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Este artigo apresenta uma análise inicial de dados coletados sobre a percepção dos sons da língua portuguesa por falantes nativos de coreano, estudantes em fase inicial de aprendizado na BUFS (Busan University of Foreign Studies ─ Universidade de Estudos Estrangeiros de Busan), Coreia do Sul. Discutimos alguns dos diversos sistemas de romanização do coreano e suas idiossincrasias. Seguimos comentando brevemente os sistemas fonológicos de ambas a línguas e comparando-os frente a frente, demonstrando os seus pontos de divergência que podem vir a criar problemas quando do ensino da língua portuguesa. Continuamos discutindo o experimento elaborado com palavras selecionadas a partir dessas divergências dos sistemas fonológicos das línguas, apresentamos a metodologia pela qual os dados foram coletados e as formas de processamento computacional usadas. Por fim, focamo-nos na análise das consoantes oclusivas em posição inicial de palavras, visto que apresentam grande dificuldade para os aprendizes. Apresentamos os resultados obtidos dos alunos que demonstram que a percepção dos fonemas consonantais surdos (/p, t, k/) e sonoros (/b, d, g/) da língua portuguesa não é algo simples que se possa ensinar sem esforço. Comentamos, brevemente, ao final do artigo, propostas de abordagem didática para os problemas levantados sobre o ensino de fonética/fonologia do português para coreanos. This article presents an initial analysis of data collected on the perception of sounds of the Portuguese language by native Korean speakers, students in the initial learning phase at BUFS (Busan University of Foreign Studies - Busan University of Foreign Studies), South Korea. We discuss some of the several systems of Korean romanization and its idiosyncrasies. We continue commenting briefly on the phonological systems of both languages and comparing them face to face, demonstrating their points of divergence that may create problems when teaching Portuguese. We then discuss the experiment developed with words selected from divergent points in each language's phonological system and present the methodology by which the data were collected, as well as the forms of computational processing used. Finally, we focus on the analysis of the occlusive consonants in word initial position since they present great difficulty for Korean students. We present results that the perception of voiceless (/p, t, k/) and voiced (/b, d, g/) consonant phonemes in Portuguese is not something simple that can be taught without effort. At the end of the article, we briefly propose a didactic approach on the problems raised about teaching Portuguese phonetics/phonology to Koreans.
Cristol,de,Paiva,Gouvˆea,F´abio,Teixeira,Dias,Valdemar,das,Neves,Vieira,Douglas,Langie,da,Silva,Jacob,Schaf,Frederik,Wolff-Fabris,Joan,Josep,Roa,Rovira 한국물리학회 2013 THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN PHYSICAL SOCIETY Vol.62 No.10
In this work we report on systematic field-cooled magnetization experiments in melt-textured YBa2Cu3O7−δ samples containing Y211 precipitates. Magnetic fields up to 14 T were applied either parallel or perpendicular to the ab planes and a strong paramagnetic response related to the superconducting state was observed. This effect is known as paramagnetic Meissner effect (PME). The magnitude of the PME increases when the field is augmented. This effect shows a strong paramagnetic relaxation, such that the paramagnetic moment increases as a function of the time. The pinning by the Y211 particles plays a crucial role in the explanation of this effect and our results suggest that the pinning capacity can produce a strong flux compression into the sample,originating the PME and the strong time dependence.
In this work, multifunctional cotton fabrics were developed by immobilizing TiO2 nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) usingan eco-friendly bath through a highly-scalable technique. The effects of TiO2-NPs, cross-linking agent, catalyst and curingtemperatures were assessed by analysis of variance and surface response methodology. The results disclose an excellentperformance of treated textiles for various applications: flame-retardant (char content enhanced by 1000 %), photocatalyticdecontamination (>90 % of contaminant abatement and feasibility for multiple reuses), self-cleaning of intense stains (up to80 % of stain vanishing), bacterial inhibition without TiO2 UV-activation (≈25 % of bacteria growth reduction). Moreover,those properties were durable for at least five domestic laundering cycles.
The construction industry plays a very important role in the Portuguese economy. In 2009, it was among the top five economic sectors, representing 13% of total employment. Nevertheless, project failures are still frequent mainly due to inadequate management practices and to the intrinsic characteristics of projects of the construction industry. Even though Portuguese construction has improved in recent years, cost and schedule overruns, low productivity and final product quality problems are still common. In this context, project management is a crucial tool for improving construction operations and for the overall success of projects. The aim of this article is to contribute to the discussion on success evaluation factors in a field where little has been written – the construction industry. Through a survey of 40 medium and large Portuguese companies several factors were identified which are currently considered in the evaluation of project success, as found in the literature review. The results show that the traditional factors, often referred to as the “Atkinson elements triangle” (cost, time and quality), are still the most relevant for evaluating
Aging is a complex process associated with dysregulation of the immune system and low levels of inflammation, often associated with the onset of many pathologies. The lacrimal gland (LG) plays a vital role in the maintenance of ocular physiology and changes related to aging directly affect eye diseases. The dysregulation of the immune system in aging leads to quantitative and qualitative changes in antibodies and cytokines. While there is a gradual decline of the immune system, there is an increase in autoimmunity, with a reciprocal pathway between low levels of inflammation and aging mechanisms. Elderly C57BL/6J mice spontaneously show LGs infiltration that is characterized by Th1 but not Th17 cells. The aging of the LG is related to functional alterations, reduced innervation and decreased secretory activities. Lymphocytic infiltration, destruction, and atrophy of glandular parenchyma, ductal dilatation, and secretion of inflammatory mediators modify the volume and composition of tears. Oxidative stress, the capacity to metabolize and eliminate toxic substances decreased in aging, is also associated with the reduction of LG functionality and the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Although further studies are required for a better understanding of autoimmunity and aging of the LG, we described anatomic and immunology aspects that have been described so far.