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The Hong Kong Panel Study of Social Dynamics (HKPSSD)aims to establisha city-wide representative household panel survey to track socioeconomic changes and its impact on people`s livelihood in Hong Kong. The content covers housing, economic activity and consumption at household levels and education, marriage, fertility, employment, health, daily social activities, mental health and social attitude at individual levels. Three waves of data have been completed in 2011, 2013 and 2015, respectively. 3,214 households, 7,218 adults and 958 children have been interviewed in the benchmark survey (Wave 1), among which 2,165 households, 4,270 adults and 623 children are re-interviewed in the second wave. In addition, a refreshment sample of 1,007 households (including 1,960 adults and 145 children) with new themes was added in 2014, which together with those remaining in Wave 2, are followed in Wave 3 in 2015. This essay introduces the background, research designs, and content coverage of three waves of HKPSSD, and presents some descriptive statistics of relevant variable in the data. HKPSSDis expected to serve an important database for social science research and policy study in Hong Kong, and for comparative analyses of Chinese societies in Hong Kong, Taiwan and mainland China.
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The police are regarded as a male-dominated mescaline profession. Western police studies tend to suggest that women officers will face role-conflicts when they enter the male-dominated masculine occupation and they only play a complementary role in the public order policing. The Hong Kong Police Force was established in 1844. Women police officers were never perceived as indispensable component by early British colonial police heads. The first women officer had not been recruited until 1949. Yet, in 1950s and 1960s duties assigned to female cohorts were confined to supporting duties such as conducting clerical jobs, handling female suspects and taking care of wandering children rather than law enforcement and anti-riot operations. On the top of this, sexually segregated and discriminatory arrangements could also be easily noted in reviewing the managerial history of the Hong Kong Police. This study finds that the role of women officers started to change in late 1960s, especially in the sphere of public order policing. For instance, women police officers took up some frontier positions in the 1967 riots. They received formal anti-riot training since 1970s. A female anti-riot squad was formed in 1992. Since 1995 all newly recruited Hong Kong women police officers have been armed. In 2005 women police officers were placed in the front to deal with Korean demonstrators directly during the WTO MC6 period. The evolving responsibilities of female police officers from indoors administrative work to frontier crowd management duties not only reflect the changing attitude towards women in Hong Kong society, but also signify the vitalization of women officers in policing Hong Kong. The data of this research are largely derived from archival materials and in-depth interviews with 12 women police officers who served the force from 1950s to 1980s.
'스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.
The 1967 riots were widely regarded as the worst civil unrest in Hong Kong. According to the official explanation, the Hong Kong Police, as a para-military and non-localized force, were the most loyal government agency to restore social orders by containing these "political confrontations". In the eyes of the local Chinese leftists, however, the Hong Kong Police were regarded as the "running dog" of the British colonialists who ruthlessly suppressed their compatriots in Hong Kong. Based on archival materials and in-depth interviews with 8 Chinese frontline police officers who were directly involved in suppressing the riots, this research has four major findings.<BR> First, these police officers thought that the prolong disorder were not serious riots but only civil disturbances. Second, regarding their policing assignments as apolitical tasks despite acknowledging the politicization of the riots, they inclined to have a fearless outlook when confronting the protesting crowds. Third, few police officers quitted their job during the prolong riots because they saw it as a police duty to restore the social stability of the territory. They were also attracted by the subsidiary and relevant benefits during the riots. Finally, the frontline police officers tended to fully accept the colonial government"s approach in dealing with the riots. In response to the local communist challenge of enforcing "fascist, brutal and hardcore suppression of the compatriots", they generally considered the regime"s policing strategy as a carefully-drafted and flexibly-adjusted one that showed greatest steadiness and restraint, thus successfully gaining support from the mainstream local Chinese community.
The purpose of this study is to examine sexual perceptions and conflicts among Korean teenage girls who have been involved in 'compensated dates,' which is a form of sex work that may be temporarily undertaken by young girls or may lead on to prostitution. I have collected data from 12 girls, using in-depth interviews, who had experienced sexual abuse, and economic deprivation. These girls were rather maladjusted and had been abandoned by their families and schools. Their involvement in compensated dates began out of economic necessity, as they had run away from home. Sexual abuse was reportedly common for the majority of the respondents who had also suffered poverty and unhappy family lives. So these girls tended to seek compensated dates to overcome poverty. With poor education and skills, the girls viewed compensated dates as an easy strategy in the face of privation. In addition, the consumer society encouraged them to become sexually promiscuous to earn money, in order to buy and own more and more goods. The sexual conflict and ambivalence experienced by them were outcomes of their sense of sexual subjectivity. They saw their bodies as resources that were exchangeable for money, but they did not realize the internalized oppression they endured. They knew their bodies were a means of pleasure, but did not realize that sexual violence underlies it. The development of a stronger sense of self may resolve the conflict between the girls' curiosities and experiences concerning their bodies and sexuality.