oriental medicine, the balance of body water is controlled by kidneys, lungs, Bee(脾), urinary bladder, and Sam Cho(三焦), the function of skin is controlled by lungs(肺主皮毛) The aim of the present study was to elucidate the effects of acupuncture in the meridian point Sam Cho Soo(B22), Bee Soo(B20), and Pye Soo(B13) on the renin-angiotensin aldosterone system and atrial natriuretic peptide(ANP). The results obtained were as follows: 1. Plasma atrial natriuretic peptide was decreased significantly after acupuncture in the meridian point Pye Soo(B13) 2. Plasma renin activity was decreased significantly after acupuncture in the meridian point Sam Cho Soo(B22). 3. Plasma renin activity was increased significantly after acupuncture in the meridian point Bee Soo(B20) 4. Plasma aldosterone concentration was decreased significantly after acupuncture in the meridian point Sam Cho Soo(B22) and Bee Soo(B20) 5. Plasma cortisol concentration was decreased significantly after acupuncture in the meridian point Bee Soo(B20). 6. Plasma ACTY concentration was decreased significantly after acupuncture in the meridian points Bee Soo(B20) and Pye Soo(B13) These results suggest that meridian points Sam Cho Soo(B22), Bee Soo(B22), and Pye Soo(B13) have regulatory function for the body water metabolism. The effects of acupuncture in the meridian points the Sam Cho Soo(B22) and Bee Soo(B20) were related with the changes of plasma levels of renin activity and aldosterone concentration, but the effects of acupuncture in the Pye Soo(B13) was related with the decreases of plasma levels of ANP and aldosterone.

      • KCI등재

        애구(艾灸)의 생체반응이 신부전(腎不全)에 미치는 영향

        박인규,허덕수,임종국 대한침구학회 1992 대한침구의학회지 Vol.21 No.3

        In order to study the effects of moxibustion on renal failure induced by HgCl₂in rats aminal experiments were carry out. The moxibustion waw treat into Sin-soo locus(BL_(23)), We-soo locus(BL_(21)) and Sin-soo + We-soo loci these loci were correspond to human body. Experimental groups were divied into 4 groups : lontrol guoup, moxibustion groups treat on Sin-soo and We-soo, Sin-soo + We-soo group. The obtained results were as follows : 1. The concentration of serum sodium were increased in all the groups, compared with those of the control group. Sin-soo, We-soo, Sin-soo + We-soo loci showed increased on the 1st and 3rd days. All three experimental groups showed a significant increased on 3rd day. 2. The concentration of serum potassium were increased in all the groups, compared with those of the control group. Sin-soo, We-soo showed significant decreased on the 3rd day, Sin-soo + We-soo showed a little decrease but do not significant decrease. All three experimental groups showed a significant increased on 3rd day. 3. The levels of serum total protein were increased in all the group, compare with those of the control group. Sin-soo. We-soo showe a significant increased or 3rd day. Sin-soo + We-soo do not showed a significant increased. 4. The levels of serum albumin were decreased in all the groups, compared with those of the control group. Sin-soo, Sin-soo + We-soo showed a significant decreased on 3rd day. We-soo does not showed a significant decrease. 5. The concentration of serum blood urea nitrogen were decreased in all the groups, compared with those of the control group. Sin-soo, We-soo, Sin-soo + We-soo showed a significant decrease on 3rd day. 6. The levels of serum alkakine phosphatase were decreased in all the group, compared with those of the control groups. Sin-soo, We-soo showed a significant decreased on 3rd day Sin-soo + We-soo not a significant decrease. In conclusion, the result of this study seemed to effect on the treatment for renal failure induced by HgCl₂.

      • KCI등재

        임호박수검(林湖朴守儉)의 트라우머와 장자철학(莊子哲學) -치유담론으로서의 『장자』에 대한 역사적 사례-

        김종수 ( Jong Soo Kim ) 영산대학교 동양문화연구원 2013 동양문화연구 Vol.15 No.-

        17세기 중.후반을 주요 활동기로 삼았던 임호 박수검은 제천에 연고를 둔 노론계의 관인.유자였다. 수학기 적부터 자자한 문명을 떨쳤던 박수검은 20세 때에 진사초시에 합격하는 영예를 안았다. 그러나 이후 약20여 년간에 이르는 온갖 집안의 불행사들로 인하여 박수검의 과거 합격은 무한정 지연되어 가고만 있었다. 마침내 박수검은 뒤늦은 나이인 44세때에 과거에 급제하였으나, 이미 그의 영혼은 심각한 트라우머에 시달리고 있었다. 때문에 주로 한직과 외직을 전전했던 박수검의 관직생활은 단순한 생계유지의 수단 그 이상의 의미를 발휘하지 못했다. 대신에 박수검은 웅장한 경세에의 포부가 좌절된 데 따른 트라우머로 인하여 늘상 방황하는 모습을 연출하고 있었다. 박수검은 그런 자신을 ?『장자』? 속의 중증 장애인인 지리소로 비유하곤 하였다.그런 점에서 수학기 적에 만난 세 번째 스승인 무하옹 이준남은 박수검이 닮아야 할 동일시 모델로 다가섰고, 또한 텍스트 ?『장자』?를 매개.인도케해준 중요한 인물이었다. 박수검이 구축한 장자철학은 <장자소요유제물론이편주해서>로 대변되는 텍스트 ?『장자』?에 대한 해석과 시료로서 ?『장자』?를원용한 두 국면을 형성하고 있다. 전자가 정주학적 세계 구도인 음양.오행론과 역학적 사유가 묘하게 결부된 주해 방식을 선보여 주었다면, 후자의경우 자신의 트라우머를 드러내고 해소.치유하기 위한 의식적 노력과 결부되어 있다. 또한 두 국면 모두 『주역』의 복괘에 내함된 생의[陽]가 투사되어 있는바, 이는 트라우머의 치유를 위한 박수검 나름의 치열한 노력이반영된 결과였다. 그러나 박수검은 끝끝내 자신 안에 각인된 트라우머를 치유.승화시키는 단계로까지는 진입하지를 못했다. 박수검의 경우 ?『장자』?혹은 장자철학이란 자아 성찰과 세계 확장이라는 새로운 두 계기를 제공해주었으나, 궁극적인 치유담론으로 기능하지는 못한 것 같다. Imho(林湖) Park Soo-geom(朴守儉) could not pass an examination to become a government officer because of various misfortunes which continued for more than 20 years on him. He at last passed a government examination for government officer at the late age of 44 years old; however, his soul was already suffering serious trauma. Therefore, the government officer position of Park Soo-geom was just a way to make ends meet. Park Soo-geom always wandered because of the serious trauma caused by the frustration coming from the failure to realize the big aspiration he had held as a government officer. He frequently compared himself to Jiriso(支離疏), who is a seriously disabled person appearing in the book, Zhuangzi(莊子). The philosophy of Zhuangzi philosophy established by Park Soo-geom can be seen in his two writings quoting the book Zhuangzi as the material for his poetry and his preface on the two annotations on Soyoyoo (逍遙遊) and Jemullon(齊物論) in the book Zhuangzi(莊子逍遙遊齊物論二篇註解序). However, Park Soo-geom could not reach the stage of healing and sublimation of his internal trauma with deep source until the end. Consequently, the philosophy of Zhuangzi established by Park Soo-geom provided him with two opportunities of self-introspection and world-expansion; however, it seems it could not function as an ultimate discourse on healing

      • KCI등재

        첨단과 전통의 역설 : 김수영 전통론의 현대적 재구성

        신수정 (Shin Soo Jeong) 명지대학교 인문과학연구소 2012 인문과학연구논총 Vol.33 No.1

        It is difficult to think about Kim Soo-Young's literature without considering the context of 'novelty' or 'avant-garde'. But, what makes his literature genuinely 'cutting edge' comes from self-reflection about it. This refers to the 'gloom' and 'grief' which appears in the poems of Kim Soo-Young. What is interesting is that this 'condolence' is not unrelated to the reality of the peripheral capitalism. The more a poet in the peripheral capitalism tries 'a cutting edge song', the bigger gap he experiences between the reality where he is in and his song. The condolence is also an expression of the recognition and self-awakening about this 'gap'. It is also an acknowledgement about the 'retardation' of our poetic reality itself. Kim Soo-Young, by acknowledging the 'retardation', seeks the 'paradox' to lead to becoming 'cutting edge'. It is in this context where Kim Soo-Young's so-called remarks on 'tradition' become problematic. The 'tradition' here is irrelevant to chauvinism or populism. This relates to the pursuit of density in modern poetry by the poet who belongs to the peripheral capitalism. By detaching socio-cultural context from 'traditional language' and seeking for its true nature, he works on transforming it into the most cutting edge 'vacuum language'. Through this 'disturbance' and 'arrangement', Kim Soo-Young dreams of the possibility to be able to change the reality through poetry (literature). This is the moment when the history of Korean literature arrives at the new recognition of the political power of the poetry. This is the very implication in the history of literature that Kim Soo-Young's recognition of modern poetry has.

      • KCI등재

        지봉(芝峯) 이수광(李?光) 한시문학(漢詩文學)의 사실(寫實)과 한아(閑雅) 풍격(風格)

        박수천 ( Park Soo-cheon ) 한국한시학회 2016 韓國漢詩硏究 Vol.24 No.-

        芝峯 李?光은 조선 중기 穆陵盛世를 대표하는 문인들 중의 한 사람이다. 그는 이 시기에 盛唐의 풍격을 높이 거론하며 시풍의 전환에 큰 역할을 수행했고, 또한 자신의 시작품으로 당풍의 문학성을 구현해 내었다. 이수광이 지향한 證故實의 학문 태도는 그의 시작품 창작에도 크게 작용해 경물의 寫實지향으로 나타났다. 그는 눈앞에 펼쳐지는 경물을 있는 그대로 작품에 담아내고자 했고, 시작품의 회화성을 중시하면서 `詩中有畵`의 논의를 작품으로 실천해 보였다. 寫實지향의 시적 태도는 그가 만나는 情景을 가급적 구체적으로 그려 눈으로 보는 듯이 절실하게 느낄 수 있는 작품을 창작하게 하였다. 이수광의 『芝峯集』에는 관료 문인으로서 충군애민의 의식을 담아낸 시작품이 적지 않게 수록되어 있다. 그는 <宮詞>에서 군왕을 그리워하는 궁녀의 애달픈 한을 노래하기보다, 爲民의 善政에 고심하고 노력하는 훌륭한 군주의 면모를 표현해 내 충군과 애민의 의식을 작품화하기도 했다. 이수광의 寫實정신은 實景의 묘사와 함께 實政의 祈願으로 그의 시작품에 나타났던 것이다. 寫實과 애민을 지향한 이수광의 시의식은 그의 작품 세계를 구성하는 하나의 큰 축이라 하겠다. 이수광의 한시 작품이 나타낸 대표적인 풍격은 閑淡과 雅麗라 할 수 있다. 閑淡의 풍격은 비교적 일상의 삶이나 자연과 산수를 읊조릴 때, 雅麗의 풍격은 여성적 정서를 담은 艶體나 환상적인 遊仙의 시편 등에서 더 잘 나타나는 편이다. 이러한 이수광 시문학의 풍격은 그의 盛唐 추숭 문학론과도 관련이 깊다. 이수광은 그의 문학론으로 唐詩를 말하면서 자연스러움과 함축의 표현을 매우 강조하였다. 이수광은 『芝峯集』에 비교적 많은 수의 艶情詩를 남겨 놓았다. 艶情을 소재로 한 작품이다 보니 그 전체적 분위기가 우아하고 곱게 펼쳐진다. 그의 시작품에서 雅麗, 婉麗, 溫雅 등의 풍격을 지적한 평가는 주로 이러한 여성적 정감을 다룬 艶情의 시에 많이 나타난다. 閑淡과 雅麗를 표현해 낸 이수광 시문학의 전체적 풍격은 그것을 한데 아울러 閑雅라 규정을 해 볼 수 있을 것이다. Jibong(芝峯) Yi, Soo-gwang(李?光) was one of famous writers during middle period of Josun(朝鮮) dynasty. He argued the literary theory about the best T`ang (盛唐) style on the Chinese classic poems. Also he wrote several works the T`ang style(唐風) and made a role of transition as the T`ang style. He intended to the proof-investigation on his study. So he wrote his poems such as expressing reality. His works showed the real scenery as if someone had seen the landscape seriously. Jibongjib(『芝峯集』) which is a book of Yi, Soo-gwang(李?光)`s literary works records many poems including the thought of loyalty and love-people. His sprit of reality made his poems showing the righteous politics as well as describing real scenery. The representative style of Yi, Soo-gwang(李?光)`s poem is Clean-elegance (閑雅). The comfortable and clean style was expressed the poems of daily life and nature. The pretty and elegance style was expressed the poems of woman`s life and fantastic fairyland. Such literary style are related deeply with his literary theory insisting the best T`ang(盛唐) style. Yi, Soo-gwang(李?光) remained many poems about love in his collection of works Jibongjib(『芝峯集』). The poems about love show such mood as pretty and elegance generally. Yi, Soo-gwang(李?光) poem`s general style is comfortable- clean and pretty-elegance, so we can call it Clean-elegance(閑雅) style totally.

      • 희수식 전자 맥진기의 재조명

        김은혜 ( Eun Hye Kim ), 김병수 ( Kim Byung Soo ), 강정수 ( Kang Jung Soo ) 대전대학교 한의학연구소 2009 한의학연구소 논문집 Vol.18 No.2

        In early 1970s, Electronic Manometers were researched and developed for modernization and objectification of pulse diagnosis. Method of finger pressing, also known as cuffs pressing, is essential for sensing a pulse wave. I think comprehension and deduction of problem from the existing Hi-soo type electronic manometer, will be important for making a better one. The Hi-soo type electronic manometer is constructed of cuff pressing type sensor, differential amplifier, transmitter and recorder. Pulse movement and pulse wave, gauging blood flow, is analyzed by pulse image of 『Yixuerumen(醫學入門)』. At standard of pulse wave, huanmai(緩脈) is distinguish from chishu(slow and fast, 遲數), fushen(float and sink, 浮沈), interference wave, modificated wave, and phase angel. The Hi-soo type electronic manometer had no explanation of formational mechanism, significantly different with pulse wave which is early known and reported. The strength of Hi-soo type electric manometer is use of cuff pressing type sensor. Above all, the importance of electric manometer is reading the pulse movement accurately then expressing it as pulse wave. From now on the improvement of precise sensor should make a progress.

      • KCI등재

        오영수 소설에 나타난 식물적 상상력과 순응의 미학

        구수경(Soo Kyung Koo) 한국현대소설학회 2010 현대소설연구 Vol.- No.45

        오영수는 대립과 갈등의 상황을 무화시키고, 자연의 질서에 순응하거나 주어진 환경을 저항 없이 받아들이는 작품세계를 일관되게 추구한 작가이다. 특히 오영수 소설의 인물들은 세계와의 대결을 의도적으로 회피하는 경향을 보인다. 그 결과 그들은 자신의 사랑을 무력하게 포기하거나 갈등과 대립이 없는 세계로 들어가 원시적인 생명력과 공동체적 질서로 영위되는 식물적인 삶을 살아간다. 이는 오영수가 식물적 상상력에 근거한 창작태도를 보여준다는 말에 다름 아니다. 하지만 생존경쟁 및 세계와의 대결이 불가피한 인간의 삶은 힘과 용기, 공격성이라는 동물적인 생리를 본질로 하고 있다. 따라서 작가가 어느 누구와도 충돌하지 않고 자연친화적인 삶을 지향하는 순간, 그의 소설세계는 우리가 살고 있는 현실적 공간에서 벗어나 낭만적, 반문명적인 향수의 공간으로 나아가고 있다. 오영수의 소설 <남이와 엿장수>, <머루>, <실걸이꽃>은 애틋하고 내밀하게 사랑의 감정을 키워가던 남·여 주인공들이 그들의 사랑을 위협하는 외적인 환경에 순응하며 안타깝게 이별을 선택하는 양상을 서정적으로 그리고 있는 작품들이다. 주목할 사실은 그들의 사랑이 이루어지지 못하는 주된 요인이 남성인물들의 무력한 현실 수용태도나 감정표현에 솔직하지 못한 소극성에 기인하고 있다는 점이다. 즉 그들은 자신의 사랑을 지키거나 쟁취하기 위한 적극적인 시도나 용기를 보여주지 않는다. 그저 떠나가는 연인을 안타깝게 `바라볼` 뿐이다. <갯마을>과 <은냇골 이야기>는 외딴 갯마을과 깊은 산속마을을 공간적 배경으로, 원시적인 생명력과 공동체의식으로 소박하게 살아가는 인물들의 삶을 그리고 있다. 이들 작품에 등장하는 인물들은 생활의 터전이자 불행의 근원인 바다에 의지하며 원시적인 생명력과 숙명론적 삶의 방식으로 살아가거나, 바깥세계와 완전히 단절된 은냇골에서 추위와 굶주림, 종족보존을 고민하며 모계 중심적 가족질서를 이루며 살아간다. 그 과정에서 바깥세상을 지배하는 법과 관습, 윤리적 질서 등은 힘을 잃고 있다. 오직 나와 마을사람, 인간과 자연이 서로 조화를 이루며 공동체적 삶을 만들어가는 원시적 건강성의 세계가 존재할 뿐이다. 이러한 오영수의 작품세계는 리얼리즘 소설이 보여주는 갈등의 미학에서 벗어나, 순응과 공존, 원시적 생명력과 공동체 의식 등 식물적인 삶의 방식과 여성적인 가치를 재조명하는 특성을 나타내고 있다. The object of this thesis is to study the characteristics of O, Young-Soo` short stories. There is no conflict between characters in O, Young-Soo` works. The protagonists in his short stories adapt theirselves to circumstances without any resistance. O, Young-Soo as a short story writer seems to hates the way of modern life which is filled with the struggle of existence and power games. So, natural and anti-civilized places are mainly the spacial settings of his works. To put it concretely, the protagonists of his works tend to avoid intentionally a situation of conflict. So they powerlessly give up their love. Also they live in hiding to nature-friendly places. In there, they persue the plant-oriented life style which are primitive vitality and community spirit. In short stories such as <Nami & Yeot Seller>, <Wild Grapes>, <Silgeori-Flower>, O, Young-Soo describes lyrically tragic events which man and woman loving each other must break up because of external factors like a situation of war or a opposition of parent. The main cause of their farewell is that male protagonists do not show a active attitudes or a frank confession. Also they adapt theirselves to circumstances without any resistance. <The Seaside Village> and <A Story of Eunaetgol> are short stories which describe the life of characters with the community spirit and the primitive vitality. In these stories, most characters lean toward fatalism and show the instinct of preservation of the species. Also, there is the health of primitive life which seeks the harmony between others and me, or human and nature. In conclusion, the works of O, Young-Soo create the aesthetics of lyric and adaptation through the plant-oriented imagination.

      • 김수영과 신동엽 산문의 지시사 표현 양상

        김흥수 ( Heung Soo Kim ) 국민대학교 어문학연구소 2016 語文學論叢 Vol.35 No.-

        This paper aims to examine the expressive/stylistic functions of Kim, Soo-yeong and Shin, Dong-yeop`s prose and find the characteristics of the two writers. In this analysis, the three main results are found. The deictic expressions perform the expressive/stylistic function in connection with discourse/text, based on grammatical/pragmatic function. The deictic expressions reflect the writers``attitude towards the situation and the periodic/social context. The two writers have shown the common ground and differences in the use of deictic expressions. The major points are as follows: The``이``group deictics reflect the writer`s attitude and periodic/social context. The choice of deictics reflect the writer`s cognitive/psychological attitude or distance. Especially, in Kim, Soo-yeong`s prose``저``reflects the negative or distant objects and in some cases point out North Korea. The emphasis related phenomena include repetition, concrete representation, and excessive prenominal construction. The repetition is described as following three features. First, the deictics are repeated as the anaphoric use and the flow of the context. Second, the deictics are represented, facing up a real situation or a situation in context. Simultaneously, the circumstances are generic and untransparent, representation is overlapped, adverbial anaphora ``-게``is being repeated. Third, the deictics is repeated to stress the presence of the object or the content meaning. In repetition, concrete representation, and excessive prenominal construction preferred in Kim, Soo-yeong`s. On the other hand, the emphasis on the identity or the property of the referential objects is preferred in Shin, Dong-yeop`s.

      • KCI등재

        梅軒 朴承稷과 蓮崗 朴斗秉의 生涯와 經營理念

        Sung Soo Kim(金聖壽) 한국경영사학회 2002 經營史學 Vol.28 No.-

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        The main purpose of this study is to investigate the lives and management philosophy of Maeheon Seung-Jik Park, the founder of Doosan Group and Yonkang Doo-Byung Park, the first son of him. And the secondary purpose of this study is to examIne the lives and management philosophy of chairmen Soo-Chang Jung, Yong-Kan Park and Yong-Oh Park. Maeheon Seung-Jik Park is both a self-made and national entrepreneur who has constructed the foundation of establishment and development of Doosan Group, The commercial capItal that he has accomplished has been capitalized industrially by his son Doo-Byung Park to build Doosan Group. Doosan has been the root that has led the Korean business history of the last century and contributed to the formation of Korean national capital and economic development. In 1896, Maeheon Seung-Jik Park has started “Park Seung-Jik Sang lum”, from which the Korea first century-long enterprise has been grown by the active management activities of his son Doo-Byung Park, a professional manager Soo-Chang Jung, his grandsons Yang-Ken Park and Yong-Oh Park until 2000. Like this, Doosan could have grown during 100 years because of the unique management ideology and philosophy of the founder Maeheon Seung-Jik Park and Yonkang Doo-Byung Park, and the prominent entrepreneurial spirit from a professional manager Soo-Chang Jung to the third generations of Yong-Kon Park and Yong-Oh Park. First, that was the commercial spirit of Seung-Jik Park who has opened the founding period of Doosan, which has been based on the spirits of harmony among men, thrift and diligence, compromise, and national self-reliance. Furthermore, the management philosophy including harmony-first, thrift and diligence, honesty, cedit, royalty and filial piety, and Confucianism that has attached much importance to family line has been the final chance to achieve the management results. Second, the Chairman Yonkang Doo-Byung Park has succeeded in establishing the modern management system and changing the commercial capital into the industrial capital by following the will of his father, and contributed greatly to the construction of modern industrial foundation by establishing Doosan Group and dividing into capital and management. His management philosophy has been established into management of harmony among men, thrift and saving, honest management, creditable management, labor-employer harmony, customer satisfaction, and responsible management. Third, this has been supported by the management philosophy of professional manager Soo-Chang Jung, the third generation entrepreneur and chairman Yong-Kong Park, and the chairman Yong-Oh Park who has enforced restructuring successfully in entering upon the centennial anniversary of Doosan foundation. That is the very management principles of Doosan, which has become the 21st century management philosophy of Doosan; (1) Enterprise winning the love of customer, (2) Enterprise serving nation and people, (3) Enterprise fulfilling its social responsibility and (4) Enterprise with pride and self-confidence.

      • KCI등재

        김수영 시론에 있어서 전위성의 성격과 기원

        박현수 ( Hyun Soo Park ) 한국문학언어학회(구 경북어문학회) 2014 어문론총 Vol.60 No.-

        Kim Soo-young, a post-war Korean poet, has historical significance in Korean modern poetry in that he had intended to integrate Avant-garde(or modernism) and Engagement(political participation). But after that integration in his criticism, his avant-garde was still not escape the nature of aesthetic modernism. Because he had appreciated avant-garde as an aestheticist literary project, avant-guard and engagement in his criticism were always confrontational. His idea stemmed from Japanese Avant-garde of Shi to shiron by Haruyama Yukio and Nishiwaki Kitagawa. Haruyama and Nishiwaki's avant-garde was an pure surrealist movement which was completely excluded from the possibility of political participation. In the 1960s, Kim recognized his own limitation and tried to overcome it. But because of his traffic accident, his efforts ended in an uncompleted project. By this limitation, Kim Soo-young's try to integrate avant-garde and political participation produced enormous logical contradictions. Consequently most of his articles had tried to discuss the possibility of political participation in avant-garde poetry had ambiguities and leaps in his logic. In his criticism, many concepts such as ‘experimentation, ambiguity, chaos, freedom, resistant poems' are often incoherent and lacking continuity.

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